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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449257/the-development-and-application-of-random-match-probabilities-to-firearm-and-toolmark-identification
#1
John E Murdock, Nicholas D K Petraco, John I Thornton, Michael T Neel, Todd J Weller, Robert M Thompson, James E Hamby, Eric R Collins
The field of firearms and toolmark analysis has encountered deep scrutiny of late, stemming from a handful of voices, primarily in the law and statistical communities. While strong scrutiny is a healthy and necessary part of any scientific endeavor, much of the current criticism leveled at firearm and toolmark analysis is, at best, misinformed and, at worst, punditry. One of the most persistent criticisms stems from the view that as the field lacks quantified random match probability data (or at least a firm statistical model) with which to calculate the probability of a false match, all expert testimony concerning firearm and toolmark identification or source attribution is unreliable and should be ruled inadmissible...
May 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444055/prospects-of-studies-on-violence-adolescence-and-cortisol-a-systematic-literature-review
#2
Leonardo Planel Lugarinho, Joviana Quintes Avanci, Liana Wernersbach Pinto
Violence has a negative impact on adolescents and affects their quality of life. It causes stress and requires the victim's adaptive capacity, which can cause psychological and biological changes. Hormone cortisol levels have been used as stress biomarker in several studies. This paper aims to perform a systematic literature review of publications on cortisol and violence involving teenagers from 2000 to 2013. Descriptors "cortisol", "violence" and "adolescent" were used in both English and Portuguese in this review, which included bibliographic databases PubMed/Medline, Lilacs, BVS and SciELO...
April 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441573/the-role-of-negative-affect-and-message-credibility-in-perceived-effectiveness-of-smokeless-tobacco-health-warning-labels-in-navi-mumbai-india-and-dhaka-bangladesh-a-moderated-mediation-analysis
#3
Seema Mutti-Packer, Jessica L Reid, James F Thrasher, Daniel Romer, Geoffrey T Fong, Prakash C Gupta, Mangesh S Pednekar, Nigar Nargis, David Hammond
OBJECTIVE: There is strong evidence showing that pictorial health warnings are more effective than text-only warnings. However, much of this evidence comes from high-income countries and is limited to cigarette packaging. Moreover, few studies have identified mechanisms that might explain the impact of warnings. METHODS: The current study examined the potential mediating role of negative affect and the moderating influence of message credibility in perceived effectiveness of smokeless tobacco warnings in two low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
April 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440999/-epistemic-injustice-during-the-medical-education-process-in-the-hospital-context
#4
Carolina Consejo-Y Chapela, Carlos Alfonso Viesca-Treviño
BACKGROUND: The educational model adopted by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) Faculty of Medicine is constructivist; it is a model based on competence development. It aims to provide learning environments that incorporate real activities (it helps the students to develop social negotiation skills, as part of their integral learning; it encourages them to take a critical and reflexive approach; and it is also a student-centered model). However, many challenges arise when this model is implemented in the context of hospital environments...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438552/immunomodulation-of-autoimmune-arthritis-by-pro-inflammatory-cytokines
#5
REVIEW
Eugene Y Kim, Kamal D Moudgil
Pro-inflammatory cytokines promote autoimmune inflammation and tissue damage, while anti-inflammatory cytokines help resolve inflammation and facilitate tissue repair. Over the past few decades, this general feature of cytokine-mediated events has offered a broad framework to comprehend the pathogenesis of autoimmune and other immune-mediated diseases, and to successfully develop therapeutic approaches for diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) therapy is a testimony in support of this endeavor...
April 21, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437730/the-practice-of-prosecuting-child-maltreatment-results-of-an-online-survey-of-prosecutors
#6
Theodore P Cross, Debra Whitcomb
Despite efforts by advocates, practitioners, and legislators to alleviate the burden on child maltreatment victims in the criminal justice system, many challenges remain for prosecutors as they seek to hold offenders accountable while minimizing the emotional impact on children. More than 200 state and local prosecutors in 37 states responded to an online survey to share their perspectives on current challenges, procedures to support children in the adjudication process, and the impact of the U.S. Supreme Court opinion in Crawford v...
April 21, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436575/the-influence-of-first-hand-testimony-and-hearsay-on-children-s-belief-in-the-improbable
#7
Jonathan D Lane, Samuel Ronfard, Diana El-Sherif
Children (3.5-8.5 years; n = 105) heard claims about the occurrence of improbable or impossible events, then were asked whether the events could really happen. Some claims were based on informants' first-hand observations and others were hearsay. A baseline group (n = 56) reported their beliefs about these events without hearing testimony. Neither first-hand claims nor hearsay influenced beliefs about impossible events, which remained low across the age range. Hearsay (but not first-hand claims) did influence beliefs about improbable events...
April 24, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408135/the-missing-person-the-outcome-of-the-rule-based-totalitarianism-of-too-much-contemporary-healthcare
#8
Iona Heath
OBJECTIVES: Medicine has an obsession with scientific progress and a misplaced belief in the perfectibility of the human body and mind and, as a result, there seems never to be time for the necessary backward glance. If we in healthcare are to learn any of the lessons of history, it seems important that we pay attention to those who have suffered at the sharp end of historical events. METHODS AND RESULTS: This paper invokes thinkers and writers who lived lives scarred by totalitarian politics...
April 3, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401045/differences-between-british-and-japanese-perspectives-on-forensic-mental-health-systems-a-preliminary-study
#9
Akihiro Shiina, Aika Tomoto, Soichiro Omiya, Aiko Sato, Masaomi Iyo, Yoshito Igarashi
AIM: To clarify the differences in views on forensic mental health (FMH) systems between the United Kingdom and Japan. METHODS: We conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with six leading forensic psychiatrists. Based on a discussion by the research team, we created an interview form. After we finished conducting all the interviews, we qualitatively analyzed their content. RESULTS: In the United Kingdom the core domain of FMH was risk assessment and management; however, in Japan, the core domain of FMH was psychiatric testimony...
March 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392593/st-padre-pio-home-for-the-relief-of-suffering-in-the-usa-responding-to-the-call
#10
Jere D Palazzolo
This exposition is not intended to be a scientific or theological treatise, but rather a testimony to a personal call by Padre Pio, a commitment in faith, to duplicate St. Pio's model of healthcare delivery as a "Beacon of Light" in our increasingly secular country, an example of truly faithful Catholic health care fully faithful to the Magisterial authority of the Church, and a model for other Catholic hospitals to emulate in their ministries.
November 2016: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392005/robert-wood-johnson-foundation-nurse-faculty-scholars-program-leadership-training
#11
Jacquelyn C Campbell, Angela Barron McBride, LuAnn Etcher, Katie Deming
BACKGROUND: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program was created to address the nursing shortage via development of the next generation of national leaders in academic nursing. PURPOSE: The leadership training combined development at the scholar's home institution with in-person didactic and interactive sessions with notable leaders in nursing and other disciplines. METHODS: A curriculum matrix, organized by six domains, was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively...
February 20, 2017: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390520/medicolegal-issues-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
REVIEW
Nathan D Zasler, Erin Bigler
The role of the physiatrist in provision of medicolegal expert testimony in cases involving traumatic brain injury is challenging and complex. This article provides an overview of how such work should be conducted from a practical perspective including discussion of ethical, legal, medical, and business aspects of such activities. Additionally, pointers are provided with regards to how information including preinjury, injury, and postinjury (including neuroimaging and neuropsychological data) should be considered and integrated into medicolegal opinions and testimony...
May 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390399/could-a-short-training-intervention-modify-opinions-about-mental-illness-a-case-study-on-french-health-professionals
#13
Murielle Villani, Viviane Kovess-Masfety
BACKGROUND: In France, negative views on schizophrenia are pervasive, even among health professionals. Prior research suggests that the level of prejudice is lower when the illness is described with the example of a specific individual. This finding highlights the importance of designing local, targeted destigmatization campaigns. The present study aims to evaluate the benefits of a short intervention offering contact with psychiatric services users on reducing the stigma about mentally ill people, among a sample of Health Administrators and Students...
April 8, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374230/evaluation-of-entertainment-education-strategies-to-promote-cervical-cancer-screening-and-knowledge-in-colombian-women
#14
Roland Lincoln Boyden Lamb, Sara Milena Ramos Jaraba, Valentina Graciano Tangarife, Isabel C Garcés-Palacio
Cervical cancer is considered to be a major health problem for women in developing countries, but it is also problematic for more developed countries as global migration increases and health behaviors move from the countries of origin to new places of residence. We designed and produced a testimonial video and a fotonovela (printed short story) to educate women about cervical cancer and screening. The development of the materials included formative research, production, pretesting, dissemination, and evaluation...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373657/between-psychoanalysis-and-testimonial-space-the-analyst-as-a-witness
#15
Jô Gondar
The aim of this article is to think of the place of the witness as a third place that the analyst, in the clinical space of trauma, is able to sustain. According to Ferenczi, in traumatic dreams a third is already being summoned. It is not the witness of the realm of law, nor the place of the father or the symbolic law. This is a third space that can be called potential, interstitial space, indeterminate and formless, where something that at first would be incommunicable circulates and gradually takes shape...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370391/interviews-of-children-in-a-portuguese-special-judicial-procedure
#16
Carlos Eduardo Peixoto, Raquel Veludo Fernandes, Telma Sousa Almeida, Júlia Marina Silva, David La Rooy, Catarina Ribeiro, Teresa Magalhães, Michael E Lamb
Since 2007, alleged victims of child sexual abuse in Portugal have provided evidence in a mandatory "Declarações para Memória Futura" (DMF; English transl. 'Statement for future use') proceeding. In order to protect children from having to testify in court, interviews conducted at the DMF can be used later as trial evidence because the hearings are conducted by judges. The present study examined 137 interviews with 3- to 17-year-olds conducted in several Portuguese criminal courts. Detailed examination of interview transcripts showed that 69% of all questions asked were option-posing questions, 16% were directive questions, 11% were suggestive questions, and only 3% were open-ended prompts...
March 29, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358533/what-i-don-t-know-won-t-hurt-you-the-relation-between-professed-ignorance-and-later-knowledge-claims
#17
Tamar Kushnir, Melissa A Koenig
Testimony is a valuable source of information for young learners, in particular if children maintain vigilance against errors while still being open to learning from imperfectly knowledgeable sources. We find support for this idea by examining how children evaluate individual speakers who present very different epistemic risks by being previously ignorant or inaccurate. Results across 2 experiments show that children attribute knowledge to (Experiment 1) and endorse new claims made by speakers (Experiment 2) who previously professed ignorance about familiar object labels, but not to speakers whose labels were previously inaccurate...
March 30, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358298/confidence-moderates-the-role-of-control-beliefs-in-the-context-of-age-related-changes-in-misinformation-susceptibility
#18
Margeaux V Auslander, Ayanna K Thomas, Angela H Gutchess
Background/Study Context: The present experiment investigated the role of confidence and control beliefs in susceptibility to the misinformation effect in young and older adults. Control beliefs are perceptions about one's abilities or competence and the extent to which one can influence performance outcomes. It was predicted that level of control beliefs would influence misinformation susceptibility and overall memory confidence. METHODS: Fifty university students (ages 18-26) and 37 community-dwelling older adults (ages 62-86) were tested...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351241/who-will-be-this-year-s-patient-s-choice
#19
(no author information available yet)
Our five Patient's Choice finalists have been shortlisted from scores of nominations. The award, sponsored by Yakult, enables members of the public to thank a nurse or midwife who has made a real difference to their care or that of a loved one. Smooth Radio and Good Morning Britain presenter Kate Garraway will announce the winner at the RCNi Nurse Awards ceremony in London on 5 May. RCNi editorial director Graham Scott says: 'Here are five inspirational nurses and five examples of outstanding care that all deserve an award...
March 29, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350261/common-beliefs-about-child-sexual-abuse-and-disclosure-a-college-sample
#20
Katherine McGuire, Kamala London
Adults' common beliefs about child sexual abuse and disclosure were explored. Participants (N = 670) were questioned about key areas of child sexual abuse that could affect decision-making processes of jurors evaluating child sexual abuse cases. These areas included victim and perpetrator characteristics, medical and behavioral indicators of child sexual abuse, memories for the event, and disclosure of the event. The scientific literature pertaining to these same areas are reviewed. While individual beliefs were consistent with some areas of the scientific literature (e...
February 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
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