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sphingomyelin infant

Foula Sozo, Noreen Ishak, Risha Bhatia, Peter G Davis, Richard Harding
BACKGROUND: Among preterm infants, males have a greater incidence of respiratory distress and death than females born at the same gestational age, likely due to sex-related differences in lung maturation. Our aim was to determine whether surfactant phospholipid composition differs between male and female preterm infants. METHODS: Gastric aspirate samples from male and female infants born between 25 and 30 weeks of gestation at The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, were collected within 1 h after birth...
June 30, 2017: Pediatric Research
Rikke Guldhammer Nejrup, Tine Rask Licht, Lars Ingvar Hellgren
Human milk fat contains high concentrations of medium-chained fatty acids (MCFA) and triacylglycerols emulsified by a sphingomyelin-rich phospholipid membrane (milk phospholipids, MPL). Infant formula comprises mainly long-chained fatty acids (LCFA) emulsified with dairy proteins and soy lecithin (SL) lacking sphingomyelin. Sphingomyelin content and saturation level of phospholipids affect the gut lipase activity, which alters the concentrations of lipid hydrolysis products in ileum and colon, and hereby putatively affects the competitive advantage of specific gut bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Henrik Verder, Christian Heiring, Howard Clark, David Sweet, Torben E Jessen, Finn Ebbesen, Lars J Björklund, Bengt Andreasson, Lars Bender, Aksel Bertelsen, Marianne Dahl, Christian Eschen, Jesper Fenger-Grøn, Stine F Hoffmann, Agnar Höskuldsson, Maria Bruusgaard-Mouritsen, Fredrik Lundberg, Anthony D Postle, Peter Schousboe, Peter Schmidt, Hristo Stanchev, Lars Sørensen
AIM: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in premature infants. By the time symptoms appear, it may already be too late to prevent a severe course, with bronchopulmonary dysplasia or mortality. We aimed to develop a rapid test of lung maturity for targeting surfactant supplementation. METHODS: Concentrations of the most surface-active lung phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in gastric aspirates from premature infants were measured by mass spectrometry and expressed as the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio (L/S)...
March 2017: Acta Paediatrica
Franca F Kirchberg, Katharina J Werkstetter, Olaf Uhl, Renata Auricchio, Gemma Castillejo, Ilma R Korponay-Szabo, Isabel Polanco, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx, Sabine L Vriezinga, Berthold Koletzko, M Luisa Mearin, Christian Hellmuth
OBJECTIVES AND STUDY: In the development of Celiac Disease (CD) both genetic and environmental factors play a crucial role. The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 loci are strongly related to the disease and are necessary but not sufficient for the development of CD. Therefore, increasing interest lies in examining the mechanisms of CD onset from the early beginning. Differences in serum and urine metabolic profiles between healthy individuals and CD patients have been reported previously...
August 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
Appala Venkata Ramana Murthy, Fanny Guyomarc'h, Christelle Lopez
Sphingomyelin-rich microdomains have been observed in the biological membrane surrounding milk fat globules (MFGM). The role played by cholesterol in these domains and in the physical properties and functions of the MFGM remains poorly understood. The objective of this work was therefore to investigate the phase state, topography, and mechanical properties of MFGM polar lipid bilayers as a function of cholesterol concentration, by combining X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy imaging, and force spectroscopy...
July 5, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Åke Nilsson
Sphingomyelin (SM), glycosphingolipids, and gangliosides are important polar lipids in the milk fat globule membrane but are not found in standard milk replacement formulas. Because digestion and absorption of SM and glycosphingolipids generate the bioactive metabolites ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and because intact gangliosides may have beneficial effects in the gut, this may be important for gut integrity and immune maturation in the neonate. The brush border enzymes that hydrolyze milk SM, alkaline sphingomyelinase (nucleotide phosphodiesterase pyrophosphatase 7), and neutral ceramidase are expressed at birth in both term and preterm infants...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Christoph Maas, Axel R Franz, Anna Shunova, Michaela Mathes, Christine Bleeker, Christian F Poets, Erwin Schleicher, Wolfgang Bernhard
BACKGROUND: Choline, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) are essential to fetal development, particularly of the brain. These components are actively enriched in the fetus. Deprivation from placental supply may therefore result in impaired accretion in preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: To determine choline, choline metabolites, DHA, and ARA in human breast milk (BM) of preterm infants compared to BM of term born infants. DESIGN: We collected expressed BM samples from 34 mothers (N = 353; postnatal day 6-85), who had delivered 35 preterm infants undergoing neonatal intensive care (postmenstrual age 30 weeks, range 25...
June 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
Yuuki Konno, Ikuko Takahashi, Ayuko Narita, Osamu Takeda, Hiromi Koizumi, Masamichi Tamura, Wataru Kikuchi, Akira Komatsu, Hiroaki Tamura, Satoko Tsuchida, Atsuko Noguchi, Tsutomu Takahashi
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that affects both small and medium-sized vessels including the coronary arteries in infants and children. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a lysosomal glycoprotein that hydrolyzes sphingomyelin to ceramide, a lipid, that functions as a second messenger in the regulation of cell functions. ASM activation has been implicated in numerous cellular stress responses and is associated with cellular ASM secretion, either through alternative trafficking of the ASM precursor protein or by means of an unidentified mechanism...
2015: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
César Martín, Asier Etxaniz, Kepa B Uribe, Aitor Etxebarria, David González-Bullón, Jon Arlucea, Félix M Goñi, Juan Aréchaga, Helena Ostolaza
Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough, a respiratory infectious disease that is the fifth largest cause of vaccine-preventable death in infants. Though historically considered an extracellular pathogen, this bacterium has been detected both in vitro and in vivo inside phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. However the precise mechanism used by B. pertussis for cell entry, or the putative bacterial factors involved, are not fully elucidated. Here we find that adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), one of the important toxins of B...
2015: Scientific Reports
Antonio Cilla, Késia Diego Quintaes, Reyes Barberá, Amparo Alegría
The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant...
August 17, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Claire Bourlieu, Marie-Caroline Michalski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The complex biochemical composition and physical structure of the milk fat globule (MFG) are presented as a basis for its paradoxical metabolic fate: MFG is a rapid conveyor of energy through its triacylglycerol (TAG) core but contains some low-digestible bioactive complex lipids and proteins, which influence lipid metabolism and contribute to intestinal and systemic health. RECENT FINDINGS: MFG structure modulates gastrointestinal lipolysis, postprandial lipemia and even the postprandial fate of ingested fatty acids...
March 2015: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Philippa Prentice, Albert Koulman, Lee Matthews, Carlo L Acerini, Ken K Ong, David B Dunger
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lipidomic differences between breast- and formula-fed infants. STUDY DESIGN: We utilized high-resolution mass-spectrometry methods to analyze 3.2 mm dried blood spot samples collected at ages 3 months (n = 241) and 12 months (n = 144) from a representative birth cohort study. Lipidomic profiles were compared between infants exclusively breast-fed, formula-fed, or mixed-fed, and related to 12-month infancy weight. Data analysis included supervised multivariate statistics (partial least squares discriminant analysis), and univariate analysis with correction for multiple testing...
February 2015: Journal of Pediatrics
Asami Makino, Mitsuhiro Abe, Motohide Murate, Takehiko Inaba, Neval Yilmaz, Françoise Hullin-Matsuda, Takuma Kishimoto, Nicole L Schieber, Tomohiko Taguchi, Hiroyuki Arai, Gregor Anderluh, Robert G Parton, Toshihide Kobayashi
Sphingomyelin (SM) is a major sphingolipid in mammalian cells and is reported to form specific lipid domains together with cholesterol. However, methods to examine the membrane distribution of SM are limited. We demonstrated in model membranes that fluorescent protein conjugates of 2 specific SM-binding toxins, lysenin (Lys) and equinatoxin II (EqtII), recognize different membrane distributions of SM; Lys exclusively binds clustered SM, whereas EqtII preferentially binds dispersed SM. Freeze-fracture immunoelectron microscopy showed that clustered but not dispersed SM formed lipid domains on the cell surface...
February 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Peter Rzehak, Christian Hellmuth, Olaf Uhl, Franca F Kirchberg, Wolfgang Peissner, Ulrike Harder, Veit Grote, Martina Weber, Annick Xhonneux, Jean-Paul Langhendries, Natalia Ferre, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Elvira Verduci, Enrica Riva, Piotr Socha, Dariusz Gruszfeld, Berthold Koletzko
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing interest in the early-origins-of-later-disease hypothesis, little is known about the metabolic underpinnings linking infant weight gain and childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE: To discover biomarkers reflective of weight change in the first 6 months and overweight/obesity at age 6 years via a targeted metabolomics approach. DESIGN: This analysis comprised 726 infants from a European multicenter randomized trial (Childhood Obesity Programme, CHOP) for whom plasma blood samples at age 6 months and anthropometric data up to the age of 6 years were available...
2014: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Virginia M Artegoitia, Jesse L Middleton, Federico M Harte, Shawn R Campagna, Michael J de Veth
Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow...
2014: PloS One
Wolfgang Bernhard, Marco Raith, Rebecca Kunze, Vera Koch, Martin Heni, Christoph Maas, Harald Abele, Christian F Poets, Axel R Franz
BACKGROUND: Choline is essential to human development, particularly of the brain in the form of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and acetylcholine, for bile and lipoprotein formation, and as a methyl group donator. Choline is actively transported into the fetus, and maternal supply correlates with cognitive outcome. Interruption of placental supply may therefore impair choline homeostasis in preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: Determination of postnatal plasma concentrations of choline and its derivatives betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) in preterm infants compared to cord and maternal blood matched for postmenstrual age (PMA)...
August 2015: European Journal of Nutrition
Francesca Giuffrida, Cristina Cruz-Hernandez, Brigitte Flück, Isabelle Tavazzi, Sagar K Thakkar, Frédéric Destaillats, Marcel Braun
Phospholipids are integral constituents of the milk fat globule membranes and they play a central role in infants' immune and inflammatory responses. A methodology employing liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector has been optimized and validated to quantify the major phospholipids classes in human milk. Phospholipids were extracted using chloroform and methanol and separated on C18 column. Repeatability, intermediate reproducibility, and recovery values were calculated and a large sample set of human milk analyzed...
October 2013: Lipids
Celine Miyazaki, Makiko Saitoh, Masayuki Itoh, Sumimasa Yamashita, Makoto Miyagishi, Sachio Takashima, Ann B Moser, Masao Iwamori, Masashi Mizuguchi
We studied the altered molecular species of lipids in brain and liver tissues, and fibroblasts from patients with Zellweger syndrome (ZS). ZS cerebellum samples contained a higher amount of sphingomyelin with shorter chain fatty acids compared to that in normal controls. The amount of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was less than half of that in controls, with the absence of the PE-type of plasmalogen. Gangliosides were accumulated in the brains and fibroblasts of ZS patients. To investigate whether or not impaired beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids and/or plasmalogen synthesis affects glycolipids metabolism, RNAi of peroxisomal acylCo-A oxidase (ACOX1) and glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPAT) was performed using cultured neural cells...
September 27, 2013: Neuroscience Letters
Russell W Jenkins, Christopher J Clarke, John Thomas Lucas, Munira Shabbir, Bill X Wu, Fabio Simbari, Joan Mueller, Yusuf A Hannun, John Lazarchick, Keisuke Shirai
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare systemic inflammatory syndrome that results from unrestrained immune cell activation. Despite significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of HLH, interventions remain limited for this often-fatal condition. Secretory sphingomyelinase (S-SMase) is a pro-inflammatory lipid hydrolase that is upregulated in several inflammatory conditions, including HLH. S-SMase promotes the formation of ceramide, a bioactive lipid implicated in several human disease states...
November 2013: American Journal of Hematology
I Babovic, Z Radojicic, S Plesinac, S Aksam
AIM: The relation between biophysical profile (BPP), cerebroplacental (C/P) ratio, and lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio as a predictor perinatal outcome in term intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) neonates was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of the perinatal outcome of 77 term monofetal pregnancies complicated with IUGR fetuses (< 10 percentile) who were terminated by cesarean section in 2010 was performed at the Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Belgrade...
2013: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
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