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Natalia Molchanova, Paul Robert Hansen, Peter Damborg, Hanne Mørck Nielsen, Henrik Franzyk
Multidrug-resistant bacteria pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Previously, α-peptide/β-peptoid hybrid oligomers were found to display activity against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacteria. In the present work, the influence of hydrophobicity, fluorination and distribution of cationic/hydrophobic residues on antimicrobial, hemolytic and cytotoxic properties of α-peptide/β-peptoid hybrids were investigated. An array of 22 peptidomimetics was tested. Analogues with enhanced hydrophobicity exhibited increased activity against Gram-positive bacteria...
January 4, 2017: ChemMedChem
Ashley E Corson, Scott A Armstrong, Matthew E Wright, Erin E McClelland, Kevin L Bicker
Studies show there is an increasing rate of fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients and treatments for fungal genera, such as Aspergillus, Candida, and Cryptococcus, carry significant cytotoxicity with an increasing prevalence of antifungal resistance. We have previously reported a high-throughput assay for identifying peptoids with antimicrobial properties from combinatorial libraries. Here we report the application of this assay in identifying a peptoid with antifungal properties against Cryptococcus neoformans...
December 8, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yu Luo, Hannah L Bolt, Gabriela A Eggimann, Danny F McAuley, Ronan McMullan, Tanya Curran, Mei Zhou, Professor Colin A B Jahoda, Steven L Cobb, Fionnuala T Lundy
Biofilms containing Candida albicans are responsible for a wide variety of clinical infections. The protective effects of the biofilm matrix, the low metabolic activity of microorganisms within a biofilm and their high mutation rate, significantly enhance the resistance of biofilms to conventional antimicrobial treatments. Peptoids are peptide-mimics that share many features of host defence antimicrobial peptides but have increased resistance to proteases and therefore have better stability in vivo. The activity of a library of peptoids was tested against monospecies and polymicrobial bacterial/fungal biofilms...
January 3, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Judy T Y Lee, Guangshun Wang, Yu Tong Tam, Connie Tam
Antibiotic resistance is a pressing global health problem that threatens millions of lives each year. Natural antimicrobial peptides and their synthetic derivatives, including peptoids and peptidomimetics, are promising candidates as novel antibiotics. Recently, the C-terminal glycine-rich fragments of human epithelial keratin 6A were found to have bactericidal and cytoprotective activities. Here, we used an improved 2-dimensional NMR method coupled with a new protocol for structural refinement by low temperature simulated annealing to characterize the solution structure of these kerain-derived antimicrobial peptides (KAMPs)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Haider N Sultani, Haleh H Haeri, Dariush Hinderberger, Bernhard Westermann
For the first time, spin-labelled coumpounds have been obtained by isonitrile-based multi component reactions (IMCRs). The typical IMCR Ugi-protocols offer a simple experimental setup allowing structural variety by which labelled diketopiperazines (DKPs) and peptide-peptoid chimera have been synthesized. The reaction keeps the paramagnetic spin label intact and offers a simple and versatile route to a large variety of new and chemically diverse spin labels.
December 28, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Mitra Kheirabadi, Javad Maleki, Safieh Soufian, Samaneh Hosseini
HTLV-1 and HIV-1 are two major causes for severe T-cell leukemia disease and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HTLV-1 protease, a member of aspartic acid protease family, plays important roles in maturation during virus replication cycle. The impairment of these proteases results in uninfectious HTLV-1virions.Similar to HIV-1protease deliberate mutations that confer drug resistance on HTLV-1 are frequently seen in this protease. Therefore, inhibition of HTLV-1 protease activity is expected to disrupt HTLV-1's ability to replicate and infect additional cells...
March 2016: Molecular Biology Research Communications
Antonio Carrieri, Enza Lacivita, Benny Danilo Belviso, Rocco Caliandro, Piero Mastrorilli, Vito Gallo, Mauro Niso, Marcello Leopoldo
The mammalian bombesin receptor family comprises three G protein-coupled receptors: the neuromedin B receptor, the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (BB2), and the bombesin receptor subtype 3. BB2 receptor plays a role in gastrointestinal functions; however, at present the role of this subtype in physiological and pathological conditions is unknown due to the lack of specific binders for all subclasses of bombesin receptors. Here, we present a study focused on the properties of the peptoid bombesin antagonist called PD176252, and other structural analogues with the aim to elucidate causes of their different affinity towards the BB2 receptor...
November 4, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Arijit Bhowmik, Malini Basu, Mrinal K Ghosh
Genetic variations in cancer cells are the underpinning for the development of resistance and failure of the treatment by current anticancer drugs. Thus, an ideal drug must overcome failure of treatment and prevents development of drug resistance. There are a wide variety of emerging, easy to prepare and cost effective group of drugs that are collectively called peptoids or peptidomimetics. These new set of drugs exhibit distinct features including protease resistance, are non-immunogenic, do not hinder functionality and backbone polarity, and can adopt different conformations...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Umar Yazdani, Sayed Zaman, Linda S Hynan, L Steven Brown, Richard B Dewey, David Karp, Dwight C German
Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Because dopaminergic neuronal loss begins years before motor symptoms appear, a biomarker for the early identification of the disease is critical for the study of putative neuroprotective therapies. Brain imaging of the nigrostriatal dopamine system has been used as a biomarker for early disease along with cerebrospinal fluid analysis of α-synuclein, but a less costly and relatively non-invasive biomarker would be optimal. We sought to identify an antibody biomarker in the blood of PD patients using a combinatorial peptoid library approach...
2016: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
E De Santis, A A Edwards, B D Alexander, S J Holder, A-S Biesse-Martin, B V Nielsen, D Mistry, L Waters, G Siligardi, R Hussain, S Faure, C Taillefumier
We describe the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the complexation properties towards cations of a cyclic peptoid hexamer composed of alternating α- and β-peptoid monomers, which bear exclusively chiral (S)-phenylethyl side chains (spe) that have no noticeable chelating properties. The binding of a series of monovalent and divalent cations was assessed by (1)H NMR, circular dichroism, fluorescence and molecular modelling. In contrast to previous studies on cations binding by 18-membered α-cyclopeptoid hexamers, the 21-membered cyclopeptoid cP1 did not complex monovalent cations (Na(+), K(+), Ag(+)) but showed selectivity for divalent cations (Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Sr(2+) and Mg(2+))...
December 7, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Ellen J Robertson, Caroline Proulx, Jessica K Su, Rita L Garcia, Stan Yoo, Eric M Nehls, Michael D Connolly, Laudann Taravati, Ronald N Zuckermann
The relationship between the structure of sequence-defined peptoid polymers and their ability to assemble into well-defined nanostructures is important to the creation of new bioinspired platforms with sophisticated functionality. Here, the hydrophobic N-(2-phenylethyl)glycine (Npe) monomers of the standard nanosheet-forming peptoid sequence were modified in an effort to (1) produce nanosheets from relatively short peptoids, (2) inhibit the aggregation of peptoids in bulk solution, (3) increase nanosheet stability by promoting packing interactions within the hydrophobic core, and (4) produce nanosheets with a nonaromatic hydrophobic core...
November 15, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ellen J Robertson, Eric Michael Nehls, Ronald N Zuckermann
Peptoid nanosheets are novel protein-mimetic materials that form from the supramolecular assembly of sequence-defined peptoid polymers. The component polymer chains organize themselves via a unique mechanism at the air-water interface, in which the collapse of a compressed peptoid monolayer results in free-floating, bilayer nanosheets. To impart functionality into these bilayer materials, structural engineering of the nanosheet-forming peptoid strand is necessary. We previously synthesized a series of peptoid analogues with modifications to the hydrophobic core in order to probe the nanosheet tolerance to different packing interactions...
November 22, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Konstantin Andreev, Michael W Martynowycz, Andrey Ivankin, Mia L Huang, Ivan Kuzmenko, Mati Meron, Binhua Lin, Kent Kirshenbaum, David Gidalevitz
The peptidomimetic approach has emerged as a powerful tool for overcoming the inherent limitations of natural antimicrobial peptides, where the therapeutic potential can be improved by increasing the selectivity and bioavailability. Restraining the conformational flexibility of a molecule may reduce the entropy loss upon its binding to the membrane. Experimental findings demonstrate that the cyclization of linear antimicrobial peptoids increases their bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus while maintaining high hemolytic concentrations...
December 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
J Phillip Turner, Shelby E Chastain, Dongwon Park, Melissa A Moss, Shannon L Servoss
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the buildup of insoluble aggregated amyloid-β protein (Aβ) into plaques that accumulate between the neural cells in the brain. AD is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and is the only cause of death among the top ten that cannot currently be treated or cured (Alzheimer's Association, 2011; Selkoe, 1996). Researchers have focused on developing small molecules and peptides to prevent Aβ aggregation; however, while some compounds appear promising in vitro, the research has not resulted in a viable therapeutic treatment...
January 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Anna L Calkins, Jennifer Yin, Jacenda L Rangel, Madeleine R Landry, Amelia A Fuller, Grace Y Stokes
The first report of a water-soluble peptoid adsorbed to silica monitored by second harmonic generation (SHG) at the liquid/solid interface is presented here. The molecular insights gained from these studies will inform the design and preparation of novel peptoid coatings. Simple 6- and 15-residue peptoids were dissolved in phosphate buffered saline and adsorbed to bare silica surfaces. Equilibrium binding constants and relative surface concentrations of adsorbed peptoids were determined from fits to the Langmuir model...
November 8, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Junjie Fu, Amy Xia, Xin Qi
Drug development targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) represents an emerging theme in the field of medicinal chemistry. Considering the fact that most of the currently identified FGFR agonists are long chain peptides with limited stability, the discovery of novel non-peptide FGFR ligands is still highly demanded. A linear one-bead-one-compound peptoid (oligomers of N-substituted glycine units) library with a theoretical diversity of 10(6) was designed and synthesized. Microarray-based screening led to the identification of four hit sequences 1-4 as FGFR1α ligands, which were further confirmed using both solution-phase and solid-phase binding assays...
2016: MedChemComm
Neda Mahmoudi, Lauren Reed, Alex Moix, Nawaf Alshammari, Jamie Hestekin, Shannon L Servoss
Biofouling is a persistent problem for membranes exposed to blood or other complex biological fluids, affecting surface structure and hindering performance. In this study, a peptoid with 2-methoxyethyl (NMEG5) side chains was immobilized on polysulfone hollow fiber membranes to prevent protein fouling. The successful attachment of NMEG5 to the polysulfone surface was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an increase in hydrophilicity was confirmed by contact angle analysis. The NMEG5-modified surface was found to resist fouling with bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, and adsorbed significantly less fibrinogen as compared with other published low-fouling surfaces...
January 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Zijian Zhao, Ling Zhu, Haiyun Li, Peng Cheng, Jiaxi Peng, Yudan Yin, Yang Yang, Chen Wang, Zhiyuan Hu, Yanlian Yang
The oligomerization and aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) play central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Molecular binding agents for modulating the formation of Aβ oligomers and fibrils have promising application potential in AD therapies. By screening a peptoid library using surface plasmon resonance imaging, amyloid inhibitory peptoid 1 (AIP1) that has high affinity to Aβ42 is identified. AIP1 is demonstrated to inhibit Aβ42 oligomerization and fibrillation and to rescue Aβ42-induced cytotoxicity through decreasing the content of Aβ42 oligomers that is related to cell membrane permeability...
January 2017: Small
A Meli, S Gambaro, C Costabile, C Talotta, G Della Sala, P Tecilla, D Milano, M Tosolini, I Izzo, F De Riccardis
An efficient protocol for the solid-phase synthesis of six members of a new class of extended macrocyclic peptoids (based on ortho-, meta- and para-N-(methoxyethyl)aminomethyl phenylacetyl units) is described. Theoretical (DFT) and experimental (NMR) studies on the free and Na(+)-complexed cyclic trimers (3-5) and tetramers (6-8) demonstrate that annulation of the rigidified peptoids can generate new hosts with the ability to sequestrate one or two sodium cations with the affinities and stoichiometries defined by the macrocycle morphology...
September 26, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Annada Rajbhandary, Bradley L Nilsson
Low molecular weight agents that undergo self-assembly into fibril networks with hydrogel properties are promising biomaterials. Most low molecular weight hydrogelators are discovered empirically or serendipitously due to imperfect understanding of the mechanisms of self-assembly, the packing structure of self-assembled materials, and how the self-assembly process corresponds to emergent hydrogelation. Herein, the mechanisms of self-assembly and hydrogelation of N-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl diphenylalanine (Fmoc-PhePhe), a well-studied low molecular weight hydrogelator, is probed by systematic comparison with derivatives in which Phe residues are replaced by corresponding N-benzyl glycine peptoid (Nphe) analogs...
October 1, 2016: Biopolymers
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