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James Kruczek, See-Wing Chiu, Eric Jakobsson, Sagar A Pandit
Interations of monovalent salts with lipid membranes are explored with Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations. The simulations included the monovalent ions Na(+) and K(+), for their importance in physiology, Li(+) for its small size and importance in several medical conditions including bipolar disorder, and Rb(+) for its large size. All the simulations included Cl(-) as counter ions. One bilayer was simulated without salt as a control. POPC bilayers experienced reductions in area per lipid with the addition of salt, the smaller the ion the smaller the area, with the exception of Li(+)...
January 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Marek Kłobucki, Aleksandra Grudniewska, Damian A Smuga, Małgorzata Smuga, Joanna Jarosz, Joanna Wietrzyk, Gabriela Maciejewska, Czesław Wawrzeńczyk
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a natural hormone with many beneficial properties including an anticancer activity. Unfortunately, DHEA is unstable in the body and exhibits cytotoxicity against healthy cells. In this study, a series of new phosphocholines containing DHEA at sn-1 and/or sn-2 positions were prepared. Succinic acid was used as a linker between the active drug and sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. All the compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activities against four cell lines: Balb/3T3, HL-60, B16, and LNCaP...
January 4, 2017: Steroids
F Ghomashchi, V Brglez, C Payré, L Jeammet, S Bezzine, M H Gelb, G Lambeau
A family of 14-20kDa, disulfide-rich, calcium-dependent secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) that release fatty acids from the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids can be found in mammals. They have a diverse array of tissue distribution and biological functions. In this chapter we provide detailed protocols for production of nearly all of the mouse and human sPLA2s mainly by expression in bacteria and in vitro refolding or by expression in insect cells. High-resolution mass spectrometry and enzymatic assays were, respectively, used to show that all disulfides are formed and that the enzymes are active, strongly suggesting that each sPLA2 was prepared in the structurally native form...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
K Yamamoto, Y Miki, H Sato, R Murase, Y Taketomi, M Murakami
The secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family contains 10 catalytically active isoforms. Current in vitro biochemical studies have shown that individual sPLA2s have distinct substrate selectivity in terms of the polar head groups or sn-2 fatty acids of their substrate phospholipids. Importantly, transgenic or knockout mice for distinct sPLA2s display nonoverlapping phenotypes, arguing that they do act on different phospholipid substrates and mobilize unique lipid metabolites in vivo. In an effort to comprehensively understand lipid metabolism driven by individual sPLA2s under pathophysiological conditions, we took advantages of mass spectrometric lipidomics technology to monitor the spatiotemporal changes in phospholipids (substrates) and products (fatty acids, lysophospholipids, and their metabolites) in tissues or cells of sPLA2-transgenic or knockout mice...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
I C Liang, C Y Weng, C Huang, C K Chang, H S Sheu, J G Lin, K F Hsu
Three new metal chalcogenides have been identified in MnN-1(Gd2-xInx)SN+2 with N = 3, 4, and 5 via a flux-growth synthesis. All compounds crystallize in the same space group of orthorhombic Cmcm with cell constants: Mn2GdInS5 (1), a = 3.789(1) Å, b = 12.411(1) Å, and c = 15.489(1) Å; Mn3Gd2S6 (2), a = 3.778(1) Å, b = 12.505(2) Å, and c = 19.114(2) Å; Mn4Gd2S7 (3), a = 3.769(1) Å, b = 12.466(2) Å, and c = 22.289(3) Å. Compounds 1-3 form a homologous series through the modulation of the MnS unit, whose structures represent a complete system of the corresponding lillianites ((N1,N2)L) of (3,3)L, (4,4)L and (5,5)L...
January 6, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Fumiaki Beppu, Takashi Kawamatsu, Yoshio Yamatani, Toshiharu Nagai, Kazuaki Yoshinaga, Hoyo Mizobe, Akihiko Yoshida, Atsushi Kubo, Jota Kanda, Naohiro Gotoh
Fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAGs) are catabolized after digestion. However, the catabolic rates of the fatty acids at the sn-1, sn-2, and sn-3 positions of TAGs have not been compared. To elucidate the differences, we studied the catabolic rates of (13)C-labeled palmitic acid, oleic acid, and capric acid at the sn-1, sn-2, or sn-3 position of TAGs using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Specifically, we measured the (13)C-to-(12)C ratio in CO2 (Δ(13)C (‰)) exhaled by mice. For all analyzed fatty acids, we observed significant differences between sn-2 and other binding positions...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
Jing Ning, Long Hao, Meihua Jin, Xiongying Qiu, Yudi Shen, Jiaxu Liang, Xinghao Zhang, Bin Wang, Xianglong Li, Linjie Zhi
A facile roll-to-roll method is developed for fabricating reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based flexible transparent conductive films. A Sn(2+) /ethanol reduction system and a rationally designed fast coating-drying-washing technique are proven to be highly efficient for low-cost continuous production of large-area rGO films and patterned rGO films, extremely beneficial toward the manufacture of flexible photoelectronic devices.
January 2, 2017: Advanced Materials
Lanying Song, Marissa McMackin, Andy Nguyen, Gino Cortopassi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition caused by age-related death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions rise exponentially with age in humans and reach their highest levels approaching 60% in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and overlap with dying neurons. Parkin deletion causes Parkinsonism in humans, presumably through a decrease in mitochondrial quality control, but Parkin knockout mice do not have DA neurodegeneration...
December 29, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Arnaud W G Tamba Sompila, Sylvie Héron, Dorra Hmida, Alain Tchapla
The distribution of fatty acid species at the sn-1/3 position or the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in natural fats and oils affects their physical and nutritional properties. In fats and oils, determining the presence of one or two regioisomers and the identification of structure, where they do have one, as well as their separation, became a problem of fundamental importance to solve. A variety of instrumental technics has been proposed, such as MS, chromatography-MS or pure chromatography. A number of studies deal with the optimization of the separation, but very often, they are expensive in time...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Tea-Yon Kim, Tae Kyung Lee, Byung Su Kim, Seul Chan Park, Sungjin Lee, Seung Soon Im, Juan Bisquert, Yong Soo Kang
Charge transfer between a conducting polymer-based counter electrode (CE) and a polysulfide (S(2-)/Sn(2-)) electrolyte mediator is a key limitation to improvements of solar energy conversion efficiency (ECE) in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). In this paper, 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) was doped into nano-fibrous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT NF) to overcome the charge transfer limitation between PEDOT NF and S(2-)/Sn(2-). EDT not only helps to reduce the aggregation and thus enhance the linearization of the PEDOT chains, but also changes the molecular conformation of the PEDOT chains from a benzoid to a quinoid structure...
December 22, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jaehee Lee, Sebastian Torker, Amir H Hoveyda
A highly chemo-, diastereo- and enantioselective catalytic method that efficiently combines a silyl hydride, vinyl-B(pin) (pin=pinacolato) and (E)-1,2-disubstituted allylic phosphates is introduced. Reactions, best promoted by a Cu-based complex with a chiral sulfonate-containing N-heterocyclic carbene, are broadly applicable. Aryl-, heteroaryl-, alkenyl-, alkynyl- and alkyl-substituted allylic phosphates may thus be converted to the corresponding homoallylic boronates and then alcohols (after C-B bond oxidation) in 46-91 % yield and in up to >98 % SN 2':SN 2 ratio, 96:4 diastereomeric ratio and 98:2 enantiomeric ratio...
January 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Qing-Yu Zhang, Li-Xin Niu, Rui Yu, Xiao-Xiao Zhang, Zhang-Zhen Bai, Ke Duan, Qing-Hua Gao, Yan-Long Zhang
Tree peony (Paeonia section Moutan DC.) is an excellent woody oil crop, and the cloning and functional analysis of genes related to fatty acid (FA) metabolism from this organism has not been reported. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. This project reports a putative lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase gene PrLPAAT1 isolated from Paeonia rockii...
December 16, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Amol G Jadhav, Suvidha S Shinde, Sandip K Lanke, Nagaiyan Sekar
Synthesis of novel benzophenone-based chemosensor is presented for the selective sensing of Sn(2+) ion. Screening of competitive metal ions was performed by competitive experiments. The specific cation recognition ability of chemosensor towards Sn(2+) was investigated by experimental (UV-visible, fluorescence spectroscopy, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, FTIR and HRMS) methods and further supported by Density Functional Theory study. The stoichiometric binding ratio and binding constant (Ka) for complex is found to be 1:1 and 1...
December 5, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Joohyun Lim, Jang Mee Lee, Boyeon Park, Xiaoyan Jin, Seong-Ju Hwang
The galvanic exchange reaction of an exfoliated 2D layered metal oxide nanosheet (NS) with excess substituent metal cations enables the synthesis of a mixed metal oxide 2D NS with controllable cation compositions and physicochemical properties. The reaction of the exfoliated MnO2 NS with Fe(2+) or Sn(2+) ions at 90 °C induces the uniform galvanic replacement of Mn ions with these substituent ions, whereas the same reaction at 25 °C results in the intercalative restacking of the negatively-charged MnO2 NS with Fe(2+) or Sn(2+) cations...
December 16, 2016: Nanoscale
Liangliang Zhang, Indra Dev Sahu, Man Xu, Yongmei Wang, Xinyu Hu
The effects of metal ions (Cu(2+), Sn(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Al(3+) and Fe(3+)) on the interaction between (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) and β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) were investigated via fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The results of the fluorescence titration experiment demonstrated that the addition of Cu(2+) increases the quenching efficiency of EGCg to β-Lg by more than EGCg alone, while Mn(2+), Al(3+) and Zn(2+) decrease the quenching efficiency of EGCg to β-Lg by less than EGCg alone...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Tze-Bin Song, Takamichi Yokoyama, Constantinos C Stoumpos, Jenna Logsdon, Duyen H Cao, Michael R Wasielewski, Shinji Aramaki, Mercouri G Kanatzidis
Tin-based halide perovskite materials have been successfully employed in lead-free perovskite solar cells, but the tendency of these materials to form leakage pathways from p-type defect states, mainly Sn(4+) and Sn vacancies, causes poor device reproducibility and limits the overall power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Here, we present an effective process that involves a reducing vapor atmosphere during the preparation of Sn-based halide perovskite solar cells to solve this problem, using MASnI3, CsSnI3, and CsSnBr3 as the representative absorbers...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Zhibin Yang, Adharsh Rajagopal, Sae Byeok Jo, Chu-Chen Chueh, Spencer Williams, Chun-Chih Huang, John K Katahara, Hugh W Hillhouse, Alex K-Y Jen
Wide bandgap MAPb(I1-yBry)3 perovskites show promising potential for application in tandem solar cells. However, unstable photovoltaic performance caused by phase segregation has been observed under illumination when y is above 0.2. Herein, we successfully demonstrate stabilization of the I/Br phase by partially replacing Pb(2+) with Sn(2+) and verify this stabilization with X-ray diffractometry and transient absorption spectroscopy. The resulting MAPb0.75Sn0.25(I1-yBry)3 perovskite solar cells show stable photovoltaic performance under continuous illumination...
December 14, 2016: Nano Letters
Su Hee Kim, Ha Eun Song, Su Jung Kim, Dong Cheol Woo, Suhwan Chang, Woo Gyun Choi, Mi Jeong Kim, Sung Hoon Back, Hyun Ju Yoo
The aspects of cellular metabolism controlled by phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PtdInsPs) have been broadly expanded, and these phospholipids have drawn tremendous attention as pleiotropic signaling molecules. PtdInsPs analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has remained challenging due to the strong hydrophilicity of these lipids. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) or a neutral loss scan has been performed to quantitatively measure PtdInsPs after chemical derivatization on the phosphate groups of inositol moieties...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Xiaolong Zhao, Zhenping Wu, Wei Cui, Yusong Zhi, Daoyou Guo, Linghong Li, Weihua Tang
Corundum-structured α-phase Ga1.4Sn0.6O3 thin films have been deposited on m-plane Al2O3(300) substrates using laser molecular beam epitaxy technology. With increasing of the oxygen partial pressure, the crystal lattice of Ga1.4Sn0.6O3 films expands due to tin ions valence changes from Sn(4+) to Sn(2+). The resistivity of the film deposited under 3 × 10(-5) Pa is 3.54 × 10(4) Ω·cm, which decreases by about 2 orders of magnitude than that fabricated under 3 × 10(-1) Pa. The mixture valence of Sn(2+) and Sn(4+) ions leads to the impurity altitude compensation effect...
December 27, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
John W Fuseler, Mani T Valarmathi
Nitric oxide (NO) is a small free-radical gas molecule, which is highly diffusible and can activate a wide range of downstream effectors, with rapid and widespread cellular effects. NO is a versatile signaling mediator with a plethora of cellular functions. For example, NO has been shown to regulate actin, the microfilament, dependent cellular functions, and also acts as a putative stem cell differentiation-inducing agent. In this study, using a wound-healing model of cellular migration, we have explored the effect of exogenous NO on the kinetics of movement and morphological changes in postnatal bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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