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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929610/identification-of-bottlenecks-in-the-accumulation-of-cyclic-fatty-acids-in-camelina-seed-oil
#1
Xiao-Hong Yu, Rebecca E Cahoon, Patrick J Horn, Hai Shi, Richa Rawat Prakash, Yuanheng Cai, Maegan Hearney, Kent D Chapman, Edgar B Cahoon, Jorg Schwender, John Shanklin
Modified fatty acids (mFA) have diverse uses, e.g., cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) are feedstocks for producing coatings, lubricants, plastics, and cosmetics. The expression of mFA-producing enzymes in crop and model plants generally results in lower levels of mFA accumulation than in their natural-occurring source plants. Thus, to further our understanding of metabolic bottlenecks that limit mFA accumulation, we generated transgenic Camelina sativa lines co-expressing Escherichia coli cyclopropane synthase (EcCPS) and Sterculia foetida lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (SfLPAT)...
September 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918129/where-do-substrates-of-diacylglycerol-kinases-come-from-diacylglycerol-kinases-utilize-diacylglycerol-species-supplied-from-phosphatidylinositol-turnover-independent-pathways
#2
REVIEW
Fumio Sakane, Satoru Mizuno, Daisuke Takahashi, Hiromichi Sakai
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG) to produce phosphatidic acid (PA). Mammalian DGK comprises ten isozymes (α-κ) and regulates a wide variety of physiological and pathological events, such as cancer, type II diabetes, neuronal disorders and immune responses. DG and PA consist of various molecular species that have different acyl chains at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, and consequently, mammalian cells contain at least 50 structurally distinct DG/PA species. Because DGK is one of the components of phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover, the generally accepted dogma is that all DGK isozymes utilize 18:0/20:4-DG derived from PI turnover...
September 9, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915374/enhanced-degradation-of-chloramphenicol-at-alkaline-conditions-by-s-ii-assisted-heterogeneous-fenton-like-reactions-using-pyrite
#3
Linghui Zhao, Yufan Chen, Yanxia Liu, Cong Luo, Deli Wu
The Fenton-like reactions catalyzed by pyrite can efficiently degrade organic contaminants by oxidation process. When chloramphenicol (CAP) was exposed to the pyrite-H2O2 system, the CAP removal rate rapidly reached 100% however slowed to a halt at alkaline conditions. Results indicated that by adding S(-II) in pyrite-H2O2 system improved the oxidation efficiency of CAP at alkaline conditions. The transformation of S2(2-) and Sn(2-) observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), confirmed that amorphous iron polysulfide (FeSn) was freshly generated on the pyrite surface...
September 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881427/active-site-geometry-of-a-novel-aminopropyltransferase-for-biosynthesis-of-hyperthermophile-specific-branched-chain-polyamine
#4
Ryota Hidese, Ka Man Tse, Seigo Kimura, Eiichi Mizohata, Junso Fujita, Yuhei Horai, Naoki Umezawa, Tsunehiko Higuchi, Masaru Niitsu, Tairo Oshima, Tadayuki Imanaka, Tsuyoshi Inoue, Shinsuke Fujiwara
Branched-chain polyamines are found exclusively in thermophilic bacteria and Euryarchaeota and play essential roles in survival at high temperatures. In the present study, kinetic analyses of a branched-chain polyamine synthase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis (Tk-BpsA) were conducted, showing that N(4) -bis(aminopropyl)spermidine was produced by sequential additions of decarboxylated S-adenosyladenosine (dcSAM) aminopropyl groups to spermidine, through bifunctional catalytic action...
September 7, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876925/on-the-calculation-of-acyl-chain-order-parameters-from-lipid-simulations
#5
Thomas J Piggot, Jane Rosemary Allison, Richard B Sessions, Jonathan W Essex
For molecular dynamics simulations of biological membrane systems to live up to the potential of providing accurate atomic level detail into membrane properties and functions, it is essential that the force fields used to model such systems are as accurate as possible. One membrane property that is often used to assess force field accuracy is the carbon-hydrogen (or carbon-deuterium) order parameters of the lipid tails, which can be accurately measured using experimental NMR techniques. There are a variety of analysis tools available to calculate these order parameters from simulations and it is essential that these computational tools work correctly to ensure the accurate assessment of the simulation force fields...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872363/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-at-the-sn-2-position-of-triacylglycerols-increases-dha-incorporation-in-brown-but-not-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-hamsters
#6
Paula A Lopes, Narcisa M Bandarra, Susana V Martins, Marta S Madeira, Júlia Ferreira, José L Guil-Guerrero, José A M Prates
We hypothesised that the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) across adipose tissues will be higher when it is ingested as triacylglycerols (TAG) structured at the sn-2 position. Ten-week old male hamsters were allocated to 4 dietary treatments (n = 10): linseed oil (LSO-control group), fish oil (FO), fish oil ethyl esters (FO-EE) and structured DHA at the sn-2 position of TAG (DHA-SL) during 12 weeks. In opposition to the large variations found for fatty acid composition in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) was less responsive to diets...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862843/syntheses-and-properties-of-gold-organotin-sulfide-clusters
#7
Eike Dornsiepen, Jens P Eußner, Nils W Rosemann, Sangam Chatterjee, Stefanie Dehnen
We report that reactions of the binary organotin sulfide cluster [(R(1)Sn)3S4]Cl [A; R(1) = CMe2CH2C(O)Me] with gold(I) phosphane complexes yield discrete ternary complexes [(R(1)Sn)2(AuPMe3)2S4] (1) and [(R(2)Sn)2(AuPMe3)2S4] [2; R(2) = CMe2CH2C(NNH2)Me], which are related to recently published complexes [(R(1,2)Sn)2(AuPPh3)2S4] (B and C). Further, we present a binary tin sulfide cluster that cocrystallizes with a structure-directing salt of a gold phosphane complex in [Au(dppe)2][(R(3)Sn)4S6Cl] [3; R(3) = CMe2CH2C(NNHPh)Me]...
September 1, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851514/a-novel-calcium-independent-phospholipase-a2-and-its-physiological-roles-in-development-and-immunity-of-a-lepidopteran-insect-spodoptera-exigua
#8
Md Sadekuzzaman, Neelam Gautam, Yonggyun Kim
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) catalyzes hydrolysis of ester linkage at sn-2 position of phospholipids. At least 15 groups (I-XV) of PLA2 gene superfamily are associated with various physiological processes such as digestion, secretion, immunity, and maintenance of membrane integrity. This study suggests that various insects encode putative Group VI PLA2s representing intracellular and calcium-independent PLA2s (iPLA2). These insect iPLA2s are separated into at least two subgroups: iPLA2A (Group VIA-like) and iPLA2B (non-Group VIA)...
August 26, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831486/total-synthesis-and-mass-spectrometric-analysis-of-a-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-phosphatidylglycerol-featuring-a-two-step-synthesis-of-r-tuberculostearic-acid
#9
Satvika Burugupalli, Mark B Richardson, Spencer J Williams
We report the total synthesis of (R)-tuberculostearic acid-containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis phosphatidylglycerol (PG). The approach features a two-step synthesis of (R)-tuberculostearic acid, involving an (S)-citronellyl bromide linchpin, and the phosphoramidite-assisted assembly of the full PG structure. Collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry of two chemically-synthesized PG acyl regioisomers revealed diagnostic product ions formed by preferential loss of carboxylate at the secondary (sn-2) position...
September 13, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821313/the-influence-of-the-position-of-palmitate-in-infant-formula-triacylglycerols-on-health-outcomes
#10
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Miles, Philip C Calder
The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies reporting on the influence of the position of palmitic acid in triacylglycerols in infant formula and relevant animal studies. Earlier experiments in rodents show that a diet with a higher proportion of palmitate at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols improves dietary fat and calcium absorption compared with a diet with a lower sn-2 palmitate content. A high-sn-2 palmitate diet increased fecal short-chain fatty acids, reduced gut inflammation in a colitis model, and altered tissue endocannabinoid concentrations in laboratory rodents...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805213/oxalate-assisted-formation-of-uniform-carbon-confined-sno2-nanotubes-with-enhanced-lithium-storage
#11
Chunhua Han, Baoxuan Zhang, Kangning Zhao, Jiashen Meng, Qiu He, Pan He, Wei Yang, Qi Li, Liqiang Mai
SnO2 nanotubes are synthesized via an oxalate-assisted "redox etching and precipitating" route between MnOOH nanowires and Sn(2+) ions. The addition of oxalate is found to be crucial to guide the formation of uniform SnO2 nanotubes. To further improve the conductivity and stability, the as-obtained SnO2 nanotubes are coated with a thin carbon layer. The resulting carbon-confined SnO2 nanotubes possess superior rate performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries.
August 14, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803982/specific-inhibition-of-xenorhabdus-hominickii-an-entomopathogenic-bacterium-against-different-types-of-host-insect-phospholipase-a2
#12
Md Sadekuzzaman, Yonggyun Kim
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) hydrolyzes ester bond of phospholipids at the sn-2 position to release free fatty acid and lysophospholipids. Some PLA2s preferentially release arachidonic acid which is subsequently oxygenated into eicosanoids to mediate immune responses in insects. Xenorhabdus hominickii is an entomopathogenic bacterium that can suppress insect immunity by inhibiting PLA2 activity. However, little is known about target PLA2 types inhibited by X. hominickii. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine PLA2 types in the host insect, Spodoptera exigua using specific inhibitors...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803123/highly-selective-on-off-fluorescence-recognition-of-fe-3-based-on-a-coumarin-derivative-and-its-application-in-live-cell-imaging
#13
Sona Warrier, Prashant S Kharkar
A novel coumarin chemosensor, 7-hydroxy-2-oxo-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)chromene-3-carboxamide (Probe 1), demonstrated significant selectivity towards Fe(3+) ions. Probe 1 exhibited high fluorescence emission profile at 447nm, excellent selectivity towards Fe(3+) over other biologically important metal ions (Al(3+), Ba(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), Pb(2+) and Sn(2+)). Interestingly, there was ~30-fold decrease in fluorescence intensity upon Fe(3+) binding. The limit of detection of Fe(3+) was found to be 0...
January 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800446/synthesis-of-a-hierarchical-sns2-nanostructure-for-efficient-adsorption-of-rhodamine-b-dye
#14
Shuyu Wang, Bin Yang, Yuping Liu
Using Sn(2+) instead of Sn(4+) as Sn source, H2O2 as oxidizer, and l-cysteine as sulphur source and structure-directing agent, hierarchical SnS2 nanostructure built with the thickness of 10nm nanosheets was successfully synthesized by a green hydrothermal process. The morphology and structure of the products were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and Elemental mapping, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750656/oligomeric-amyloid-beta-induces-mapk-mediated-activation-of-brain-cytosolic-and-calcium-independent-phospholipase-a2-in-a-spatial-specific-manner
#15
Juan Pablo Palavicini, Chunyan Wang, Linyuan Chen, Kristen Hosang, Jianing Wang, Takami Tomiyama, Hiroshi Mori, Xianlin Han
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is histopathologically characterized by the build-up of fibrillar amyloid beta (Aβ) in the form of amyloid plaques and the development of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles consisting of aggregated hyperphosphorylated Tau. Although amyloid fibrils were originally considered responsible for AD pathogenesis, recent convincing evidence strongly implicates soluble oligomeric Aβ as the primary neurotoxic species driving disease progression. A third largely ignored pathological hallmark, originally described by Alois Alzheimer, is the presence of "adipose inclusions", suggestive of aberrant lipid metabolism...
July 27, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738613/a-selective-distance-based-paper-analytical-device-for-copper-ii-determination-using-a-porphyrin-derivative
#16
Rimadani Pratiwi, Michael P Nguyen, Slamet Ibrahim, Naoki Yoshioka, Charles S Henry, Daryono H Tjahjono
Meso-tetrakis(1,2-dimethylpyrazolium-4-yl)porphyrin sulfonate (TDMPzP), a water-soluble porphyrin derivative, was synthesized and used as a colorimetric reagent for Cu(2+) detection on a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (µPAD) using distance-based quantification. TDMPzP showed a high selectivity for Cu(2+) detection in aqueous solutions. When Cu(2+) was added to the TDMPzP under acidic conditions, a color change from green to a pink was observed by the naked eye. Under optimized conditions, the application of this system to a distance-based μPAD exhibited good analytical response...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733969/tailoring-ion-charge-state-distribution-in-tetramethyltin-clusters-under-influence-of-moderate-intensity-picosecond-laser-pulse-role-of-laser-wavelength-and-rate-of-energy-deposition
#17
Pramod Sharma, Soumitra Das, Rajesh K Vatsa
Systematic manipulation of ionic-outcome in laser-cluster interaction process has been realized for studies carried out on tetramethyltin (TMT) clusters under picosecond laser conditions, determined by choice of laser wavelength and intensity. As a function of laser intensity, TMT clusters exhibit gradual enhancement in overall ionization of its cluster constituents, up to a saturation level of ionization, which was distinct for different wavelengths (266, 355, and 532 nm). Simultaneously, systematic appearance of higher multiply charged atomic ions and shift in relative abundance of multiply charged atomic ions towards higher charge state was observed, using time-of-flight mass spectrometer...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732510/protective-and-therapeutic-role-of-2-carba-cyclic-phosphatidic-acid-in-demyelinating-disease
#18
Shinji Yamamoto, Kota Yamashina, Masaki Ishikawa, Mari Gotoh, Sosuke Yagishita, Kensuke Iwasa, Kei Maruyama, Kimiko Murakami-Murofushi, Keisuke Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is a neuroinflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent and progressive demyelination/remyelination cycles, neuroinflammation, oligodendrocyte loss, demyelination, and axonal degeneration. Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a natural phospholipid mediator with a unique cyclic phosphate ring structure at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of the glycerol backbone. We reported earlier that cPA elicits a neurotrophin-like action and protects hippocampal neurons from ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718808/beta-palmitate-improves-bone-length-and-quality-during-catch-up-growth-in-young-rats
#19
Meytal Bar-Maisels, Yankel Gabet, Raanan Shamir, Sahar Hiram-Bab, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, Moshe Phillip, Fabiana Bar-Yoseph, Galia Gat-Yablonski
Palmitic acid (PA) is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in human milk, where it is heavily concentrated in the sn-2-position (termed beta palmitate, BPA) and as such is conserved in all women, regardless of their diet or ethnicity, indicating its physiological and metabolic importance. We hypothesized that BPA improves the efficiency of nutrition-induced catch up growth as compared to sn-1,3 PA, which is present in vegetable oil. Pre-pubertal male rats were subjected to a 17 days food restriction followed by re-feeding for nine days with 1,3 PA or BPA-containing diets...
July 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718792/recombinant-lipase-from-gibberella-zeae-exhibits-broad-substrate-specificity-a-comparative-study-on-emulsified-and-monomolecular-substrate
#20
Fanghua Wang, Hui Zhang, Zexin Zhao, Ruixia Wei, Bo Yang, Yonghua Wang
Using the classical emulsified system and the monomolecular film technique, the substrate specificity of recombinant Gibberella zeae lipase (rGZEL) that originates from Gibberella zeae was characterized in detail. Under the emulsified reaction system, both phospholipase and glycolipid hydrolytic activities were observed, except for the predominant lipase activity. The optimum conditions for different activity exhibition were also determined. Compared with its lipase activity, a little higher ratio of glycolipid hydrolytic activity (0...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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