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sn-2 infant formula

Nicholas P Hays, Meng Mao, Lan Zhang, John Ge, Robert Northington, Manjiang Yao, Sheri Volger
BACKGROUND: Infant feeding regimens, including breastfeeding, formula-feeding, or a combination of the two, may influence infant health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, few studies have examined this association. METHODS: This prospective cohort study assessed HRQOL in relation to three parent-selected feeding regimens: exclusively breastfed (n = 136), exclusively study formula-fed (n = 140), and mixed-fed with study formula and breast milk (n = 151)...
August 8, 2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Yvan Vandenplas, Silvia Salvatore
UNLABELLED: Over 50% of all infants present with one or more functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) during the first months of life. The literature on the effect of partially hydrolyzed formula (pHF) in the management of FGIDs was reviewed. There is insufficient evidence to recommend pHFs in regurgitation, although one study suggests that a thickened pHF may be more effective than antiregurgitation formulas with intact protein. No randomized clinical trials on pHFs in infants with colicky symptoms have been published...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Zuzana Havlicekova, Milos Jesenak, Peter Banovcin, Milan Kuchta
The composition and function of human milk is unique and gives a basis for the development of modern artificial milk formulas that can provide an appropriate substitute for non-breastfed infants. Although human milk is not fully substitutable, modern milk formulas are attempting to mimic human milk and partially substitute its complex biological positive effects on infants. Besides the immunomodulatory factors from human milk, research has been focused on the composition and structure of human milk fat with a high content of β-palmitic acid (sn-2 palmitic acid, β-palmitate)...
March 17, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Ruoyu Li, Jamal S M Sabir, Nabih A Baeshen, Casimir C Akoh
Structured lipids (SLs) containing palmitic, docosahexaenoic (DHA), and gamma-linolenic (GLA) acids were produced using refined olive oil, tripalmitin, and ethyl esters of DHA single cell oil and GLA ethyl esters. Immobilized Lipozyme TL IM lipase was used as the biocatalyst. The SLs were characterized for fatty acid profile, triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species, solid fat content, oxidative stability index, and melting and crystallization profiles and compared to physical blend of substrates, extracted fat from commercial infant formula (IFF), and milk fat...
November 2015: Journal of Food Science
J K Naberhuis, C-S Lai
Lipoproteins are the primary carriers of lipophilic cognitive nutrients such as docosahexaenoic acid, lutein, and α-tocopherol within circulation. The critical roles these nutrients play in growth and development are well established, and as such, their efficient delivery to the infant brain is crucial. Given the selectivity of the blood brain barrier, the lipoprotein fraction primarily responsible for brain delivery of these nutrients must be determined so that efforts aimed at increasing brain nutrient uptake, via lipoprotein profile manipulation, can be appropriately focused...
November 2015: Medical Hypotheses
Olaf Uhl, Christian Hellmuth, Hans Demmelmair, Shao J Zhou, Maria Makrides, Colin Prosser, Dianne Lowry, Robert A Gibson, Berthold Koletzko
OBJECTIVE: Human milk provides a complex mixture of animal lipids, whereas the fat supply of most modern infant formula is based on vegetable oils. We studied the effects of breast-feeding and of feeding infant formula either without or with dairy goat lipids on the composition of infant plasma glycerophospholipids. METHODS: Healthy-term infants were randomized double blind to feeding with infant formula based on whole goats' milk (GIF, approximately 60% milk fat and 40% vegetable oils) or a control cows' milk infant formula based on vegetable oils (VIF) from 2 weeks after birth...
September 2015: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Claire Bourlieu, Marie-Caroline Michalski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The complex biochemical composition and physical structure of the milk fat globule (MFG) are presented as a basis for its paradoxical metabolic fate: MFG is a rapid conveyor of energy through its triacylglycerol (TAG) core but contains some low-digestible bioactive complex lipids and proteins, which influence lipid metabolism and contribute to intestinal and systemic health. RECENT FINDINGS: MFG structure modulates gastrointestinal lipolysis, postprandial lipemia and even the postprandial fate of ingested fatty acids...
March 2015: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Jun Wang, Xu-Dong Wang, Xing-Yu Zhao, Xi Liu, Tao Dong, Fu-An Wu
Novel structured triacylglycerols (STAGs) enriched with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and low palmitic acid (PA) content were firstly synthesized from Schizochytrium sp. oil and oleic acid (OA) via solvent-free acidolysis catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM. The results indicated that, the PA content decreased from 24.49% to 6.95%, while the UFAs content increased from 70.20% to 90.9% at the sn-1,3 positions in the STAGs under the optimal condition (i.e., lipase load of 7%, molar ratio of microalgae oil TAGs to OA of 1:3, and temperature of 65 °C)...
May 2015: Bioresource Technology
Joyce Nowacki, Hung-Chang Lee, Reyin Lien, Shao-Wen Cheng, Sung-Tse Li, Manjiang Yao, Robert Northington, Ingrid Jan, Gisella Mutungi
BACKGROUND: Formula-fed (FF) infants often have harder stools and higher stool concentrations of fatty acid soaps compared to breastfed infants. Feeding high sn-2 palmitate or the prebiotic oligofructose (OF) may soften stools, reduce stool soaps, and decrease fecal calcium loss. METHODS: We investigated the effect of high sn-2 palmitate alone and in combination with OF on stool palmitate soap, total soap and calcium concentrations, stool consistency, gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance, anthropometrics, and hydration in FF infants...
November 5, 2014: Nutrition Journal
Manja Fleddermann, Hans Demmelmair, Berthold Koletzko
Breast-fed and formula-fed infants differ in terms of nutrient intake, growth, and metabolic and endocrine responses. The energetic efficiency, i.e. the weight or length gain per 100 kcal of energy intake, of breast-fed infants is about 11% higher than the energetic efficiency of formula-fed infants. Only limited data is available on the influence of formula composition on the energetic efficiency of infant formulae. We conducted a review of controlled trials to identify the impact of the macronutrient composition of infant formulae on energetic efficiency...
2014: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Xian-Guo Zou, Jiang-Ning Hu, Man-Li Zhao, Xue-Mei Zhu, Hong-Yan Li, Xiao-Ru Liu, Rong Liu, Ze-Yuan Deng
In the present study, a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) enriched in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction from Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) with oleic acid in a solvent-free system. A commercial immobilized lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, from Rhizomucor miehei, was facilitated as a biocatalyst. Effects of different reaction conditions, including substrate molar ratio, enzyme concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the optimal oleic acid incorporation...
October 29, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ita Litmanovitz, Fabiana Bar-Yoseph, Yael Lifshitz, Keren Davidson, Alon Eliakim, Rivka H Regev, Dan Nemet
BACKGROUND: Beta-palmitate (sn-2 palmitate) mimics human milk fat, enabling easier digestion.Therefore, we hypothesized that infants consuming high beta-palmitate formula would have more frequent, softer stools and reduced crying compared to infants consuming low beta-palmitate formula. METHODS: Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either (1) formula with high beta-palmitate (HBP, n = 21) or (2) regular formula with a standard vegetable oil mix (LBP, n = 21)...
June 19, 2014: BMC Pediatrics
Manjiang Yao, Eric L Lien, Maria R Z Capeding, Margaret Fitzgerald, Kalathur Ramanujam, Rebecca Yuhas, Robert Northington, Jowena Lebumfacil, Lin Wang, Patricia A DeRusso
OBJECTIVES: Levels of stool fatty acid soaps and beneficial bacteria differ between formula-fed and breast-fed infants; addition of specific formula ingredients may reduce these differences. This study evaluated the effects of a term infant formula containing high sn-2 palmitate term infant formula (sn-2) or an identical formula supplemented with oligofructose (OF) at 2 concentrations (sn-2+3 g/L OF, sn-2+5 g/L OF) on stool composition, stool characteristics, and fecal bifidobacteria...
October 2014: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Y Vandenplas, S Cruchet, C Faure, Hc Lee, C Di Lorenzo, A Staiano, Xu Chundi, Mm Aw, P Gutiérrez-Castrellón, A Asery, J Spolidoro, Rg Heine, M Miqdady, Me Arancibia, P Alarcón
UNLABELLED: Experts reviewed the literature to determine whether partially whey hydrolysed formulas (HF) offer benefits in the dietary management of frequent gastrointestinal symptoms and allergy prevention. Compared with standard cow's milk-based formulas, partially whey HF confer a limited protective effect against allergic disease in high-risk infants, particularly atopic dermatitis, but not respiratory allergies. No randomised clinical trials have been published on partially whey HF in infants with colicky symptoms...
July 2014: Acta Paediatrica
Garima Pande, Jamal S M Sabir, Nabih A Baeshen, Casimir C Akoh
Structured lipids (SLs) with high palmitic acid content at the sn-2 position enriched with arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were produced using extra virgin olive oil, tripalmitin, ARA and DHA single cell oil free fatty acids. Four types of SLs were synthesized using immobilized lipases, Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM, based on one-stage (one-pot) and two-stage (sequential) syntheses. The SLs were characterized for fatty acid profile, triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species, melting and crystallization profiles, tocopherols, and phenolic compounds...
November 6, 2013: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Supakana Nagachinta, Casimir C Akoh
Human milk fat (HMF) analogs are structured lipids (SLs) modified to have palmitic acid content at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerol (TAG) and fatty acid composition comparable to HMF. Some of these SLs are also designed to incorporate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) because of their important role in infant development. In this study, Maillard reaction products (MRPs), obtained from heated whey protein isolates and corn syrup solids (CSS) solution, were used as encapsulants for microencapsulation of 2 enzymatically synthesized SLs for infant formula applications...
October 2013: Journal of Food Science
Anders D Andersen, Stine E Ludvig, Camilla T Damsgaard, Pasi Pulkkinen, Mikko Finnilä, Huiling Mu, Thomas Thymann, Kim F Michaelsen, Christian Mølgaard, Lotte Lauritzen
Long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCPUFA) and palmitate (16:0) positioning in the triacylglycerol (TAG) of infant formula may affect calcium-uptake which could affect bone health. We investigated if a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) with a modified TAG structure holding 16:0 predominantly in the sn-2-position compared with a control (CONT) and if increasing n-3LCPUFA intake giving fish oil (FO) compared with sunflower oil (SO) would affect bone parameters in piglets in two sets of controlled 14d-interventions (n=12/group)...
September 2013: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Xiaoqiang Zou, Jianhua Huang, Qingzhe Jin, Zheng Guo, Yuanfa Liu, Lingzhi Cheong, Xuebing Xu, Xingguo Wang
The lipid compositions of commercial milks from cow, buffalo, donkey, sheep, and camel were compared with that of human milk fat (HMF) based on total and sn-2 fatty acid, triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipid, and phospholipid fatty acid compositions and melting and crystallization profiles, and their degrees of similarity were digitized and differentiated by an evaluation model. The results showed that these milk fats had high degrees of similarity to HMF in total fatty acid composition. However, the degrees of similarity in other chemical aspects were low, indicating that these milk fats did not meet the requirements of human milk fat substitutes (HMFSs)...
July 24, 2013: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Peng Lu, Fabiana Bar-Yoseph, Liora Levi, Yael Lifshitz, Janneke Witte-Bouma, Adrianus C J M de Bruijn, Anita M Korteland-van Male, Johannes B van Goudoever, Ingrid B Renes
BACKGROUND: Palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-1,3 positions of the glycerol backbone (alpha, alpha'-palmitate), the predominant palmitate conformation in regular infant formula fat, is poorly absorbed and might cause abdominal discomfort. In contrast, palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-2 position (beta-palmitate), the main palmitate conformation in human milk fat, is well absorbed. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of high alpha, alpha'-palmitate fat (HAPF) diet and high beta-palmitate fat (HBPF) diet on colitis development in Muc2 deficient (Muc2(-/-)) mice, a well-described animal model for spontaneous enterocolitis due to the lack of a protective mucus layer...
2013: PloS One
Supakana Nagachinta, Casimir C Akoh
Structured lipid (SL) enriched with arachidonic (ARA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids was produced from tripalmitin using Lipozyme TL IM. The effects of acyl donors, that is, free fatty acids vs fatty acid ethyl esters, on the reactions were compared. The highest total incorporation of ARA and DHA was obtained when the reaction continued for 24 h, at a substrate mole ratio of 9, using free fatty acids as acyl donors (acidolysis). The SL prepared by a large-scale acidolysis reaction contained 17.69 ± 0.09% total ARA, 10...
May 8, 2013: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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