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J Phillip Turner, Shelby E Chastain, Dongwon Park, Melissa A Moss, Shannon L Servoss
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the buildup of insoluble aggregated amyloid-β protein (Aβ) into plaques that accumulate between the neural cells in the brain. AD is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and is the only cause of death among the top ten that cannot currently be treated or cured (Alzheimer's Association, 2011; Selkoe, 1996). Researchers have focused on developing small molecules and peptides to prevent Aβ aggregation; however, while some compounds appear promising in vitro, the research has not resulted in a viable therapeutic treatment...
October 10, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Anna L Calkins, Jennifer Yin, Jacenda L Rangel, Madeleine R Landry, Amelia A Fuller, Grace Y Stokes
The first report of a water-soluble peptoid adsorbed to silica monitored by second harmonic generation (SHG) at the liquid/solid interface is presented here. The molecular insights gained from these studies will inform the design and preparation of novel peptoid coatings. Simple 6- and 15-residue peptoids were dissolved in phosphate buffered saline and adsorbed to bare silica surfaces. Equilibrium binding constants and relative surface concentrations of adsorbed peptoids were determined from fits to the Langmuir model...
October 18, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Junjie Fu, Amy Xia, Xin Qi
Drug development targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) represents an emerging theme in the field of medicinal chemistry. Considering the fact that most of the currently identified FGFR agonists are long chain peptides with limited stability, the discovery of novel non-peptide FGFR ligands is still highly demanded. A linear one-bead-one-compound peptoid (oligomers of N-substituted glycine units) library with a theoretical diversity of 10(6) was designed and synthesized. Microarray-based screening led to the identification of four hit sequences 1-4 as FGFR1α ligands, which were further confirmed using both solution-phase and solid-phase binding assays...
2016: MedChemComm
Neda Mahmoudi, Lauren Reed, Alex Moix, Nawaf Alshammari, Jamie Hestekin, Shannon L Servoss
Biofouling is a persistent problem for membranes exposed to blood or other complex biological fluids, affecting surface structure and hindering performance. In this study, a peptoid with 2-methoxyethyl (NMEG5) side chains was immobilized on polysulfone hollow fiber membranes to prevent protein fouling. The successful attachment of NMEG5 to the polysulfone surface was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an increase in hydrophilicity was confirmed by contact angle analysis. The NMEG5-modified surface was found to resist fouling with bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, and adsorbed significantly less fibrinogen as compared with other published low-fouling surfaces...
September 26, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Zijian Zhao, Ling Zhu, Haiyun Li, Peng Cheng, Jiaxi Peng, Yudan Yin, Yang Yang, Chen Wang, Zhiyuan Hu, Yanlian Yang
The oligomerization and aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) play central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Molecular binding agents for modulating the formation of Aβ oligomers and fibrils have promising application potential in AD therapies. By screening a peptoid library using surface plasmon resonance imaging, amyloid inhibitory peptoid 1 (AIP1) that has high affinity to Aβ42 is identified. AIP1 is demonstrated to inhibit Aβ42 oligomerization and fibrillation and to rescue Aβ42-induced cytotoxicity through decreasing the content of Aβ42 oligomers that is related to cell membrane permeability...
October 7, 2016: Small
A Meli, S Gambaro, C Costabile, C Talotta, G Della Sala, P Tecilla, D Milano, M Tosolini, I Izzo, F De Riccardis
An efficient protocol for the solid-phase synthesis of six members of a new class of extended macrocyclic peptoids (based on ortho-, meta- and para-N-(methoxyethyl)aminomethyl phenylacetyl units) is described. Theoretical (DFT) and experimental (NMR) studies on the free and Na(+)-complexed cyclic trimers (3-5) and tetramers (6-8) demonstrate that annulation of the rigidified peptoids can generate new hosts with the ability to sequestrate one or two sodium cations with the affinities and stoichiometries defined by the macrocycle morphology...
September 26, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Annada Rajbhandary, Bradley L Nilsson
Low molecular weight agents that undergo self-assembly into fibril networks with hydrogel properties are promising biomaterials. Most low molecular weight hydrogelators are discovered empirically or serendipitously due to imperfect understanding of the mechanisms of self-assembly, the packing structure of self-assembled materials, and how the self-assembly process corresponds to emergent hydrogelation. Herein, the mechanisms of self-assembly and hydrogelation of N-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl diphenylalanine (Fmoc-PhePhe), a well-studied low molecular weight hydrogelator, is probed by systematic comparison with derivatives in which Phe residues are replaced by corresponding N-benzyl glycine peptoid (Nphe) analogs...
October 1, 2016: Biopolymers
Akihiro Furukawa, Chad E Townsend, Joshua A Schwochert, Cameron R Pye, Maria A Bednarek, R Scott Lokey
Synthetic and natural cyclic peptides provide a testing ground for studying membrane permeability in non-traditional drug scaffolds. Cyclic peptomers, which incorporate peptide and N-alkylglycine (peptoid) residues, combine the stereochemical and geometric complexity of peptides with the functional group diversity accessible to peptoids. We synthesized cyclic peptomer libraries by split-pool techniques, separately permuting side chain and backbone geometry, and analyzed their membrane permeabilities using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Corinna Fetsch, Jens Gaitzsch, Lea Messager, Giuseppe Battaglia, Robert Luxenhofer
Polypeptoids are an old but recently rediscovered polymer class with interesting synthetic, physico-chemical and biological characteristics. Here, we introduce new aromatic monomers, N-benzyl glycine N-carboxyanhydride and N-phenethyl glycine N-carboxyanhydride and their block copolymers with the hydrophilic polysarcosine. We compare their self-assembly in water and aqueous buffer with the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolypeptoids with aliphatic side chains. The aggregates in water were investigated by dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Simona Scarano, Samuele Lisi, Corinne Ravelet, Eric Peyrin, Maria Minunni
The failure of therapeutic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients can be related to the late onset of symptoms and, consequently, to a delayed pharmacological aid to counteract neurodegenerative progression. This is coupled to the fact that the diagnosis based on clinical criteria alone introduces high misdiagnosis rate. The availability of assessed biomarkers is therefore of crucial importance not only to counteract late diagnosis, but also to manage patients at high risk of AD development eligible for novel therapies...
October 12, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Joel Schneider
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Biopolymers
Allison Case, Angela Desmond, Daniel Lopes, Kelly Dye, Kelly Mapes, Stephen Ruback, Iliodora Pop, Jiyeun Kate Kim, Pavitra Chakravarty, Joan E Smallshaw, Laurentiu M Pop, Ellen S Vitetta
We demonstrate that a peptoid composed of five monomers and attached via a maleimide linker to a carrier protein elicits anti-peptoid, anti-linker and anti-carrier antibodies in rabbits. Specific anti-peptoid antibodies were affinity purified and used to reproducibly retrieve three specific peptoid-coupled beads from 20,000 irrelevant peptoid-beads using magnetic screening.
August 2016: Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination
Tracy A Stone, Charles M Deber
Membrane proteins play the central roles in a variety of cellular processes, ranging from nutrient uptake and signalling, to cell-cell communication. Their biological functions are directly related to how they fold and assemble; defects often lead to disease. Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) within the membrane are therefore of great interest as therapeutic targets. Here we review the progress in the application of membrane-insertable peptides for the disruption or stabilization of membrane-based PPIs. We describe the design and preparation of transmembrane peptide mimics; and of several categories of peptidomimetics used for study, including d-enantiomers, non-natural amino acids, peptoids, and β-peptides...
August 28, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ting-Yi Wang, Jean-Philippe Pellois
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) enter cells primarily by escaping from endosomal compartments or by directly translocating across the plasma membrane. Due to their capability of permeating into the cytosolic space of the cell, CPPs are utilized for the delivery of cell-impermeable molecules. However, the fundamental mechanisms and parameters associated with the penetration of CPPs and their cargos through the lipid bilayer have not been fully determined. This in turn has hampered their usage in biotechnological or therapeutic applications...
July 2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
P-H Elchinger, C Delattre, S Faure, O Roy, S Badel, T Bernardi, P Michaud, C Taillefumier
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of immobilizing peptoid on chitosan film in order to generate new active material. Chitosan films have been grafted for the first time with short-length peptoid oligomers displaying antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activity of the selected peptoids was initially investigated with the DPPH assay and hydroxyl radical procedure. The metal chelating capacity of peptoids was also evaluated prior to their covalent attachment to chitosan. The benefit of chitosan functionalization with respect to its intrinsic antioxidant properties was finally evaluated in the present study...
August 20, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Timothy W Craven, Richard Bonneau, Kent Kirshenbaum
Poly-proline type II (PPII) helical PXXP motifs are the recognition elements for a variety of protein-protein interactions that are critical for cellular signaling. Despite development of protocols for locking peptides into α-helical and β-strand conformations, there remains a lack of analogous methods for generating mimics of PPII helical structures. We describe herein a strategy to enforce PPII helical secondary structure in the 19-residue TrpPlexus miniature protein. Through sequence variation, we showed that a network of cation-π interactions could drive the formation of PPII helical conformations for both peptide and N-substituted glycine peptoid residues...
October 4, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Ranjan V Mannige, Joyjit Kundu, Stephen Whitelam
Three-dimensional protein structures usually contain regions of local order, called secondary structure, such as α-helices and β-sheets. Secondary structure is characterized by the local rotational state of the protein backbone, quantified by two dihedral angles called ϕ and ψ. Particular types of secondary structure can generally be described by a single (diffuse) location on a two-dimensional plot drawn in the space of the angles ϕ and ψ, called a Ramachandran plot. By contrast, a recently-discovered nanomaterial made from peptoids, structural isomers of peptides, displays a secondary-structure motif corresponding to two regions on the Ramachandran plot [Mannige et al...
2016: PloS One
Yu Wang, Dilani C Dehigaspitiya, Paul M Levine, Adam A Profit, Michael Haugbro, Keren Imberg-Kazdan, Susan K Logan, Kent Kirshenbaum, Michael J Garabedian
Development of resistance to antiandrogens for treating advanced prostate cancer is a growing concern and extends to recently developed therapeutics, including enzalutamide. Therefore, new strategies to block androgen receptor (AR) function in prostate cancer are required. Here, we report the characterization of a multivalent conjugate presenting two bioactive ethisterone ligands arrayed as spatially defined pendant groups on a peptoid oligomer. The conjugate, named Multivalent Peptoid Conjugate 6 (MPC6), suppressed the proliferation of multiple AR-expressing prostate cancer cell lines including those that failed to respond to enzalutamide and ARN509...
September 1, 2016: Cancer Research
Jaspal Singh, Satya Prakash Shukla, Tanvi J Desai, D Gomika Udugamasooriya
We previously reported a unique peptide-peptoid hybrid, PPS1 that specifically recognizes lipid-phosphatidylserine (PS) and a few other negatively charged phospholipids, but not neutral phospholipids, on the cell membrane. The dimeric version of PPS1, i.e., PPS1D1 triggers strong cancer cell cytotoxicity and has been validated in lung cancer models both in vitro and in vivo. Given that PS and other negatively charged phospholipids are abundant in almost all tumor microenvironments, PPS1D1 is an attractive drug lead that can be developed into a globally applicable anti-cancer agent...
September 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Junjie Fu, Amy Xia, Yao Dai, Xin Qi
Discovering molecules capable of binding to HIV trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA thereby disrupting its interaction with Tat protein is an attractive strategy for developing novel antiviral drugs. Computational docking is considered as a useful tool for predicting binding affinity and conducting virtual screening. Although great progress in predicting protein-ligand interactions has been achieved in the past few decades, modeling RNA-ligand interactions is still largely unexplored due to the highly flexible nature of RNA...
July 19, 2016: Current HIV Research
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