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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647885/osteomacs-and-bone-regeneration
#1
REVIEW
Lena Batoon, Susan Marie Millard, Liza Jane Raggatt, Allison Robyn Pettit
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mounting evidence supporting the critical contribution of macrophages, in particular osteal macrophages, to bone regeneration is reviewed. We specifically examine the potential role of macrophages in the basic multicellular units coordinating lifelong bone regeneration via remodelling and bone regeneration in response to injury. We review and discuss the distinctions between macrophage and osteoclast contributions to bone homeostasis, particularly the dichotomous role of the colony-stimulating factor 1-colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor axis...
June 24, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647458/predictors-of-efficacy-of-percutaneous-tibial-nerve-stimulation-for-fecal-incontinence-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-randomized-trial
#2
Emma J Horrocks, Sami A Chadi, Natasha J Stevens, Steven D Wexner, Charles H Knowles
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A recent UK multicentre, phase III trial [The CONFIDeNT Trial: Lancet 2015; 386: 1640-48], demonstrated no significant clinical benefit of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) over sham stimulation; however this study did not analyse predictors of response. This study aimed to determine predictors of PTNS efficacy in adults with fecal incontinence (FI) using data from this randomized controlled trial. METHODS: The study population comprised 205 patients from the CONFIDeNT Trial, with original primary outcome (≥ 50% reduction in weekly FI episodes after 12 weeks of treatment) remaining the binary denominator of success or failure...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647325/the-processing-of-semantic-relatedness-in-the-brain-evidence-from-associative-and-categorical-false-recognition-effects-following-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-left-anterior-temporal-lobe
#3
Emiliano Díez, Carlos J Gómez-Ariza, Antonio M Díez-Álamo, María A Alonso, Angel Fernandez
A dominant view of the role of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in semantic memory is that it serves as an integration hub, specialized in the processing of semantic relatedness by way of mechanisms that bind together information from different brain areas to form coherent amodal representations of concepts. Two recent experiments, using brain stimulation techniques along with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, have found a consistent false memory reduction effect following stimulation of the ATL, pointing to the importance of the ATL in semantic/conceptual processing...
June 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647012/striatal-activation-predicts-differential-therapeutic-responses-to-methylphenidate-and-atomoxetine
#4
Kurt P Schulz, Anne-Claude V Bédard, Jin Fan, Thomas B Hildebrandt, Mark A Stein, Iliyan Ivanov, Jeffrey M Halperin, Jeffrey H Newcorn
OBJECTIVE: Methylphenidate has prominent effects in the dopamine-rich striatum that are absent for the selective norepinephrine transporter inhibitor atomoxetine. This study tested whether baseline striatal activation would predict differential response to the two medications in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: A total of 36 youth with ADHD performed a Go/No-Go test during functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and were treated with methylphenidate and atomoxetine using a randomized cross-over design...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646465/delayed-complications-of-deep-brain-stimulation-16-year-experience-in-249-patients
#5
Gustavo Fernández-Pajarín, A Sesar, B Ares, J L Relova, E Arán, M Gelabert-González, A Castro
BACKGROUND: Over the years, most of the deep brain stimulation (DBS) complications described have been mainly related to the surgery itself or the stimulation. Only a few authors have dealt with chronic complications or complications due to implanted material. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed complications beyond the 1st month after surgery in 249 patients undergoing DBS at our site for 16 years, with 321 interventions overall. RESULTS: Our results show that infection is the most frequent delayed complication (12...
June 24, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645853/anterior-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-for-tourette-s-syndrome-a-randomised-double-blind-controlled-trial
#6
Marie-Laure Welter, Jean-Luc Houeto, Stéphane Thobois, Benoit Bataille, Marc Guenot, Yulia Worbe, Andreas Hartmann, Virginie Czernecki, Eric Bardinet, Jerome Yelnik, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel, Yves Agid, Marie Vidailhet, Philippe Cornu, Audrey Tanguy, Solène Ansquer, Nematollah Jaafari, Emmanuel Poulet, Giulia Serra, Pierre Burbaud, Emmanuel Cuny, Bruno Aouizerate, Pierre Pollak, Stephan Chabardes, Mircea Polosan, Michel Borg, Denys Fontaine, Bruno Giordana, Sylvie Raoul, Tiphaine Rouaud, Anne Sauvaget, Isabelle Jalenques, Carine Karachi, Luc Mallet
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed to treat patients with severe Tourette's syndrome, and open-label trials and two small double-blind trials have tested DBS of the posterior and the anterior internal globus pallidus (aGPi). We aimed to specifically assess the efficacy of aGPi DBS for severe Tourette's syndrome. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, controlled trial, we recruited patients aged 18-60 years with severe and medically refractory Tourette's syndrome from eight hospitals specialised in movement disorders in France...
June 20, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645453/choice-of-knee-cartilage-thickness-change-metric-for-different-treatment-goals-in-efficacy-studies
#7
Robert J Buck, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le Graverand, Wolfgang Wirth, Felix Eckstein
INTRODUCTION: In knee osteoarthritis, local increase and decrease in cartilage thickness has been observed over short time intervals. Hence, averaging cartilage change across large regions may not capture the complexity of structural alterations in disease progression. This study aims to examine the relative performance of different metrics of cartilage thickness change for different clinical studies scenarios. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Metrics for assessing cartilage thickness change were characterized by conventional measures of change versus absolute values (the magnitude) of change, and by different methods of summarizing change over (sub-) regions...
May 30, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645286/the-myths-surrounding-mild-stimulation-in-vitro-fertilization-ivf
#8
REVIEW
Raoul Orvieto, Valeria Stella Vanni, Norbert Gleicher
So-called mild controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (mCOH) has in recent years increased in popularity, claiming to be safer and more patient-friendly, while also improving in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. We here challenge the International Society for Mild Approaches in Assisted Reproduction (ISMAAR) definition of mild stimulation, and especially address four fundamental issues, where our review found conventional COH (cCOH) advantageous over mCOH. They are: prevalence of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), oocyte/embryo quality, pregnancy/live birth rates, and cost...
June 24, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645000/manipulating-cues-in-mind-wandering-verbal-cues-affect-the-frequency-and-the-temporal-focus-of-mind-wandering
#9
Manila Vannucci, Claudia Pelagatti, Igor Marchetti
Our understanding of mind wandering (MW) has dramatically increased over the past decade. A key challenge still facing research is the identification of the processes and events that directly cause and control its occurrence. In the present study we sought to shed light on this question, by investigating the effects of verbal cues on the frequency and temporal focus of MW. To this aim, we experimentally manipulated the presence of irrelevant verbal cues during a vigilance task, in two independent groups (Verbal-cues group vs...
June 20, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644567/reliability-of-surface-emg-measurements-from-the-suprahyoid-muscle-complex
#10
Mohit Kothari, Peter William Stubbs, Asger Roer Pedersen, Jim Jensen, Jørgen Feldbaek Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Assessment of swallowing musculature using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) can be used to evaluate neural pathways. However, recording of the swallowing musculature is often invasive, uncomfortable and unrealistic in normal clinical practise. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possibility of using the suprahyoid muscle complex (SMC) using surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess changes to neural pathways by determining the reliability of measurements in healthy participants over days...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644548/repetitive-peripheral-magnetic-stimulation-for-activities-of-daily-living-and-functional-ability-in-people-after-stroke
#11
REVIEW
Ryo Momosaki, Naoki Yamada, Erika Ota, Masahiro Abo
BACKGROUND: Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) is a form of therapy that creates painless stimulation of deep muscle structures to improve motor function in people with physical impairment from brain or nerve disorders. Use of rPMS for people after stroke has been identified as a feasible approach to improve activities of daily living and functional ability. However, no systematic reviews have assessed the findings of available trials. The effect and safety of this intervention for people after stroke currently remain uncertain...
June 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644204/hearing-safety-from-single-and-double-pulse-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-children-and-young-adults
#12
Sahana N Kukke, Carmen C Brewer, Christopher Zalewski, Kelly A King, Diane Damiano, Katharine E Alter, Mark Hallett
PURPOSE: Concerns regarding hearing safety have limited the number of studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in children and young adults. The objective of this study was to examine the safety of TMS with regards to hearing in a group of 16 children and young adults (17.3 ± 4.9 years) with and without brain injury. METHODS: Pure-tone hearing thresholds and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions were measured before and after exposure to single- and paired-pulse TMS (1-2 sessions of 149-446 TMS pulses at a median of 49%-100% maximum stimulator output over a 2...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643924/exosomes-novel-regulators-of-bone-remodelling-and-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-orthodontics
#13
REVIEW
L S Holliday, K P McHugh, J Zuo, J I Aguirre, J K Neubert, W J Rody
Recent studies suggest that exosomes are involved in intercellular communication required for the maintenance of healthy bone. Exosomes are small (30-150 nm in diameter) extracellular vesicles that are formed in multivesicular bodies and are released from cells as the multivesicular bodies fuse with the plasma membrane. Regulatory exosomes have the capacity to exert profound control over target cells. They can stimulate plasma membrane receptors and are also internalized by the target cell delivering proteins, lipids, small molecules and functional RNAs from the cell of origin...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643374/population-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-ly2510924-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#14
S Bihorel, E Raddad, J Fiedler-Kelly, J R Stille, J Hing, E Ludwig
The objectives of this study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of LY2510924, a potent peptide antagonist of the CXCR4 receptor, after subcutaneous administration in patients with advanced cancer forms and quantify LY2510924 stimulatory effects on the mobilization of cells bearing the cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) as an indirect reflection of the chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 12/CXCR4 axis inhibition. LY2510924 PK were best characterized by a 2-compartment model with first-order absorption and dose-dependent clearance predicting steady state after three daily doses and little accumulation (accumulation ratio <1...
June 23, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642841/strain-and-dose-dependent-reduction-of-toxoplasma-gondii-burden-in-pigs-is-associated-with-interferon-gamma-production-by-cd8-lymphocytes-in-a-heterologous-challenge-model
#15
Malgorzata Jennes, Stéphane De Craeye, Bert Devriendt, Katelijne Dierick, Pierre Dorny, Eric Cox
Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide prevalent parasite of humans and animals. The global infection burden exceeds yearly one million disability-adjusted life years (DALY's) in infected individuals. Therefore, effective preventive measures should be taken to decrease the risk of infection in humans. Although human toxoplasmosis is predominantly foodborne by ingestion of tissue cysts in meat from domestic animals such as pigs, the incidence risk is difficult to estimate due to the lack of screening of animals for infection and insights in location and persistence of the parasite in the tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642728/theory-the-final-frontier-a-corpus-based-analysis-of-the-role-of-theory-in-psychological-articles
#16
Sieghard Beller, Andrea Bender
Contemporary psychology regards itself as an empirical science, at least in most of its subfields. Theory building and development are often considered critical to the sciences, but the extent to which psychology can be cast in this way is under debate. According to those advocating a strong role of theory, studies should be designed to test hypotheses derived from theories (theory-driven) and ideally should yield findings that stimulate hypothesis formation and theory building (theory-generating). The alternative position values empirical findings over theories as the lasting legacy of science...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642680/weight-bearing-over-ground-stepping-in-an-exoskeleton-with-non-invasive-spinal-cord-neuromodulation-after-motor-complete-paraplegia
#17
Parag Gad, Yury Gerasimenko, Sharon Zdunowski, Amanda Turner, Dimitry Sayenko, Daniel C Lu, V Reggie Edgerton
We asked whether coordinated voluntary movement of the lower limbs could be regained in an individual having been completely paralyzed (>4 year) and completely absent of vision (>15 year) using two novel strategies-transcutaneous electrical spinal cord stimulation at selected sites over the spine as well as pharmacological neuromodulation by buspirone. We also asked whether these neuromodulatory strategies could facilitate stepping assisted by an exoskeleton (EKSO, EKSO Bionics, CA) that is designed so that the subject can voluntarily complement the work being performed by the exoskeleton...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642679/assessment-of-ipsilateral-efferent-effects-in-human-via-ecochg
#18
Eric Verschooten, Elizabeth A Strickland, Nicolas Verhaert, Philip X Joris
Development of electrophysiological means to assess the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system in humans is important to further our understanding of the function of that system and for the refinement and validation of psychoacoustical and otoacoustic emission methods which are thought to probe the MOC. Based on measurements in anesthetized animals it has been hypothesized that the MOC-reflex (MOCR) can enhance the response to signals in noise, and several lines of evidence support such a role in humans. A difficulty in these studies is the isolation of efferent effects...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642544/resistin-promotes-the-abnormal-type-i-collagen-phenotype-of-subchondral-bone-in-obese-patients-with-end-stage-hip-osteoarthritis
#19
Ashleigh M Philp, Rebecca L Collier, Liam M Grover, Edward T Davis, Simon W Jones
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adiposity on the architecture and composition of hip OA subchondral bone, and to examine the pathological role of adipokines. Femoral heads were collected from normal-weight or over-weight/obese patients with hip OA. Structural parameters of subchondral bone were determined by MicroCT and type I collagen α1/α2 ratio was determined by SDS PAGE and by qRT-PCR in ex-vivo bone explants. The serum concentration of adipokines was determined by Luminex. The effect of resistin on primary OA osteoblasts was determined by analysis of Wnt pathway signal transduction, bone nodule formation, and osteoblast metabolic activity...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642285/state-dependent-tms-reveals-representation-of-affective-body-movements-in-the-anterior-intraparietal-cortex
#20
Noemi Mazzoni, Christianne Jacobs, Paola Venuti, Juha Silvanto, Luigi Cattaneo
In humans, recognition of others' actions involves a cortical network that comprises, among other cortical regions, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), where biological motion is coded and the anterior intraparietal suclus (aIPS), where movement information is elaborated in terms of meaningful goal-directed actions. This action observation system (AOS) is thought to encode neutral voluntary actions, and possibly some aspects of affective motor repertoire, but the role of the AOS' areas in processing affective kinematic information has never been examined...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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