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sn-2 infant formula

Cong Sun, Wei Wei, Hang Su, Xiaoqiang Zou, Xingguo Wang
The sn-2 fatty acid composition of 180 commercial infant, follow-on and growing-up formulas with three fat sources (plant oil, cows' milk and goats' milk) was investigated and compared with mature human milk (MHM). Sn-2 fatty acids in formulas were mostly dependent on fat source and stage. Compared with MHM, all types of formulas contained lower levels of palmitic acid (PA), saturated fatty acid and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), and higher levels of oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) at the sn-2 position...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Elizabeth A Miles, Philip C Calder
The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies reporting on the influence of the position of palmitic acid in triacylglycerols in infant formula and relevant animal studies. Earlier experiments in rodents show that a diet with a higher proportion of palmitate at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols improves dietary fat and calcium absorption compared with a diet with a lower sn-2 palmitate content. A high-sn-2 palmitate diet increased fecal short-chain fatty acids, reduced gut inflammation in a colitis model, and altered tissue endocannabinoid concentrations in laboratory rodents...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
Sherif M Abed, Xiaoqiang Zou, Abdelmoneim H Ali, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang
Microbial oils (MOs) have gained widespread attention due to their functional lipids and health promoting properties. In this study, 1,3-dioleoyl-2-arachidonoylglycerol-rich structured lipids (SLs) were produced from MO and oleic acid (OA) via solvent-free acidolysis catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM. Under the optimal conditions, the content of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) increased from 60.63 to 84.00%, while the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) content decreased from 39.37 to 16.00% at sn-1,3 positions in SLs. Compared with MO, arachidonic acid (ARA) content at the sn-2 position of SLs accounted for 49...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
Valérie Petit, Laurence Sandoz, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
Gastrointestinal tolerance and fat and calcium (Ca) absorption are different between breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants. Certain components and/or structural particularities in human milk (HM), can contribute to favorable outcomes in BF infants. In HM, the long-chain saturated fatty acid (LCSFA) palmitic acid has a different stereospecific distribution (sn-2 position) compared to most infant formula (IF) (primarily sn-1, 3 positions), which may contribute to unfavorable outcomes. Evidence suggests palmitic acid is important in the formation of stool FA-mineral (or FA-Ca) soaps, associated with harder stools in FF infants...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Yongjin He, Changyang Qiu, Zheng Guo, Jian Huang, Mingzi Wang, Bilian Chen
Human milk fat substitutes (HMFs) with four kinds of n-3 fatty acid for infant formula were firstly synthesized using triacylglycerols (TAGs) from Nannochloropsis oculata rich in PA at the sn-2 position and free fatty acids (FFAs) from Isochrysis galbana rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs-ALA/SDA/DHA) via solvent-free acidolysis with Novozym 435, Lipozyme 435, TL-IM and RM-IM as biocatalysts. The results show that the resulting HMFs contain total n-3 PUFA of 13.92-17.12% and PA of 59.38-68.13% at the sn-2 position under the optimal conditions (mole ratio FFAs/TAG 3:1, 60°C (Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL-IM) and 50°C (Lipozyme 435 and RM-IM), lipase loading 10%, reaction time 24h)...
August 2017: Bioresource Technology
Nicholas P Hays, Meng Mao, Lan Zhang, John Ge, Robert Northington, Manjiang Yao, Sheri Volger
BACKGROUND: Infant feeding regimens, including breastfeeding, formula-feeding, or a combination of the two, may influence infant health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, few studies have examined this association. METHODS: This prospective cohort study assessed HRQOL in relation to three parent-selected feeding regimens: exclusively breastfed (n = 136), exclusively study formula-fed (n = 140), and mixed-fed with study formula and breast milk (n = 151)...
August 8, 2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Yvan Vandenplas, Silvia Salvatore
UNLABELLED: Over 50% of all infants present with one or more functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) during the first months of life. The literature on the effect of partially hydrolyzed formula (pHF) in the management of FGIDs was reviewed. There is insufficient evidence to recommend pHFs in regurgitation, although one study suggests that a thickened pHF may be more effective than antiregurgitation formulas with intact protein. No randomized clinical trials on pHFs in infants with colicky symptoms have been published...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Zuzana Havlicekova, Milos Jesenak, Peter Banovcin, Milan Kuchta
The composition and function of human milk is unique and gives a basis for the development of modern artificial milk formulas that can provide an appropriate substitute for non-breastfed infants. Although human milk is not fully substitutable, modern milk formulas are attempting to mimic human milk and partially substitute its complex biological positive effects on infants. Besides the immunomodulatory factors from human milk, research has been focused on the composition and structure of human milk fat with a high content of β-palmitic acid (sn-2 palmitic acid, β-palmitate)...
March 17, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Ruoyu Li, Jamal S M Sabir, Nabih A Baeshen, Casimir C Akoh
Structured lipids (SLs) containing palmitic, docosahexaenoic (DHA), and gamma-linolenic (GLA) acids were produced using refined olive oil, tripalmitin, and ethyl esters of DHA single cell oil and GLA ethyl esters. Immobilized Lipozyme TL IM lipase was used as the biocatalyst. The SLs were characterized for fatty acid profile, triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species, solid fat content, oxidative stability index, and melting and crystallization profiles and compared to physical blend of substrates, extracted fat from commercial infant formula (IFF), and milk fat...
November 2015: Journal of Food Science
J K Naberhuis, C-S Lai
Lipoproteins are the primary carriers of lipophilic cognitive nutrients such as docosahexaenoic acid, lutein, and α-tocopherol within circulation. The critical roles these nutrients play in growth and development are well established, and as such, their efficient delivery to the infant brain is crucial. Given the selectivity of the blood brain barrier, the lipoprotein fraction primarily responsible for brain delivery of these nutrients must be determined so that efforts aimed at increasing brain nutrient uptake, via lipoprotein profile manipulation, can be appropriately focused...
November 2015: Medical Hypotheses
Olaf Uhl, Christian Hellmuth, Hans Demmelmair, Shao J Zhou, Maria Makrides, Colin Prosser, Dianne Lowry, Robert A Gibson, Berthold Koletzko
OBJECTIVE: Human milk provides a complex mixture of animal lipids, whereas the fat supply of most modern infant formula is based on vegetable oils. We studied the effects of breast-feeding and of feeding infant formula either without or with dairy goat lipids on the composition of infant plasma glycerophospholipids. METHODS: Healthy-term infants were randomized double blind to feeding with infant formula based on whole goats' milk (GIF, approximately 60% milk fat and 40% vegetable oils) or a control cows' milk infant formula based on vegetable oils (VIF) from 2 weeks after birth...
September 2015: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Claire Bourlieu, Marie-Caroline Michalski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The complex biochemical composition and physical structure of the milk fat globule (MFG) are presented as a basis for its paradoxical metabolic fate: MFG is a rapid conveyor of energy through its triacylglycerol (TAG) core but contains some low-digestible bioactive complex lipids and proteins, which influence lipid metabolism and contribute to intestinal and systemic health. RECENT FINDINGS: MFG structure modulates gastrointestinal lipolysis, postprandial lipemia and even the postprandial fate of ingested fatty acids...
March 2015: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Jun Wang, Xu-Dong Wang, Xing-Yu Zhao, Xi Liu, Tao Dong, Fu-An Wu
Novel structured triacylglycerols (STAGs) enriched with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and low palmitic acid (PA) content were firstly synthesized from Schizochytrium sp. oil and oleic acid (OA) via solvent-free acidolysis catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM. The results indicated that, the PA content decreased from 24.49% to 6.95%, while the UFAs content increased from 70.20% to 90.9% at the sn-1,3 positions in the STAGs under the optimal condition (i.e., lipase load of 7%, molar ratio of microalgae oil TAGs to OA of 1:3, and temperature of 65 °C)...
May 2015: Bioresource Technology
Joyce Nowacki, Hung-Chang Lee, Reyin Lien, Shao-Wen Cheng, Sung-Tse Li, Manjiang Yao, Robert Northington, Ingrid Jan, Gisella Mutungi
BACKGROUND: Formula-fed (FF) infants often have harder stools and higher stool concentrations of fatty acid soaps compared to breastfed infants. Feeding high sn-2 palmitate or the prebiotic oligofructose (OF) may soften stools, reduce stool soaps, and decrease fecal calcium loss. METHODS: We investigated the effect of high sn-2 palmitate alone and in combination with OF on stool palmitate soap, total soap and calcium concentrations, stool consistency, gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance, anthropometrics, and hydration in FF infants...
November 5, 2014: Nutrition Journal
Manja Fleddermann, Hans Demmelmair, Berthold Koletzko
Breast-fed and formula-fed infants differ in terms of nutrient intake, growth, and metabolic and endocrine responses. The energetic efficiency, i.e. the weight or length gain per 100 kcal of energy intake, of breast-fed infants is about 11% higher than the energetic efficiency of formula-fed infants. Only limited data is available on the influence of formula composition on the energetic efficiency of infant formulae. We conducted a review of controlled trials to identify the impact of the macronutrient composition of infant formulae on energetic efficiency...
2014: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Xian-Guo Zou, Jiang-Ning Hu, Man-Li Zhao, Xue-Mei Zhu, Hong-Yan Li, Xiao-Ru Liu, Rong Liu, Ze-Yuan Deng
In the present study, a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) enriched in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction from Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) with oleic acid in a solvent-free system. A commercial immobilized lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, from Rhizomucor miehei, was facilitated as a biocatalyst. Effects of different reaction conditions, including substrate molar ratio, enzyme concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the optimal oleic acid incorporation...
October 29, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ita Litmanovitz, Fabiana Bar-Yoseph, Yael Lifshitz, Keren Davidson, Alon Eliakim, Rivka H Regev, Dan Nemet
BACKGROUND: Beta-palmitate (sn-2 palmitate) mimics human milk fat, enabling easier digestion.Therefore, we hypothesized that infants consuming high beta-palmitate formula would have more frequent, softer stools and reduced crying compared to infants consuming low beta-palmitate formula. METHODS: Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either (1) formula with high beta-palmitate (HBP, n = 21) or (2) regular formula with a standard vegetable oil mix (LBP, n = 21)...
June 19, 2014: BMC Pediatrics
Manjiang Yao, Eric L Lien, Maria R Z Capeding, Margaret Fitzgerald, Kalathur Ramanujam, Rebecca Yuhas, Robert Northington, Jowena Lebumfacil, Lin Wang, Patricia A DeRusso
OBJECTIVES: Levels of stool fatty acid soaps and beneficial bacteria differ between formula-fed and breast-fed infants; addition of specific formula ingredients may reduce these differences. This study evaluated the effects of a term infant formula containing high sn-2 palmitate term infant formula (sn-2) or an identical formula supplemented with oligofructose (OF) at 2 concentrations (sn-2+3 g/L OF, sn-2+5 g/L OF) on stool composition, stool characteristics, and fecal bifidobacteria...
October 2014: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Y Vandenplas, S Cruchet, C Faure, Hc Lee, C Di Lorenzo, A Staiano, Xu Chundi, Mm Aw, P Gutiérrez-Castrellón, A Asery, J Spolidoro, Rg Heine, M Miqdady, Me Arancibia, P Alarcón
UNLABELLED: Experts reviewed the literature to determine whether partially whey hydrolysed formulas (HF) offer benefits in the dietary management of frequent gastrointestinal symptoms and allergy prevention. Compared with standard cow's milk-based formulas, partially whey HF confer a limited protective effect against allergic disease in high-risk infants, particularly atopic dermatitis, but not respiratory allergies. No randomised clinical trials have been published on partially whey HF in infants with colicky symptoms...
July 2014: Acta Paediatrica
Garima Pande, Jamal S M Sabir, Nabih A Baeshen, Casimir C Akoh
Structured lipids (SLs) with high palmitic acid content at the sn-2 position enriched with arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were produced using extra virgin olive oil, tripalmitin, ARA and DHA single cell oil free fatty acids. Four types of SLs were synthesized using immobilized lipases, Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM, based on one-stage (one-pot) and two-stage (sequential) syntheses. The SLs were characterized for fatty acid profile, triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species, melting and crystallization profiles, tocopherols, and phenolic compounds...
November 6, 2013: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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