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lactose infant formula

Tammie Wei Yi Tham, Andrew Ti Heong Yeoh, Weibiao Zhou
Three different infant formulas (P1, P2 and P3) were characterised, and changes in their physicochemical properties under three different ageing conditions (i.e. 25°C, 45°C and 60°C) were established. At 60°C, all of the three powders exhibited increased moisture content, which was consistent with an increase in water activity. The GAB sorption model fitted for P1 while P2 and P3 did not follow the same sorption isotherm pattern. The glass transition temperature (Tg) for all of the powders significantly decreased at 45°C and 60°C...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Carlos Vera, Andrés Córdova, Carla Aburto, Cecilia Guerrero, Sebastián Suárez, Andrés Illanes
Lactose-derived non-digestible oligosaccharides are prominent components of functional foods. Among them, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) outstand for being prebiotics whose health-promoting effects are supported on strong scientific evidences, having unique properties as substitutes of human milk oligosaccharides in formulas for newborns and infants. GOS are currently produced enzymatically in a kinetically-controlled reaction of lactose transgalactosylation catalyzed by β-galactosidases from different microbial strains...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Kelly Green Corkins, Teresa Shurley
Infant formulas are designed to be a substitute for breast milk. Since they are sole source of nutrition for growing and developing infants, they are highly regulated by the government. All ingredients in infant formulas must be considered "generally recognized as safe." Manufacturers are continually modifying their products to make them more like breast milk. Functional ingredients added to infant formula include long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, nucleotides, prebiotics, and probiotics. The most common breast milk substitutes are standard cow's milk-based term infant formulas, which include subcategories of organic and breast milk supplementation, and come in standard dilutions of 19 or 20 calories per ounce...
September 19, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Laura M Hinds, Elizabeth A S Moser, George Eckert, Richard L Gregory
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect that infant formula had on biofilm growth of Streptococcus mutans. Specifically, it compared biofilm growth in media containing lactose-based and sucrose-based formulas. It also analyzed biofilm formation with formulas of varying iron content. Biofilm growth was tested with the specific infant formula components sucrose, lactose, and ferric chloride. The study was designed to determine if these types of infant formulas and components affected S...
2016: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Grace M Kelly, James A O'Mahony, Alan L Kelly, Donal J O'Callaghan
Physical properties of spray-dried dairy powders depend on their composition and physical characteristics. This study investigated the effect of hydrolyzed whey protein on the microstructure and physical stability of dried model infant formula. Model infant formulas were produced containing either intact (DH 0) or hydrolyzed (DH 12) whey protein, where DH=degree of hydrolysis (%). Before spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 55°C) at a shear rate of 500 s(-1) were 3.02 and 3.85 mPa·s for intact and hydrolyzed infant formulas, respectively...
September 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Åke Nilsson
Sphingomyelin (SM), glycosphingolipids, and gangliosides are important polar lipids in the milk fat globule membrane but are not found in standard milk replacement formulas. Because digestion and absorption of SM and glycosphingolipids generate the bioactive metabolites ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and because intact gangliosides may have beneficial effects in the gut, this may be important for gut integrity and immune maturation in the neonate. The brush border enzymes that hydrolyze milk SM, alkaline sphingomyelinase (nucleotide phosphodiesterase pyrophosphatase 7), and neutral ceramidase are expressed at birth in both term and preterm infants...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
S F Tan, H J Tong, X Y Lin, B Mok, C H Hong
AIM: To systematically evaluate the cariogenic potential of various commercially available infant formulas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted using Pubmed and Scopus databases for articles published between 1966 and November 2014. Reference lists of all eligible studies were searched. Only human studies were included. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were performed. RESULTS: Seven of the 83 articles identified were included in this review, of which six studies employed plaque harvesting methods, while one study utilised an intra-oral cariogenicity/in situ model...
June 2016: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Andrea Lo Vecchio, Yvan Vandenplas, Marc Benninga, Ilse Broekaert, Jackie Falconer, Frederic Gottrand, Carlos Lifschitz, Paolo Lionetti, Rok Orel, Alexandra Papadopoulou, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx, Silvia Salvatore, Raanan Shamir, Michela Schäppi, Annamaria Staiano, Hania Szajewska, Nikhil Thapar, Michael Wilschanski, Alfredo Guarino
AIM: Implementing international guidelines guarantees high standards of clinical care. A group of experts developed an algorithm to drive the management of common gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy by paediatricians and general practitioners. METHODS: The algorithm started from the evidence-based recommendations of the European Society of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition and the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and an updated review of the literature...
August 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Sheila K Jacobi, Tanya Yatsunenko, Dongpei Li, Somsankar Dasgupta, Robert K Yu, Brian M Berg, Maciej Chichlowski, Jack Odle
BACKGROUND: Sialyllactose is a key human milk oligosaccharide and consists of sialic acid (SA) bound to a lactose molecule. Breastfed infants have increased accumulation of ganglioside-bound SA compared with formula-fed infants. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether different isomers of sialyllactose enrich brain SA and modulate the microbiome of developing neonatal piglets. METHODS: Day-old pigs were randomly allocated to 6 diets (control, 2 or 4 g 3'-sialyllactose/L, 2 or 4 g 6'-sialyllactose/L, or 2 g polydextrose/L + 2 g galacto-oligosaccharides/L; n = 9) and fed 3 times/d for 21 d...
February 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Lucas Wauters, Trevor Brown, Carina Venter, Robert Dziubak, Rosan Meyer, Breege Brogan, Joanne Walsh, Adam T Fox, Neil Shah
OBJECTIVES: Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy in children with many clinical manifestations, leading to misdiagnoses such as gastro-oesophageal reflux, infantile colic, and lactose intolerance with inappropriate prescribing. We aimed to determine the impact of infant feeding guidelines on CMA prescribing in UK primary care using a simple and inexpensive training package. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of infant feeding prescriptions in Northern Ireland from June 2012 to March 2014 were analysed with the intervention period between November 2012 and March 2013...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Amy M O'Neil, James L Homme
BACKGROUND: Hematochezia in the pediatric population, particularly infants, has a wide differential diagnosis ranging from benign to life-threatening causes. Obtaining a thorough history and identifying risk factors for more ominous disease is vital during the emergency department (ED) evaluation. CASE REPORT: The patient is a 2-day-old female who presented to the ED with 8-10 episodes of bright red blood in her stools. She was otherwise asymptomatic, with an uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery...
January 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
R Rodríguez-Gómez, I Jiménez-Díaz, A Zafra-Gómez, J C Morales
A simple and reliable method for the determination of the fructooligosaccharides (FOS) kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3), fructofuranosylnystose (GF4), in the presence of fructose, glucose and lactose in dairy products is proposed. The most relevant advantages of the proposed method are the simultaneous determination of the most common FOS in enriched products and a reduction of the time required for sample treatment since the method consists merely in addition of a precipitation solution for the removal of lipids and proteins...
November 1, 2015: Talanta
Jeremy D Johnson, Katherine Cocker, Elisabeth Chang
Infantile colic is a benign process in which an infant has paroxysms of inconsolable crying for more than three hours per day, more than three days per week, for longer than three weeks. It affects approximately 10% to 40% of infants worldwide and peaks at around six weeks of age, with symptoms resolving by three to six months of age. The incidence is equal between sexes, and there is no correlation with type of feeding (breast vs. bottle), gestational age, or socioeconomic status. The cause of infantile colic is not known; proposed causes include alterations in fecal microflora, intolerance to cow's milk protein or lactose, gastrointestinal immaturity or inflammation, increased serotonin secretion, poor feeding technique, and maternal smoking or nicotine replacement therapy...
October 1, 2015: American Family Physician
Joseph S Fotos, Mark Tulchinsky
OBJECTIVES: Intermittent unavailability of sincalide for determination of gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) prompted increased usage of fatty meal cholecystagogues (FMCs). The aim of this systematic review was to identify the state of current FMC options in cholescintigraphy, focusing on the quality of corresponding normal GBEF values. METHODS: We performed an extensive literature search of the MEDLINE, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases without date or language restrictions with a broad spectrum of search terms...
October 2015: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Lauren M Rossen, Alan E Simon, Kirsten A Herrick
We examined consumption of different types of infant formula (eg, cow's milk, soy, gentle/lactose-reduced, and specialty) and regular milk among a nationally representative sample of 1864 infants, 0 to 12 months old, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010. Among the 81% of infants who were fed formula or regular milk, 69% consumed cow's milk formula, 12% consumed soy formula, 5% consumed gentle/ lactose-reduced formulas, 6% consumed specialty formulas, and 13% consumed regular milk products...
March 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
René L Shen, Thomas Thymann, Mette V Østergaard, Ann Cathrine F Støy, Łukasz Krych, Dennis S Nielsen, Charlotte Lauridsen, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Douglas G Burrin, Per T Sangild
It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models for preterm infants. Pigs were given either total parenteral nutrition (TPN, n = 14) or slowly advancing volumes (16-64 ml·kg(-1)·day(-1)) of preterm infant formula (IF, n = 15) or bovine colostrum (BC, n = 13), both given as adjunct to parenteral nutrition...
September 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Mei-Hong Zhang, Jing-Yu Gong, Jian-She Wang
Citrin deficiency typically presents as neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis and resolves in late infancy. Here we report a case of citrin deficiency that presented as acute liver failure in late infancy in an apparently healthy child. The full-term male infant weighed 3400 g at birth, and exhibited normal development for eight months, at which time he contracted bronchial pneumonia. The infant developed jaundice and laboratory tests indicated elevated bilirubin and ammonia levels and an abnormal coagulation profile...
June 21, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Peter F Belamarich, Risa E Bochner, Andrew D Racine
A highly competitive infant formula market has resulted in direct-to-consumer marketing intended to promote the sale of modified formulas that claim to ameliorate common infant feeding problems. The claims associated with these marketing campaigns are not evaluated with reference to clinical evidence by the Food and Drug Administration. We aimed to describe the language of claims made on formula labels and compare it with the evidence in systematic reviews. Of the 22 product labels we identified, 13 product labels included claims about colic and gastrointestinal symptoms...
May 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
J Barrio, J J Díaz-Martín, I Manrique, B Martín Martínez, E Ortega
INTRODUCTION: Infant feeding in the first months/years of life affects the health in the short and long term. Breastfeeding is the perfect food due to its many benefits. However, when breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas are the best alternative. The aim of this study is to define the role of the supplemented formulas in infant nutrition using the opinion of a panel of experts in infant gastroenterology and nutrition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A survey, using 62 items, stratified into 5 blocks, was performed by 48 panelists using the Delphi method to achieve a professional criteria consensus on nutritional aspects of infant formulas...
December 2015: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Mona Nabulsi, Nadine Yazbeck, Fatme Charafeddine
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis is a major cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality, accounting for 15% of all childhood deaths worldwide. In developing countries, diarrheal diseases continue to be a major public health burden. Evidence from developed countries suggests that intake of lactose-free milk during diarrheal episodes may reduce the duration of the illness in pediatric inpatients. It is unknown whether lactose-free milk reduces the severity or duration of acute gastroenteritis in infants treated in outpatient settings in developing countries where diarrhea is more severe, and results in higher morbidities and mortalities...
2015: Trials
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