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Furong Zeng, Guangtong Deng, Zhao Wang, Shi Chang, Xiang Chen, Lin Qi, Xiongbing Zu, Longfei Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Medical Education
Chaobaihui Ye, Weiming Wang, Liang Cheng, Guangming Li, Michael Wen, Qi Wang, Qing Zhang, Dan Li, Paul Zhou, Lishan Su
: Despite the success in viral inhibition and CD4 T cell recovery by highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), HIV-1 is still not curable due to the persistence of HIV-1 reservoir during treatment. One patient with acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from homozygous CCR5 Δ32 donor has had no detectable viremia for 9 years after HAART cessation. This case has inspired a field of HIV-1 cure research focusing on engineering HIV-1 resistance of permissive cells...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
Sibnarayan Datta, Runu Chakravarty
AIM: To investigate the role of subgenotype specific RNA secondary structure in the compartment specific selection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immune escape mutations. METHODS: This study was based on the analysis of the specific observation of HBV subgenotype A1 in the serum/plasma, while subgenotype A2 with G145R mutation in the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). Genetic variability found among the two subgenotypes was used for prediction and comparison of the full length pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) secondary structure and base pairings...
November 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
Hye Won Jang, Seung Won Park
To examine the relationship between students' collaborative performance in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment and their personality traits. Methods:This retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted using student data of a PBL program between 2013 and 2014 at Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Eighty students were included in the study. Student data from the Temperament and Character Inventory were used as a measure of their personality traits. Peer evaluation scores during PBL were used as a measure of students' collaborative performance...
December 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Jason Rosenstock, Garrett M Sparks
Tired of outdated teaching formats like case-based learning (CBL), problem-based learning (PBL) and team-based learning (TBL)? We wanted something fresh for our medical school, something that would prepare our graduates for the modern practice of medicine, something that would satisfy regulatory agencies and our deans. After doing an extensive needs assessment, which we ignored, we decided to replace basic science in our curriculum with something more practical: administration-based learning (ABL). We taught students how to fix fax machines, how to deal with angry team members, and how to maximise revenue in private practice - lessons that were well received and were more consistent with what physicians really need to learn to be effective practitioners...
December 2016: Medical Education
Ali Alrahlah
The purpose of this critical review is to explore the research supporting the effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) as a teaching method in dental education. PBL was developed more than 40 years ago in reaction to the problems and limitations of traditional teaching approaches. Here, aspects of the PBL teaching approach are reviewed, and the reasons for the substantial effect of this approach on dental education are discussed. Evidence shows that students in PBL-based courses exhibit superior professional skills and effective learning compared with those instructed using traditional approaches...
October 2016: Saudi Dental Journal
John Ware, Eric A Kort, Phil DeCola, Riley Duren
Atmospheric observations of greenhouse gases provide essential information on sources and sinks of these key atmospheric constituents. To quantify fluxes from atmospheric observations, representation of transport-especially vertical mixing-is a necessity and often a source of error. We report on remotely sensed profiles of vertical aerosol distribution taken over a 2 year period in Pasadena, California. Using an automated analysis system, we estimate daytime mixing layer depth, achieving high confidence in the afternoon maximum on 51% of days with profiles from a Sigma Space Mini Micropulse LiDAR (MiniMPL) and on 36% of days with a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
A K Berglund, L V Schnabel
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising cell source for treating musculoskeletal injuries in horses. Controversy exists, however, over whether major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched MSCs are recognised by the recipient immune system and targeted for death by a cytotoxic antibody response. OBJECTIVES: To determine if cytotoxic anti-MHC antibodies generated in-vivo following MHC-mismatched MSC injections are capable of initiating complement-dependent cytotoxicity of MSCs...
November 10, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
Sujata Khobragade, Adinegara Lutfi Abas, Yadneshwar Sudam Khobragade
BACKGROUND: Learning outcomes after traditional teaching methods were compared with problem-based learning (PBL) among fifth year medical students. Six students participated each in traditional teaching and PBL methods, respectively. Traditional teaching method involved PowerPoint (PPT) presentation and PBL included study on case scenario and discussion. Both methods were effective in improving performance of students. Postteaching, we did not find significant differences in learning outcomes between these two teaching methods...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Eli Tumba Tshibwabwa, Jenifer Cannon, James Rice, Michael G Kawooya, Reza Sanii, Robert Mallin
OBJECTIVES: The aim is to provide students in the preclinical with ultrasound image interpretation skills. Research question: Are students in smaller groups with access to a combination of lectures and hands-on patient contact most likely to have better ultrasound image interpretation skills, than students in larger groups with only interactive didactic lectures? METHODOLOGY: First-year students at the preclinical Program of the College of Medicine, participated in two 2-h introductory interactive ultrasound sessions...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Maria R Parkhurst, Alena Gros, Anna Pasetto, Todd D Prickett, Jessica S Crystal, Paul F Robbins, Steven A Rosenberg
PURPOSE: The adoptive transfer of lymphocytes genetically modified to express tumor reactive T cell receptors (TCRs) can mediate tumor regression. Some tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) recognize somatic mutations expressed only in the patient's tumors, and evidence suggests that clinically effective TIL target tumor specific neoantigens. Here we attempted to isolate neoantigen reactive TCRs as a prelude to the treatment of patients with autologous T cells genetically modified to express such TCRs...
November 8, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Chao Han, Jinghua Ren, Zhaode Wang, Hao Tang, Di Xu
A novel sensor assembled by a hybrid film was developed for 2D combined measurements of DO dynamic and labile P flux in sediment and water at sub-millimeter resolution based on PO and DGT techniques. The hybrid film is comprised of a transparent polyester membrane supporting two ultrathin sensing layers, i.e., a P binding layer (PBL) overlying a DO sensing layer (DSL). A robust, straightforward measuring strategy based on the referenced RGB and coloration-computer imaging densitometry (CID) methods was developed...
January 1, 2017: Water Research
Hiroyuki Kanzaki, Seicho Makihira, Maiko Suzuki, Takenobu Ishii, Alexandru Movila, Josefine Hirschfeld, Hani Mawardi, Xiaoping Lin, Xiaozhe Han, Martin A Taubman, Toshihisa Kawai
Host immune responses play a key role in promoting bone resorption in periodontitis via receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-dependent osteoclastogenesis. Both membrane-bound RANKL (mRANKL) expressed on lymphocytes and soluble RANKL (sRANKL) are found in periodontal lesions. However, the underlying mechanism and cellular source of sRANKL release and its biological role in periodontitis are unclear. TNF-α-converting enzyme (TACE) is reported to cleave the following: 1) precursor TNF-α with release of mature, soluble TNF-α and 2) mRANKL with release of sRANKL...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Andrea Rossnerova, Katerina Honkova, Jitka Pavlikova, Zuzana Freitinger Skalicka, Renata Havrankova, Ivo Solansky, Pavel Rossner, Radim J Sram, Friedo Zölzer
The micronucleus assay is one of the most common methods used to assess chromosomal damage (losses or breaks) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in genetic toxicology. Most studies have focused on analyzing total micronuclei (MN), but identifying the content of MN can provide more detailed information. The main aim of this study was to map the factors affecting the frequency and types of micronuclei in binucleated cells (BNC) in elderly population. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using Human Pan Centromeric Chromosome Paint was used to identify centromere positive (CEN+) or centromere negative (CEN-) MN...
November 2016: Mutation Research
Jianmiao Wang, Yongjian Xu, Xiansheng Liu, Weining Xiong, Jungang Xie, Jianping Zhao
Problem-based learning (PBL) has been extensively applied as an experimental educational method in Chinese medical schools over the past decade. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effectiveness of PBL on students' learning outcomes in physical diagnostics education. Related databases were searched for eligible studies evaluating the effects of PBL compared to traditional teaching on students' knowledge and/or skill scores of physical diagnostics. Standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was estimated...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Minako Oshima, Philip Deitiker, Joseph Jankovic, M Zouhair Atassi
We have recently reported the submolecular T-cell recognition profile of the C-terminal half (HC, residues 855-1296) of the heavy (H) chain of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) with peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 25 BoNT-treated cervical dystonia (CD) patients. In the current study, we describe the mapping of the T-cell responses of the patients to the N-terminal half (HN, residues 449-859) of the heavy chain by using 29 synthetic overlapping peptides encompassing the entire HN domain of BoNT/A...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Ahmad Abdelkarim, Dorothy Schween, Timothy Ford
The aim of this study was to assess the perspectives of medical and dental faculty members regarding implementation of problem-based learning (PBL). A survey instrument was designed with demographic questions and two open-ended questions to investigate faculty members' perceptions of the most suitable subjects or courses in which to use PBL and examples of how they incorporated PBL into their instruction. The survey was sent to 12 U.S. medical and dental schools known to use PBL, and 73 medical faculty members and 88 dental faculty members completed the survey (n=161), for an overall response rate of 28% of those who were sent the survey at each school (not each's total faculty)...
November 2016: Journal of Dental Education
Monika Sobocan, Neja Turk, Dejan Dinevski, Radovan Hojs, Breda Pecovnik Balon
BACKGROUND: Teaching using paper problem-based learning (p-PBL) sessions has left some students fatigued with the learning process. Therefore, attempts have been made to replace p-PBL with digitally enhanced, decision-making PBL in the form of virtual patients (VPs). Student enthusiasm for substituting p-PBL with VPs has not been quantitatively evaluated on the intended educational effects. AIM: To determine the educational effects of substituting p-PBL sessions with VPs on undergraduate medical students in their internal medicine course...
November 1, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
M L Monogue, D P Nicolau
Recent findings have identified Escherichia coli strains that are pan-β-lactam susceptible (PBL-S) but piperacillin-tazobactam resistant (TZP-R) in vitro We assessed the in vivo significance of this resistance profile in a neutropenic murine pneumonia model using humanized exposures of TZP with 18 clinical E. coli isolates, 8 TZP-S/PBL-S and 10 genotypically confirmed TZP-R/PBL-S. Despite phenotypically and genotypically defined resistance, TZP displayed efficacy against these isolates. Additional studies are required to define the clinical implications of these TZP-R/PBL-S strains...
December 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Nadia Rahman, Latha Vinayakarao, Sangeeta Pathak, Dawn Minden, Louise Melson, Ella Vitue, A Pradhan
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The objective was to assess the feedback from a quality improvement training programme to reduce obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). METHODS: Training sessions were organised that included evidence-based information on OASIS risk factors and training on models to measure perineal body length (PBL), perform episiotomies with standard and 60° fixed angle scissors (EPISCISSORS-60®), and measure post-delivery episiotomy suture angles with protractor transparencies...
October 25, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
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