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Over stimulation

Sabato Santaniello, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
Over the last 30 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat chronic neurological diseases like dystonia, obsessive-compulsive disorders, essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and more recently, dementias, depression, cognitive disorders, and epilepsy. Despite its wide use, DBS presents numerous challenges for both clinicians and engineers. One challenge is the design of novel, more efficient DBS therapies, which are hampered by the lack of complete understanding about the cellular mechanisms of therapeutic DBS...
March 20, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Kyongje Sung, Barry Gordon
Whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) affects mental functions, and how any such effects arise from its neural effects, continue to be debated. We investigated whether tDCS applied over the visual cortex (Oz) with a vertex (Cz) reference might affect response times (RTs) in a visual search task. We also examined whether any significant tDCS effects would interact with task factors (target presence, discrimination difficulty, and stimulus brightness) that are known to selectively influence one or the other of the two information processing stages posited by current models of visual search...
2018: PloS One
Carine Beysen, Marcie Ruddy, Aubrey Stoch, Lori A Mixson, Kim Rosko, Tim Riiff, Scott M Turner, Marc K Hellerstein, Elizabeth J Murphy
Fructose feeding increases hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Little is known, however, about individual variation in susceptibility to fructose stimulation of DNL. In this three-period, cross-over study, seventeen healthy male subjects were enrolled to evaluate the within and between subject variability of acute fructose feeding on hepatic fractional DNL. During each assessment, [1-13 C1 ]-acetate was infused to measure DNL in the fasting state and during fructose feeding...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Klaus Schepker, Thomas Beddies
Hans Heinze and the Research Programme of the German Association of Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education 1942-1945 Upon its foundation in 1940, Paul Schröder, full professor for psychiatry in Leipzig, was the first president of the German Society for Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education (DGKH). Following his death in 1941, his student Hans Heinze (Brandenburg/H.) succeeded him, prevailing over Werner Villinger (Breslau). The principal task of the DGKH was considered to be the exploration of the genetic origins of intellectual disabilities and behavioural disorders among children and adolescents...
September 2017: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Patricia Cristine Borck, Jean Franciesco Vettorazzi, Renato Chaves Souto Branco, Thiago Martins Batista, Junia Carolina Santos-Silva, Vanessa Yumi Nakanishi, Antonio Carlos Boschero, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro
The sulfur-containing amino acid, taurine (Tau), regulates glucose and lipid homeostasis under normal, pre- and diabetic conditions. Here, we aimed to verify whether Tau supplementation exerts its beneficial effects against obesity, hyperglycemia and alterations in islet functions, in leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob), over a long period of treatment. From weaning until 12 months of age, female ob/ob mice received, or not, 5% Tau in drinking water (obTau group). After this period, a reduction in hypertriglyceridemia and an improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were observed in obTau mice...
March 19, 2018: Amino Acids
Francois Pognan, J Andreas Mahl, Maria Papoutsi, David Ledieu, Marc Raccuglia, Diethilde Theil, Sarah B Voytek, Patrick J Devine, Katie Kubek-Luck, Natalie Claudio, Andre Cordier, Annabelle Heier, Carine Kolly, Andreas Hartmann, Salah-Dine Chibout, Page Bouchard, Christian Trendelenburg
A high incidence of hemangiosarcoma (HSA) was observed in mice treated for 2 years with siponimod, a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) functional antagonist, while no such tumors were observed in rats under the same treatment conditions. In 3-month rat (90 mg/kg/day) and 9-month mouse (25 and 75 mg/kg/day) in vivo mechanistic studies, vascular endothelial cell (VEC) activation was observed in both species, but VEC proliferation and persistent increases in circulating placental growth factor 2 (PLGF2) were only seen in the mouse...
March 19, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Andisheh Bastani, L Eduardo Cofré Lizama, Maryam Zoghi, Grant Blashki, Stephen Davis, Andrew H Kaye, Fary Khan, Mary P Galea
Background: Cranial-nerve non-invasive neuromodulation (CN-NINM) using the portable neuromodulation stimulator (PoNS™) device has been proposed as a novel adjuvant intervention to improve efficacy of gait and balance. This device modulates input and output signals during motor tasks which prompts neuroplastic changes. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of physiotherapy using the PoNS™ in a case with cerebellar degeneration. Case presentation: The PoNS™ was used during a high-intensity physiotherapy programme delivered over 2 weeks (2 × 1...
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Michael Sswat, Martina H Stiasny, Jan Taucher, Maria Algueró-Muñiz, Lennart T Bach, Fredrik Jutfelt, Ulf Riebesell, Catriona Clemmesen
Ocean acidification-the decrease in seawater pH due to rising CO2 concentrations-has been shown to lower survival in early life stages of fish and, as a consequence, the recruitment of populations including commercially important species. To date, ocean-acidification studies with fish larvae have focused on the direct physiological impacts of elevated CO2 , but largely ignored the potential effects of ocean acidification on food web interactions. In an in situ mesocosm study on Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae as top predators in a pelagic food web, we account for indirect CO2 effects on larval survival mediated by changes in food availability...
March 19, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Katrin H Preller, Leonhard Schilbach, Thomas Pokorny, Jan Flemming, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Vollenweider
Distortions of self-experience are critical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and have detrimental effects on social interactions. In light of the immense need for improved and targeted interventions for social impairments, it is important to better understand the neurochemical substrates of social interaction abilities. We therefore investigated the pharmacological and neural correlates of self- and other-initiated social interaction. In a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study 24 healthy human participants (18 males and 6 females) received either 1) placebo+placebo 2) placebo+lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (100 μg p...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Stefano Lasaponara, Marianna D'Onofrio, Mario Pinto, Alessio Dragone, Dario Menicagli, Domenica Bueti, Marzia De Lucia, Francesco Tomaiuolo, Fabrizio Doricchi
Studies with Event Related Potentials (ERPs) have highlighted deficits in the early phases of orienting to left visual targets in right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect (N+). However, brain responses associated with preparatory orienting of attention, with target novelty and with the detection of a match/mismatch between expected and actual targets (contextual updating), have not been explored in N+. Here in a study in healthy humans and brain damaged patients of both sexes we demonstrate that frontal activity that reflects supra-modal mechanisms of attentional orienting (ADAN) is entirely spared in N+...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Xiaofan Jin, Ingmar H Riedel-Kruse
Bacterial biofilms represent a promising opportunity for engineering of microbial communities. However, our ability to control spatial structure in biofilms remains limited. Here we engineer Escherichia coli with a light-activated transcriptional promoter (pDawn) to optically regulate expression of an adhesin gene (Ag43). When illuminated with patterned blue light, long-term viable biofilms with spatial resolution down to 25 μm can be formed on a variety of substrates and inside enclosed culture chambers without the need for surface pretreatment...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
V Moalic-Allain
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a common procedure potentially beneficial to many individuals with cancer, hematological, or inherited disorders, and has highlighted the need of related or unrelated donors to perform allograft. Donation of hematopoietic stem cells, either through bone marrow harvest or peripheral blood stem cell collection, is well-established and widespread. Over the past two decades, the peripheral blood stem cell collection by aphaeresis has become the main source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation, due to faster engraftment and practicability and lower risk of relapse for high-risk patients...
March 16, 2018: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
Qing Ye, Jian-Hua Mao, Qiang Shu, Shi-Qiang Shang
BACKGROUND: Our previous study found that most of MPP patients had elevated serum total IgE levels. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to determine components of mycoplasma pneumoniae that can cause IgE increase in children, and to clarify its specific mechanism. METHODS: The components of MP cells were isolated by serum IgE from patients with MP pneumonia (MPP). These components obtained through the prokaryotic expression were used as allergens to detect the proportion of allergen-specific IgE produced in MPP patients, and the clinical characteristics and related immune parameters of these patients who produced this allergen-specific IgE were also analyzed...
March 16, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Hassan Etesami, Dinesh K Maheshwari
Increased incidence of abiotic stresses impacting adversely plant growth and productivity in major crops is being witnessed all over the world. Therefore, as a result of such stress factors, plant growth under the stress conditions will be less than the non-stress conditions. Growing concerns and global demand for correct, environmentally-friendly techniques exist to reduce the adverse effects of plant stress. Under such stressful conditions, the role of interactions of plant and beneficial microorganisms is of great significance...
March 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Alex J Krotulski, Amanda L A Mohr, Donna M Papsun, Barry K Logan
The number of emerging novel stimulants modified based on beta-keto variations of amphetamine-like substances continues to rise. Dibutylone reports described in the medical and toxicological literature are limited, therefore little information is available in terms of quantitative confirmation or metabolism. During this study, authentic human specimens, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, oral fluid and liver were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for the presence of dibutylone and butylone, with paired case history and demographic information...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Rachel Coleman, Darci J Trader
To attenuate an over-abundance of cellular protein, it has been hypothesized that the 20S core particle (20S CP) of the proteasome can be chemically stimulated to degrade proteins into non-toxic peptides more quickly. Screening for small molecule 20S CP stimulators is typically performed with a reporter peptide composed of four amino acids and a coumarin group that is released upon proteasome-mediated hydrolysis to generate a fluorescent signal. Screening with this small reporter can lead to false negatives because the reporter peptide is rapidly turned-over without stimulation...
March 19, 2018: ACS Combinatorial Science
Kirstin Harling, Ernest Adankwah, Alptekin Güler, Anthony Afum-Adjei Awuah, Louis Adu-Amoah, Ertan Mayatepek, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Norman Nausch, Marc Jacobsen
T-cells critically contribute to protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and impaired T-cell responses can lead to disease progression. Pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines affect T-cells, and fine-tuned regulation of cytokine signaling via the Jak/STAT signaling pathways is crucial for appropriate T-cell function. Constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation as a consequence of aberrant cytokine signaling has been described to occur in pathognomonic T-cell responses in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
March 19, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Bo J A Haglund, Per Tillgren
Based on the storytelling tradition and analyses of conference material, this article provides an overview of the evolving Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) and its conferences over the last 20 years. The story goes from the planning of the first conference in Bergen, Norway, back in 1996 to the eighth conference in Jyväskylä, Finland, in 2016. There have been three phases of development. During the first phase, 1996-2007, the five first conferences were initiated and implemented by departments of public health in the Nordic countries...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
J S Gomes, A P Trevizol, D V Ducos, A Gadelha, B B Ortiz, A O Fonseca, H T Akiba, C C Azevedo, L S P Guimaraes, P Shiozawa, Q Cordeiro, A Lacerda, A M Dias
Background: The lack of efficacy of pharmacological treatments for cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia highlights the need for new interventions. We investigated the effects of tDCS on working memory and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Method: Double-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial, investigating the effects of 10 sessions of tDCS in schizophrenia subjects. Stimulation used 2 mA, for 20 min, with electrodes of 25 cm2 wrapped in cotton material soaked in saline solution...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Bo Cai, Xiaomin Zhai, Zeguan Wang, Yan Shen, Ronald Xu, Zachary J Smith, Quan Wen, Kaiqin Chu
Monitoring and manipulating neuronal activities with optical microscopy desires a method where light can be focused or projected over a long axial range so that large brain tissues (>100 [Formula: see text] thick) can be simultaneously imaged, and specific brain regions can be optogenetically stimulated without the need for slow optical refocusing. However, the micron-scale resolution required in neuronal imaging yields a depth of field of less than 10 [Formula: see text] in conventional imaging systems...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
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