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Hyperglycemia and arrhythmias

Sun Yanyi, Wang Qiuyun, Fang Yuehua, Wu Chunfang, Lu Guoping, Chen Zhenyue
Hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for diabetic cardiomyopathy in humans; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly elucidated. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) was used in this study as a novel vertebrate model to explore the signaling pathways of human adult cardiomyopathy. Hyperglycemia was induced by alternately immersing adult zebrafish in a glucose solution or water. The hyperglycemic fish gradually exhibited some hallmarks of cardiomyopathy such as myocardial hypertrophy and apoptosis, myofibril loss, fetal gene reactivation, and severe arrhythmia...
August 11, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Ademuyiwa S Aromolaran, Mohamed Boutjdir
Obesity and its associated metabolic dysregulation leading to metabolic syndrome is an epidemic that poses a significant public health problem. More than one-third of the world population is overweight or obese leading to enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. Obesity predisposes to atrial fibrillation, ventricular, and supraventricular arrhythmias; conditions that are underlain by dysfunction in electrical activity of the heart. To date, current therapeutic options for cardiomyopathy of obesity are limited, suggesting that there is considerable room for development of therapeutic interventions with novel mechanisms of action that will help normalize rhythm in obese patients...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Giuseppe Ambrosio, Gaetano M De Ferrari, Massimo Federici, Pasquale Perrone Filardi
Oral hypoglycemic drugs for type 2 diabetes aim at preventing the metabolic effects of hyperglycemia and cardiovascular (CV) events. The evidence of the possible CV risk related to the prescription of some antidiabetic drugs prompted regulatory agencies to require safety studies. This review provides an updated analysis of CV safety profiles for antidiabetic drugs used for the treatment of patients with high CV risk.The most recent studies analyze different aspects of CV morbidity, such as ischemic events, heart failure and arrhythmia, and their interactions with hyperglycemia...
June 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Peter C Farrell, Glenn Richards
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a highly prevalent condition, and is associated with many debilitating chronic diseases. The role of untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in arterial hypertension has been recognized in international guidelines. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is associated with clinically-relevant reductions in blood pressure. In heart failure (HF), SDB is associated with worse prognosis and increased mortality. Major HF guidelines recommend that patients should be treated for sleep apnea to improve their HF status...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
Zhaoyang Hu, Mou Chen, Ping Zhang, Jin Liu, Geoffrey W Abbott
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death (SCD), a leading cause of global mortality, most commonly arises from a substrate of cardiac ischemia, but requires an additional trigger. Diabetes mellitus (DM) predisposes to SCD even after adjusting for other DM-linked cardiovascular pathology such as coronary artery disease. We previously showed that remote liver ischemia preconditioning (RLIPC) is highly protective against cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) linked ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial infarction, via induction of the cardioprotective RISK pathway, and specifically, inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser 9)...
April 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
F M Trefz, P D Constable, I Lorenz
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia is a frequently observed electrolyte imbalance in dehydrated neonatal diarrheic calves that can result in skeletal muscle weakness and life-threatening cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. HYPOTHESIS: Intravenous administration of a small-volume hypertonic NaHCO3 solution is clinically more effective in decreasing the plasma potassium concentration (cK) in hyperkalemic diarrheic calves than hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Marilen Federico, Enrique L Portiansky, Leandro Sommese, Francisco J Alvarado, Paula G Blanco, Carolina N Zanuzzi, John Dedman, Marcia Kaetzel, Xander H T Wehrens, Alicia Mattiazzi, Julieta Palomeque
KEY POINTS: Spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release events increased in fructose-rich diet mouse (FRD) myocytes vs. control diet (CD) mice, in the absence of significant changes in SR Ca(2+) load. In HEK293 cells, hyperglycaemia significantly enhanced [(3) H]ryanodine binding and Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation of RyR2-S2814 residue vs. normoglycaemia. These increases were prevented by CaMKII inhibition. FRD significantly augmented cardiac apoptosis in WT vs...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Saro H Armenian, Wassim Chemaitilly, Marcus Chen, Eric J Chow, Christine N Duncan, Lee W Jones, Michael A Pulsipher, Alan T Remaley, Alicia Rovo, Nina Salooja, Minoo Battiwalla
A number of studies have shown that autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) contribute to an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worsening of cardiovascular risk factors that could contribute to further CVD over time. These observations, combined with a notable increase in the number of survivors after HCT in recent years, highlight the need for studies aimed at modifying risk or preventing these outcomes by changing specific approaches and/or post-HCT interventions...
February 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Jin Tokunaga, Norito Takamura, Kenji Ogata, Nao Setoguchi, Keizo Sato
Pharmacists are in demand not only because of their knowledge of medical therapy but also due to their skills in basic physical assessment and emergency care as medical personnel. Pharmaceutical education has developed using patient simulators in bedside training, seminars in hospital pharmacies, and physical assessment practice at the Kyushu University of Health and Welfare School of Pharmaceutical Sciences. We first explain the outline of the method to confirm basic vital signs with simulators and then demonstrate some simulations to enable the reproduction of drug misadministration/changes in condition...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Manasi S Shah, Michael Brownlee
The clinical correlations linking diabetes mellitus with accelerated atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathy, and increased post-myocardial infarction fatality rates are increasingly understood in mechanistic terms. The multiple mechanisms discussed in this review seem to share a common element: prolonged increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in diabetic cardiovascular cells. Intracellular hyperglycemia causes excessive ROS production. This activates nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which inhibits GAPDH, shunting early glycolytic intermediates into pathogenic signaling pathways...
May 27, 2016: Circulation Research
Jian-Wei Zhang, Yu-Jie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Some studies have shown that hypoglycemic episodes in diabetic patients might be associated with increased cardiovascular events. It is not clear whether episodes of silent hypoglycemia had greater prognostic value on cardiac events compared with normoglycemia or hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients, so the aim of this study was to investigate the association of silent hypoglycemia and cardiac events in non-diabetic patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI)...
April 26, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Shi-Jun Li, Tao Wang, Lin Wang, Zhan-Qi Pang, Ben Ma, Ya-Wen Li, Jian Yang, He Dong
Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors, and its cardiac involvement may include transient myocardial dysfunction, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and even ventricular arrhythmias.A patient was referred for evaluation of stuttering chest pain, and his electrocardiogram showed T-wave inversion over leads V1 to V4. Coronary angiography showed 90% stenosis in the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), which was stented. Five days later, the patient had ventricular tachycardia, and severe hypertension, remarkable blood pressure fluctuation between 224/76 and 70/50 mm Hg...
April 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ahmad Fariz Mz Zein, Sally A Nasution, Dyah Purnamasari, Arif Mansjoer
AIM: to determine the incidence of in-hospital arrhythmias in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to determine the influence of hyperglycemia at admission (HA) on in-hospital arrhythmias complicating ACS. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study was conducted using secondary data from medical records of patients with ACS who were admitted to ICCU RSCM, between January 1st-December 31st, 2014. Hyperglycemia at admission was defined when the blood glucose level at admission was >140 mg/dL...
October 2015: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Tamás Baranyai, Csilla Terézia Nagy, Gábor Koncsos, Zsófia Onódi, Melinda Károlyi-Szabó, András Makkos, Zoltán V Varga, Péter Ferdinandy, Zoltán Giricz
BACKGROUND: Remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPerC) has a promising therapeutic insight to improve the prognosis of acute myocardial infarction. Chronic comorbidities such as diabetes are known to interfere with conditioning interventions by modulating cardioprotective signaling pathways, such as e.g., mTOR pathway and autophagy. However, the effect of acute hyperglycemia on RIPerC has not been studied so far. Therefore, here we investigated the effect of acute hyperglycemia on cardioprotection by RIPerC...
November 18, 2015: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Sufyan Benamer, Imhemed Eljazwi, Rima Mohamed, Heba Masoud, Mussa Tuwati, Abdulwahab M Elbarsha
OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia on admission and during hospital stay is a well-established predictor of short-term and long-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Our study investigated the impact of blood glucose levels on admission and in-hospital hyperglycemia on the morbidity and mortality of Libyan patients admitted with acute coronary syndromes (acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina). METHODS: In this retrospective study, the records of patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome to The 7th Of October Hospital, Benghazi, Libya, between January 2011 and December 2011 were reviewed...
September 2015: Oman Medical Journal
Young-Min Kim, Chun Song Youn, Soo Hyun Kim, Byung Kook Lee, In Soo Cho, Gyu Chong Cho, Kyung Woon Jeung, Sang Hoon Oh, Seung Pill Choi, Jong Hwan Shin, Kyoung-Chul Cha, Joo Suk Oh, Hyeon Woo Yim, Kyu Nam Park
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of adverse events (AEs) during targeted temperature management (TTM) and other AEs and concomitant treatments during the advanced critical care period with poor neurological outcome at hospital discharge in adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective study using Korean Hypothermia Network registry data of adult OHCA patients treated with TTM in 24 teaching hospitals throughout South Korea from 2007 to 2012...
July 22, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Fabio Angeli, Gianpaolo Reboldi, Cristina Poltronieri, Ludovico Lazzari, Martina Sordi, Marta Garofoli, Claudia Bartolini, Paolo Verdecchia
Hyperglycemia is a frequent condition in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Hyperglycemia during ACS is caused by an inflammatory and adrenergic response to ischemic stress, when catecholamines are released and glycogenolysis induced. Although the involved pathophysiological mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated, it is believed that hyperglycemia is associated with an increase in free fat acids (which induce cardiac arrhythmias), insulin resistance, chemical inactivation of nitric oxide and the production of oxygen reactive species (with consequent microvascular and endothelial dysfunction), a prothrombotic state, and vascular inflammation...
December 2015: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
Aldo Bonaventura, Fabrizio Montecucco, Franco Dallegri
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing all over the world. Targeting good glycemic control is fundamental to avoid the complications of diabetes linked to hyperglycemia. This narrative review is based on material searched for and obtained via PubMed up to April 2015. The search terms we used were: 'hypoglycemia, diabetes, complications' in combination with 'iatrogenic, treatment, symptoms.' Serious complications might occur from an inappropriate treatment of hyperglycemia. The most frequent complication is iatrogenic hypoglycemia that is often associated with autonomic and neuroglycopenic symptoms...
September 2015: Endocrine Connections
Walmor C De Mello
HighlightsIntracellular renin and angiotensin disrupts chemical communication in heart.Epigenetic modification of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and heart disease.Intracrine renin angiotensin and metabolic cooperation.Gap junction, intracellular renin and angiotensin, cellular patterns, and heart development. The finding that intracellular renin and angiotensin II (Ang II) disrupts chemical communication and impairs metabolic cooperation between cardiomyocytes induced by aldosterone, hyperglycemia, and pathological conditions like myocardial ischemia is discussed...
2015: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Belma Turan, Erkan Tuncay
Beta-adrenoceptors (β-AR), members of the G protein-coupled receptors play important roles in the regulation of heart function. A positive inotropic action of catecholamines is mediated through their interaction with β-AR, located on the sarcolemma, while they can also mediate some deleterious effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias or myocardial apoptosis. The well-known β-AR-associated signaling in heart is composed of a coupled mechanism among both β1- and β2-AR and stimulatory G protein (G(s)). This coupled mechanism further leads to the activation of adenylyl cyclase and thereby increases in intracellular cAMP level...
December 2014: Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics
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