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neural precursor remyelination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854261/taking-advantage-of-nature-s-gift-can-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-improve-myelin-regeneration
#1
REVIEW
Rainer Akkermann, Janusz Joachim Jadasz, Kasum Azim, Patrick Küry
Irreversible functional deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS) are directly correlated to axonal damage and loss. Neurodegeneration results from immune-mediated destruction of myelin sheaths and subsequent axonal demyelination. Importantly, oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glial cells of the central nervous system, can be replaced to some extent to generate new myelin sheaths. This endogenous regeneration capacity has so far mainly been attributed to the activation and recruitment of resident oligodendroglial precursor cells...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592856/a-high-throughput-drug-screening-assay-to-identify-compounds-that-promote-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-using-acutely-dissociated-and-purified-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells
#2
Karen D Lariosa-Willingham, Elen S Rosler, Jay S Tung, Jason C Dugas, Tassie L Collins, Dmitri Leonoudakis
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is caused by an autoimmune response resulting in demyelination and neural degeneration. The adult central nervous system has the capacity to remyelinate axons in part through the generation of new oligodendrocytes (OLs). To identify clinical candidate compounds that may promote remyelination, we have developed a high throughput screening (HTS) assay to identify compounds that promote the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) into OLs...
2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404574/inflammation-severely-alters-thyroid-hormone-signaling-in-the-central-nervous-system-during-experimental-allergic-encephalomyelitis-in-rat-direct-impact-on-opcs-differentiation-failure
#3
Mercedes Fernández, Vito A Baldassarro, Sandra Sivilia, Luciana Giardino, Laura Calzà
Differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes is severely impaired by inflammatory cytokines and this could lead to remyelination failure in inflammatory/demyelinating diseases. Due to the role of thyroid hormone in the maturation of OPCs and developmental myelination, in this study we investigated (i) the possible occurrence of dysregulation of thyroid hormone signaling in the CNS tissue during experimental neuroinflammation; (ii) the possible impact of inflammatory cytokines on thyroid hormone signaling and OPCs differentiation in vitro...
September 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27310015/remyelination-is-correlated-with-regulatory-t-cell-induction-following-human-embryoid-body-derived-neural-precursor-cell-transplantation-in-a-viral-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Warren C Plaisted, Angel Zavala, Edna Hingco, Ha Tran, Ronald Coleman, Thomas E Lane, Jeanne F Loring, Craig M Walsh
We have recently described sustained clinical recovery associated with dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination following transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a viral model of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. The hNPCs used in that study were derived by a novel direct differentiation method (direct differentiation, DD-NPCs) that resulted in a unique gene expression pattern when compared to hNPCs derived by conventional methods...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217662/stem-cell-therapy-in-spinal-cord-injury-hollow-promise-or-promising-science
#5
Aimee Goel
Spinal cord injury (SCI) remains one of the most physically, psychologically and socially debilitating conditions worldwide. While rehabilitation measures may help limit disability to some extent, there is no effective primary treatment yet available. The efficacy of stem cells as a primary therapeutic option in spinal cord injury is currently an area under much scrutiny and debate. Several laboratory and some primary clinical studies into the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells or embryonic stem cell-derived oligodentrocyte precursor cells have shown some promising results in terms of remyelination and regeneration of damaged spinal nerve tracts...
April 2016: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085393/does-the-preclinical-evidence-for-functional-remyelination-following-myelinating-cell-engraftment-into-the-injured-spinal-cord-support-progression-to-clinical-trials
#6
REVIEW
Scott A Myers, Andrew N Bankston, Darlene A Burke, Sujata Saraswat Ohri, Scott R Whittemore
This article reviews all historical literature in which rodent-derived myelinating cells have been engrafted into the contused adult rodent spinal cord. From 2500 initial PubMed citations identified, human cells grafts, bone mesenchymal stem cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, non-myelinating cell grafts, and rodent grafts into hemisection or transection models were excluded, resulting in the 67 studies encompassed in this review. Forty five of those involved central nervous system (CNS)-derived cells, including neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs), neural restricted precursor cells (NRPs) or oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and 22 studies involved Schwann cells (SC)...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993508/environmental-enrichment-stimulates-immune-cell-secretion-of-exosomes-that-promote-cns-myelination-and-may-regulate-inflammation
#7
Kae M Pusic, Aya D Pusic, Richard P Kraig
Environmental enrichment (EE) consists of increased physical, intellectual, and social activity, and has wide-ranging effects, including enhancing cognition, learning and memory, and motor coordination. Animal studies have demonstrated that EE improves outcome of brain trauma and neurodegenerative disorders, including demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis, making it a promising therapeutic option. However, the complexity of applying a robust EE paradigm makes clinical use difficult. A better understanding of the signaling involved in EE-based neuroprotection may allow for development of effective mimetics as an alternative...
April 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972950/enrichment-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitors-from-differentiated-neural-precursors-by-clonal-sphere-preparations
#8
Daisuke Umebayashi, Brenda Coles, Derek van der Kooy
Remyelination is the goal of potential cell transplantation therapies for demyelinating diseases and other central nervous system injuries. Transplantation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) can result in remyelination in the central nervous system, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are envisioned to be an autograft cell source of transplantation therapy for many cell types. However, it remains time-consuming and difficult to generate OPCs from iPSCs. Clonal sphere preparations are reliable cell culture methods for purifying select populations of proliferating cells...
May 1, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26968658/axonal-activity-dependent-myelination-in-development-insights-for-myelin-repair
#9
REVIEW
Stanislaw Mitew, Yao Lulu Xing, Tobias D Merson
Recent advances in transgenic tools have allowed us to peek into the earliest stages of vertebrate development to study axon-glial communication in the control of peri-natal myelination. The emerging role of neuronal activity in regulating oligodendrocyte progenitor cell behavior during developmental myelination has opened up an exciting possibility-a role for neuronal activity in the early stages of remyelination. Recent work from our laboratory and others has also shown that contrary to previously established dogma in the field, complete remyelination up to pre-demyelination levels can be achieved in mouse models of MS by oligodendrogenic neural precursor cells that derive from the adult subventricular zone...
October 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883518/inhibition-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-improves-myelination-and-attenuates-tissue-damage-of-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Si Zhang, Peijun Ju, Editha Tjandra, Yeeshan Yeap, Hamed Owlanj, Zhiwei Feng
Preventing demyelination and promoting remyelination of denuded axons are promising therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition was reported to benefit the neural functional recovery and the axon regeneration after SCI. However, its role in de- and remyelination of axons in injured spinal cord is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EGFR inhibitor, PD168393 (PD), on the myelination in mouse contusive SCI model. We found that expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the injured spinal cords of PD treated mice was remarkably elevated...
October 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26857216/microenvironmental-regulation-of-oligodendrocyte-replacement-and-remyelination-in-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Arsalan Alizadeh, Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee
Myelin is a proteolipid sheath enwrapping axons in the nervous system that facilitates signal transduction along the axons. In the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes are specialized glial cells responsible for myelin formation and maintenance. Following spinal cord injury (SCI), oligodendroglia cell death and myelin damage (demyelination) cause chronic axonal damage and irreparable loss of sensory and motor functions. Accumulating evidence shows that replacement of damaged oligodendrocytes and renewal of myelin (remyelination) are promising approaches to prevent axonal degeneration and restore function following SCI...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26724902/grafted-human-ips-cell-derived-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-contribute-to-robust-remyelination-of-demyelinated-axons-after-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Soya Kawabata, Morito Takano, Yuko Numasawa-Kuroiwa, Go Itakura, Yoshiomi Kobayashi, Yuichiro Nishiyama, Keiko Sugai, Soraya Nishimura, Hiroki Iwai, Miho Isoda, Shinsuke Shibata, Jun Kohyama, Akio Iwanami, Yoshiaki Toyama, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano
Murine- and human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (iPSC-NS/PCs) promote functional recovery following transplantation into the injured spinal cord in rodents and primates. Although remyelination of spared demyelinated axons is a critical mechanism in the regeneration of the injured spinal cord, human iPSC-NS/PCs predominantly differentiate into neurons both in vitro and in vivo. We therefore took advantage of our recently developed protocol to obtain human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte precursor cell-enriched neural stem/progenitor cells and report the benefits of transplanting these cells in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model...
January 12, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26546966/oligodendrocyte-progenitor-programming-and-reprogramming-toward-myelin-regeneration
#13
REVIEW
Alejandro Lopez Juarez, Danyang He, Q Richard Lu
Demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) are among the most disabling and cost-intensive neurological disorders. The loss of myelin in the central nervous system, produced by oligodendrocytes (OLs), impairs saltatory nerve conduction, leading to motor and cognitive deficits. Immunosuppression therapy has a limited efficacy in MS patients, arguing for a paradigm shift to strategies that target OL lineage cells to achieve myelin repair. The inhibitory microenvironment in MS lesions abrogates the expansion and differentiation of resident OL precursor cells (OPCs) into mature myelin-forming OLs...
May 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26474658/oligodendrocyte-regeneration-its-significance-in-myelin-replacement-and-neuroprotection-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Kelly A Chamberlain, Sonia E Nanescu, Konstantina Psachoulia, Jeffrey K Huang
Oligodendrocytes readily regenerate and replace myelin membranes around axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) following injury. The ability to regenerate oligodendrocytes depends on the availability of neural progenitors called oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in the adult CNS that respond to injury-associated signals to induce OPC expansion followed by oligodendrocyte differentiation, axonal contact and myelin regeneration (remyelination). Remyelination ensures the maintenance of axonal conduction, and the oligodendrocytes themselves provide metabolic factors that are necessary to maintain neuronal integrity...
October 13, 2015: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26310106/topographical-effects-on-fiber-mediated-microrna-delivery-to-control-oligodendroglial-precursor-cells-development
#15
Hua Jia Diao, Wei Ching Low, Q Richard Lu, Sing Yian Chew
Effective remyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) facilitates the reversal of disability in patients with demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Unfortunately until now, effective strategies of controlling oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and maturation remain limited. It is well known that topographical and biochemical signals play crucial roles in modulating cell fate commitment. Therefore, in this study, we explored the combined effects of scaffold topography and sustained gene silencing on oligodendroglial precursor cell (OPC) development...
November 2015: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26301815/skin-derived-neural-precursors-competitively-generate-functional-myelin-in-adult-demyelinated-mice
#16
Sabah Mozafari, Cecilia Laterza, Delphine Roussel, Corinne Bachelin, Antoine Marteyn, Cyrille Deboux, Gianvito Martino, Anne Baron-Van Evercooren
Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPS-derived) neural precursor cells may represent the ideal autologous cell source for cell-based therapy to promote remyelination and neuroprotection in myelin diseases. So far, the therapeutic potential of reprogrammed cells has been evaluated in neonatal demyelinating models. However, the repair efficacy and safety of these cells has not been well addressed in the demyelinated adult CNS, which has decreased cell plasticity and scarring. Moreover, it is not clear if these induced pluripotent-derived cells have the same reparative capacity as physiologically committed CNS-derived precursors...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26296311/paving-the-way-for-adequate-myelination-the-contribution-of-galectin-3-transferrin-and-iron
#17
REVIEW
Paula G Franco, Laura A Pasquini, María J Pérez, María V Rosato-Siri, Lucas Silvestroff, Juana M Pasquini
Considering the worldwide incidence of well characterized demyelinating disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and the increasing number of pathologies recently found to involve hypomyelinating factors such as micronutrient deficits, elucidating the molecular basis of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination, remyelination and hypomyelination becomes essential to the development of future neuroregenerative therapies. In this context, this review discusses novel findings on the contribution of galectin-3 (Gal-3), transferrin (Tf) and iron to the processes of myelination and remyelination and their potentially positive regulation of oligodendroglial precursor cell (OPC) differentiation...
November 14, 2015: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26283909/myelin-damage-and-repair-in-pathologic-cns-challenges-and-prospects
#18
REVIEW
Arsalan Alizadeh, Scott M Dyck, Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee
Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) results in oligodendrocyte cell death and progressive demyelination. Demyelinated axons undergo considerable physiological changes and molecular reorganizations that collectively result in axonal dysfunction, degeneration and loss of sensory and motor functions. Endogenous adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells and neural stem/progenitor cells contribute to the replacement of oligodendrocytes, however, the extent and quality of endogenous remyelination is suboptimal...
2015: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26269459/directional-migration-and-transcriptional-analysis-of-oligodendrocyte-precursors-subjected-to-stimulation-of-electrical-signal
#19
Yongchao Li, Xinkun Wang, Li Yao
Loss of oligodendrocytes as the result of central nervous system disease causes demyelination that impairs axon function. Effective directional migration of endogenous or grafted oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to a lesion is crucial in the neural remyelination process. In this study, the migration of OPCs in electric fields (EFs) was investigated. We found that OPCs migrated anodally in applied EFs, and the directedness and displacement of anodal migration increased significantly when the EF strength increased from 50 to 200 mV/mm...
October 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26142314/region-and-dynamic-specificities-of-adult-neural-stem-cells-and-oligodendrocyte-precursors-in-myelin-regeneration-in-the-mouse-brain
#20
Béatrice Brousse, Karine Magalon, Pascale Durbec, Myriam Cayre
Myelin regeneration can occur in the brain following demyelination. Parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitors (pOPC) are known to play a crucial role in this process. Neural stem cells (NSC) residing in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) also have the ability to generate oligodendrocytes but their contribution to endogenous myelin repair was so far considered to be negligible. Here, we addressed the relative contribution of pOPC and V-SVZ-derived neural progenitors (SVZdNP) to remyelination in cuprizone mouse models of acute or chronic corpus callosum (CC) demyelination...
2015: Biology Open
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