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Xiangxiu Liang, Miaomiao Ma, Zhaoyang Zhou, Jinlong Wang, Xinru Yang, Shaofei Rao, Guozhi Bi, Lin Li, Xiaojuan Zhang, Jijie Chai, She Chen, Jian-Min Zhou
Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins regulate diverse processes by coupling to single-transmembrane receptors. One such receptor is the FLS2 receptor kinase, which perceives bacterial flagellin epitope flg22 to activate immunity through a class of cytoplasmic kinases called BIK1/PBLs. Unlike animal and fungal heterotrimeric G proteins that are activated by a ligand-induced guanine nucleotide exchange activity of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), plant heterotrimeric G proteins are self-activating...
March 15, 2018: Cell Research
Tzu-I Tsai, Shoou-Yih D Lee, Wen-Ry Yu
We evaluated the effectiveness of a problem-based learning (PBL) health literacy program aimed to improve health literacy, health empowerment, navigation efficacy, and health care utilization among immigrant women in Taiwan. We employed a quasi-experimental design that included surveys at the baseline, immediately after the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention group participated in a 10-session PBL health literacy program and the comparison group did not. Results showed that 6 months after the intervention, the intervention group had significantly fewer ER visits and hospitalizations than the comparison group...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
Venkataramana Kandi, Parimala Reddy Basireddy
Introduction Medical education involves training necessary to become a physician or a surgeon. This includes various levels of training like undergraduate, internship, and postgraduate training. Medical education can be quite complex, since it involves training in pre-clinical subjects (anatomy, physiology, biochemistry), the para-clinical subjects (microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and forensic medicine), and a discrete group of clinical subjects that include general medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, ear, nose and throat specialization, paediatrics, cardiology, pulmonology, dermatology, ophthalmology, and orthopaedics, and many other clinical specializations and super specialities (cardio-thoracic surgery, neurosurgery, etc...
January 5, 2018: Curēus
Fang Zhu, Ismat Khatri, David Spaner, Reginald M Gorczynski
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B cells (CLL) are malignant cells which retain at least some functions of normal B cells. Paramount amongst the latter is that when such cells are appropriately stimulated, they are able to present antigens, including any potential tumor antigens, making them excellent choices as a candidate tumor vaccine. We show that following stimulation of CLL cells with Phorbol myristic acetate, IL-2, the TLR7 agonist imiquimod (P2I) and ionomycin (P2Iio), markedly increased expression of CD54 and CD83 was seen, indicative of B cell activation and a transition to antigen-presenting cells...
March 2, 2018: Leukemia Research
Nithin Kumar, Tanuj Kanchan, Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan, Rekha Thapar, Prasanna Mithra, Vaman Kulkarni, Ramesh Holla, Darshan Bhagwan, Yeshwanter Radhakrishnan
BACKGROUND: The Medical Council of India (MCI) has envisioned a change in the undergraduate medical curriculum by encouraging integrated teaching and Problem Based Learning (PBL). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study 110 medical teachers of Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore were assessed regarding their perception on PBL. Independent t -test was applied to find out the difference in the mean perception scores regarding PBL among the teachers in pre/para-clinical and clinical departments and P < 0...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Jihyun Si
PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore students' learning experience in problem-based learning (PBL) particularly in terms of what they learned and how they learned in one Korean medical school by analyzing their reflective essays with qualitative research methods. METHODS: This study included 44 first-year medical students. They took three consecutive PBL courses and wrote reflective essays 3 times anonymously on the last day of each course. Their reflective essays were analyzed using an inductive content analysis method...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Medical Education
Timothy T Spear, Yuan Wang, Thomas W Smith, Patricia E Simms, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Lance M Hellman, Brian M Baker, Michael I Nishimura
The use of T cell receptor (TCR) gene-modified T cells in adoptive cell transfer has had promising clinical success, but often, simple preclinical evaluation does not necessarily accurately predict treatment efficacy or safety. Preclinical studies generally evaluate one or a limited number of type 1 cytokines to assess antigen recognition. However, recent studies have implicated other "typed" T cells in effective anti-tumor/viral immunity, and limited functional evaluations may underestimate cross-reactivity...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Adina Dreier-Wolfgramm, Sabine Homeyer, Roman F Oppermann, Wolfgang Hoffmann
Objective: In Germany there is little evidence of interprofessional problem-based learning (PBL) to date. For this reason a corresponding course for medical and nursing students was implemented. The goal was to analyse the feasibility and usefulness from the point of view of the students. Method: For the purposes of evaluation a quantitative observational study was conducted with a pre-course survey, a teaching evaluation and a post-course survey. The pre- and post-course surveys took place before the commencement of and after the conclusion of learning...
2018: GMS Journal for Medical Education
Song Zhang, Jiancheng Xu, Hongwei Wang, Dong Zhang, Qichuan Zhang, Liguang Zou
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the problem-based learning (PBL) teaching method has been extensively applied as an experimental educational method in Chinese radiology education. However, the results of individual studies were inconsistent and inconclusive. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of PBL on radiology education in China. METHODS: Databases of Chinese and English languages were searched from inception up to November 2017. The standard mean difference (SMD) with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to determine the over effects of PBL compared with the traditional teaching method...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ming Hu, Jose Trevino, Lijun Yang, Dengfeng Cao, Xiuli Liu, Jinping Lai
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is a rare subtype of B-cell neoplasms. Primary gastric EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly with partial plasmablastic phenotype is extremely rare. Differentiation of EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly with partial plasmablastic phenotype from true plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is difficult and very important from the therapeutic and prognostic point of view. Here we report a case of a 59-year-old man with upper gastrointestinal bleeding...
March 2018: In Vivo
Jianwei Zhou, Cui Kong, Bo Ban, Haixin Dong, Chengqiang Jin
INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is still a public health problem and its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we detect the skewness of T cell receptor beta chain variable gene (TCR Vβ) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and the liver infiltrating lymphocytes (LIL) of patients with CHB; and hope to provide information for further research on the pathogenic mechanism of CHB. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with CHB, ten healthy volunteers and three patients with liver cysts were recruited as the subjects...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Maria Diedrichs-Möhring, Sandy Niesik, Claudia S Priglinger, Stephan R Thurau, Franz Obermayr, Stefan Sperl, Gerhild Wildner
BACKGROUND: Uveitis is a potentially blinding inflammatory disease of the inner eye with a high unmet need for new therapeutic interventions. Here, we wanted to investigate the suppressive effect of the intraocular application of the small molecule dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH)-inhibitor PP-001 on experimental relapsing rat uveitis and furthermore determine its effect on proliferation and cytokine secretion of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
J K Skelton, A M Ortega-Prieto, M Dorner
Humanized mice are increasingly appreciated as an incredibly powerful platform for infectious disease research. The often very narrow species tropism of many viral infections, coupled with the sometimes-misleading results from preclinical studies in animal models (e.g. fatal immune reactions in the PEARL study 1 ) further emphasize the need for more predictive model systems based on human cells rather than surrogates. Humanized mice represent such a model and have been greatly enhanced in regards to their immune system reconstitution as well as immune functionality in the past years, resulting in their recommendation as pre-clinical model by the US Food and Drug Administration...
February 15, 2018: Immunology
Malte Mohme, Simon Schliffke, Cecile L Maire, Alessandra Rünger, Laura Glau, Klaus C Mende, Jakob Matschke, Christina Gehbauer, Nuray Akyüz, Svenja Zapf, Mareike Holz, Miriam Schaper, Tobias Martens, Nils O Schmidt, Sven Peine, Manfred Westphal, Mascha Binder, Eva Tolosa, Katrin Lamszus
PURPOSE: Immunotherapeutic treatment strategies for glioblastoma (GBM) are under investigation in clinical trials. However, our understanding of the immune phenotype of GBM-infiltrating T-cells (TILs) and changes during disease progression is limited. Deeper insight is urgently needed to therapeutically overcome tumor-induced immune exhaustion. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used flow-cytometry and cytokine assays to profile TILs and blood lymphocytes (PBL) from GBM patients, comparing newly diagnosed or recurrent GBM to long-term survivors (LTS) and healthy donors...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Javier Montero, Abraham Dib, Yasmina Guadilla, Javier Flores, Juan Antonio Santos, Rosa Anaya Aguilar, Cristina Gómez-Polo
The aim of this study was to compare the perceived competence for treating prosthodontic patients of two samples of fourth-year dental students: those educated using traditional methodologies and those educated using problem-based learning (PBL). Two cohorts of fourth-year dental students at a dental school in Spain were surveyed: the traditional methods cohort (n=46) was comprised of all students in academic years 2012 and 2013, and the PBL cohort (n=57) was comprised of all students in academic years 2014 and 2015...
February 2018: Journal of Dental Education
Ahmad Abdelkarim, Dorothy Schween, Timothy Ford
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a teaching method used in medical and dental education to promote students' problem-solving skills. It may also be a viable tool for interprofessional education in which medical and dental students learn together, collaborate, and learn about, from, and with each other. The aim of this study was to compare medical and dental faculty members' attitudes about and perceptions of PBL at 12 U.S. medical and dental schools known to use PBL. In 2015, 111 medical and 132 dental faculty members (combined n=243) from six medical and six dental schools completed a survey containing ten statements and an open comment section...
February 2018: Journal of Dental Education
Karolina Woroniecka, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Kristen E Rhodin, Hanna R Kemeny, Cosette A Dechant, Samuel H Farber, Aladine A Elsamadicy, Xiuyu Cui, Shohei Koyama, Christina C Jackson, Landon J Hansen, Tanner M Johanns, Luis Sanchez-Perez, Vidyalakshmi Chandramohan, Yen-Rei A Yu, Darell D Bigner, Amber J Giles, Patrick Healy, Glenn Dranoff, Kent J Weinhold, Gavin P Dunn, Peter E Fecci
PURPOSE: T cell dysfunction is a hallmark of GBM. While anergy and tolerance have been well characterized, T cell exhaustion remains relatively unexplored. Exhaustion, characterized in part by the upregulation of multiple immune checkpoints, is a known contributor to failures amidst immune checkpoint blockade, a strategy that has lacked success thus far in GBM. This study is among the first to examine, and credential as bona fide, exhaustion among T cells infiltrating human and murine GBM...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Kentaro Iwata, Asako Doi
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to investigate the medical students'perceptions of the Hybrid Educational Activities between team based learning (TBL) and problem based learning (PBL) Program (HEATAPP), a novel educational program that combines characteristics of PBL and TBL. METHODS: A five-day HEATAPP on infectious diseases was provided to 4th year medical students at Kobe University School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan. After the program, a focus group discussion was held among 6 medical students who participated in HEATAPP...
November 10, 2017: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
Qianyun Deng, Wei Huang, Chunyan Peng, Jiajia Gao, Zuhua Li, Xueping Qiu, Na Yang, Bifeng Yuan, Fang Zheng
Background: Alterations in DNA methylation are demonstrated in atherosclerosis pathogenesis. However, changing rules of global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and different blood cell subtypes of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients are still inconclusive, and much less is known about mechanisms underlying. Results: We recruited 265 CAD patients and 270 healthy controls with genomic DNA from PBLs, of which 50 patients and 50 controls were randomly chosen with DNA from isolated neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes, and RNA from PBLs...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Wenguang Li, Xingang Liu, Yuanhang Zhang, Kang Sun, Yusheng Wu, Rui Xue, Limin Zeng, Yu Qu, Junling An
To investigate the characteristics and the specific mechanism of continuous haze, comprehensive measurements were conducted from 15 October to 19 November in the Atmospheric Environment Monitoring Super-Station in Heshan of Guangdong province. Five haze episodes occurred in October and November 2014 in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. The meteorological parameters, gas data, chemical compositions, and optical parameters of the aerosols were obtained. Among these events, the second haze episode, with the highest concentration of PM2...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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