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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225699/what-is-the-relevance-of-procedural-fairness-to-making-determinations-about-medical-evidence
#1
Govind Persad
Approaches relying on fair procedures rather than substantive principles have been proposed for answering dilemmas in medical ethics and health policy. These dilemmas generally involve two questions: the epistemological (factual) question of which benefits an intervention will have, and the ethical (value) question of how to distribute those benefits. This article focuses on the potential of fair procedures to help address epistemological and factual questions in medicine, using the debate over antidepressant efficacy as a test case...
February 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219967/expert-witness-participation-in-civil-and-criminal-proceedings
#2
Stephan R Paul, Sandeep K Narang
The interests of the public and both the medical and legal professions are best served when scientifically sound and unbiased expert witness testimony is readily available in civil and criminal proceedings. As members of the medical community, patient advocates, and private citizens, pediatricians have ethical and professional obligations to assist in the civil and criminal judicial processes. This policy statement offers recommendations on advocacy, education, research, qualifications, standards, and ethical business practices all aimed at improving expert testimony...
February 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219966/the-child-witness-in-the-courtroom
#3
Robert H Pantell
Beginning in the 1980s, children have increasingly served as witnesses in the criminal, civil, and family courts; currently, >100 000 children appear in court each year. This statement updates the 1992 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) policy statement "The Child as a Witness" and the subsequent 1999 "The Child in Court: A Subject Review." It also builds on existing AAP policy on adverse life events affecting children and resources developed to understand and address childhood trauma. The purpose of this policy statement is to provide background information on some of the legal issues involving children testifying in court, including the accuracy and psychological impact of child testimony; to provide suggestions for how pediatricians can support patients who will testify in court; and to make recommendations for policy improvements to minimize the adverse psychological consequences for child witnesses...
February 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219964/expert-witness-participation-in-civil-and-criminal-proceedings
#4
Sandeep K Narang, Stephan R Paul
The interests of the public and both the medical and legal professions are best served when scientifically sound and unbiased expert witness testimony is readily available in civil and criminal proceedings. As members of the medical community, patient advocates, and private citizens, pediatricians have ethical and professional obligations to assist in the civil and criminal judicial processes. This technical report explains how the role of the expert witness differs in civil and criminal proceedings, legal and ethical standards for expert witnesses, and strategies that have been employed to deter unscientific and irresponsible testimony...
February 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216771/filicide-in-the-united-states
#5
Phillip J Resnick
In the United States the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education determines the curriculum required for fellows in forensic psychiatry to become board certified as a subspecialist. Areas that must be covered during the one year fellowship include criminal issues, such as insanity; civil issues, such as tort law and Workers' Compensation; legal regulation of psychiatry, such as confidentiality and involuntary hospitalization; and correctional psychiatry issues, such as dual agency and prisoner's rights...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216769/the-insanity-defense-related-issues
#6
REVIEW
T V Asokan
For the past 150 years, there is no change in the understanding and knowledge other than autonomy and capacity to choose the right and wrong for criminal liability. The alternative concept that human behavior is the result of an interaction between biological and environmental factors other than free choice failed to impress the criminal justice system because of a direct threat to a society's deep seated need to blame someone than themselves for criminal harms that occur. The insanity defense has a long history, and is evolved after many tests that have been tried and tested...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198722/triad-viii-nationwide-multicenter-evaluation-to-determine-whether-patient-video-testimonials-can-safely-help-ensure-appropriate-critical-versus-end-of-life-care
#7
Ferdinando L Mirarchi, Timothy E Cooney, Arvind Venkat, David Wang, Thaddeus M Pope, Abra L Fant, Stanley A Terman, Kevin M Klauer, Monica Williams-Murphy, Michael A Gisondi, Brian Clemency, Ankur A Doshi, Mari Siegel, Mary S Kraemer, Kate Aberger, Stephanie Harman, Neera Ahuja, Jestin N Carlson, Melody L Milliron, Kristopher K Hart, Chelsey D Gilbertson, Jason W Wilson, Larissa Mueller, Lori Brown, Bradley D Gordon
OBJECTIVE: End-of-life interventions should be predicated on consensus understanding of patient wishes. Written documents are not always understood; adding a video testimonial/message (VM) might improve clarity. Goals of this study were to (1) determine baseline rates of consensus in assigning code status and resuscitation decisions in critically ill scenarios and (2) determine whether adding a VM increases consensus. METHODS: We randomly assigned 2 web-based survey links to 1366 faculty and resident physicians at institutions with graduate medical education programs in emergency medicine, family practice, and internal medicine...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191996/the-impact-of-testimony-on-children-s-moralization-of-novel-actions
#8
Joshua Rottman, Liane Young, Deborah Kelemen
What leads children to moralize actions that cause no apparent harm? We hypothesized that adults' verbal instruction ("testimony"), as well as emotions such as disgust, would influence children's moralization of apparently harmless actions. To test this hypothesis, 7-year-old children were asked to render moral judgments of novel, seemingly victimless, body-directed or nature-directed actions after being exposed to adults' testimony or to an emotional induction. Study 1 demonstrated that children became more likely to judge actions as "wrong" upon being verbally presented with testimony about disgust or anger-but not upon being directly induced to feel disgusted...
February 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190937/belonging-and-unbelonging-jewish-refugee-and-survivor-women-in-1950s-britain
#9
Angela Davis
This article analyses the life stories of female Jewish refugees and survivors in 1950s Britain in order to explore their relationship with the existing Jewish community and wider society. The paper is based on an analysis of twenty-one oral history testimonies from the Jewish survivors of the Holocaust collection held at the British library. Around 50,000 Jewish refugees from Central Europe came to Britain in the 1930s after fleeing from Hitler. In addition, a relatively small number of camp survivors and former hidden children settled in the country after the war; the Board of Deputies of British Jews Demographic Unit estimates the figure at 2000...
January 2, 2017: Women's History Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188152/perineal-resuturing-versus-expectant-management-following-vaginal-delivery-complicated-by-a-dehisced-wound-preview-a-nested-qualitative-study
#10
L Dudley, C Kettle, J Waterfield, Khaled M K Ismail
OBJECTIVE: To explore women's lived experiences of a dehisced perineal wound following childbirth and how they felt participating in a pilot and feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT). DESIGN: A nested qualitative study using semistructured interviews, underpinned by descriptive phenomenology. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A purposive sample of six women at 6-9 months postnatal who participated in the RCT were interviewed in their own homes...
February 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182533/the-reality-of-routine-practice-a-pooled-data-analysis-on-chronic-wounds-treated-with-tlc-nosf-wound-dressings
#11
K C Münter, S Meaume, M Augustin, P Senet, J C Kérihuel
OBJECTIVE: A number of randomised controlled trials (RCT) have compared control groups with TLC-NOSF dressings (UrgoStart) on chronic wounds. Our aim was to determine whether the clinical trials' results translate into routine management of such wounds, by pooling the data from real-life observational studies. METHOD: Observational studies, conducted in France and Germany, evaluating current practices in patients suffering from non-selected chronic wounds treated with a TLC-NOSF dressing were identified...
February 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174647/the-art-of-vaginal-breech-birth-at-term-on-all-fours
#12
Hajo I J Wildschut, Hinke van Belzen-Slappendel, Suze Jans
Despite a shift in clinical practice favouring cesarean section for breech presentation, adequate skills are still needed for a safe vaginal breech birth. This case report illustrates the physiological mechanism of vaginal breech birth. The accompanying pictures are a testimony to the "hands-off" approach and could be used for educational purposes.
February 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120726/plasmodial-hsp40s-new-avenues-for-antimalarial-drug-discovery
#13
Michael O Daniyan, Gregory L Blatch
Malaria, an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium spp, is one of the world's most dangerous diseases, accounting for more than half a million deaths yearly. The long years of co-habitation between the parasite and its hosts (human and mosquito), is a testimony to the parasite's ability to escape the immune system and develop drug resistance mechanisms. Currently, an important search area for improved pharmacotherapy are molecular chaperones of the heat shock protein family, abundant in Plasmodium falciparum and contributing to its continuous survival and development...
January 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111833/dusting-off-the-looking-glass-a-historical-analysis-of-the-development-of-a-nursing-identity-in-chile
#14
Ricardo A Ayala, E Rocío Núñez
Histories of nursing that disregard their linkage to broader historical movements often lead to historically detached versions of nursing identity that omit the perspective of their sources and the ideas of their time. Drawing on materials retrieved through a multilayered research strategy comprising internal and external sources, this article examines the development of a nursing identity in Chile during the period starting in the 1950s through the early 2000s. We analysed the sociopolitical contexts in which the nursing profession grew, the changing direction of its role and how the nursing identity transformed itself...
January 22, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109836/understanding-quasi-apoptosis-of-the-most-numerous-enucleated-components-of-blood-needs-detailed-molecular-autopsy
#15
REVIEW
Gennadii Petrovich Gusev, Rukmini Govekar, Nikhil Gadewal, Natalia Ivanovna Agalakova
Erythrocytes are the most numerous cells in human body and their function of oxygen transport is pivotal to human physiology. However, being enucleated, they are often referred to as a sac of molecules and their cellularity is challenged. Interestingly, their programmed death stands a testimony to their cell-hood. They are capable of self-execution after a defined life span by both cell-specific mechanism and that resembling the cytoplasmic events in apoptosis of nucleated cells. Since the execution process lacks the nuclear and mitochondrial events in apoptosis, it has been referred to as quasi-apoptosis or eryptosis...
January 18, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108504/youtube-and-the-single-rod-contraceptive-implant-a-content-analysis
#16
Jennifer Paul, Christy M Boraas, Mildred Duvet, Judy C Chang
BACKGROUND: Since the internet has become an important source of contraceptive information with YouTube.com as the second most visited site, we analysed contraceptive implant YouTube videos for content and clinical accuracy. METHODS: Using the terms 'contraceptive implant', 'Nexplanon' and 'Implanon', the top 20 results on YouTube by relevance and view count were identified. After excluding duplicates, single-rod implant videos in English were included. Videos were classified as providing a professional or patient perspective...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052822/applying-a-conceptual-framework-to-maximize-the-participation-of-diverse-populations-in-cancer-clinical-trials
#17
A Napoles, E Cook, T Ginossar, K D Knight, M E Ford
The underrepresentation of ethnically diverse populations in cancer clinical trials results in the inequitable distribution of the risks and benefits of this research. Using a case study approach, we apply a conceptual framework of factors associated with the participation of diverse population groups in cancer clinical trials developed by Dr. Jean Ford and colleagues to increase understanding of the specific strategies, and barriers and promoters addressed by these strategies, that resulted in marked success in accrual of racially and ethnically diverse populations in cancer clinical research...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042922/patient-readmission-for-orthopedic-surgical-site-infection-an-hermeneutic-phenomenological-approach
#18
Lilian Machado Torres, Ruth Natalia Teresa Turrini, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa Merighi
AIM: To explore the individual experience of being readmitted for SSI resulting from orthopedic surgery. BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection has been a cause of concern worldwide and contributes to the greatest number of hospital readmission occurrences. Health professionals must understand the meaning of these readmissions for the individual, as an understanding of these exclusive experiences improve the quality of surgical care. DESIGN: Qualitative research based on the existential phenomenology of Martin Heidegger...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031934/stories-of-experiences-of-care-for-growth-hormone-deficiency-the-crescere-project
#19
Maria G Marini, Paola Chesi, Laura Mazzanti, Laura Guazzarotti, Teresa D Toni, Maria C Salerno, Annunziata Officioso, Maria Parpagnoli, Cristina Angeletti, Maria F Faienza, Maria L Iezzi, Tommaso Aversa, Cinzia Sacchetti
AIMS: Growth hormone deficiency therapy is demanding for patients and caregivers. Teams engaged in the clinical management of growth hormone deficiency therapy need to know how families live with this condition, to provide an adequate support and prevent the risk of withdrawal from therapy. METHODS: Using Narrative Medicine, testimonies from patients, their parents and providers of care were collected from 11 Italian centers. Narrations were analyzed throughout an elaboration of recurring words and expressions...
March 2016: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026980/addiction-related-stigma-and-discrimination-a-qualitative-study-in-treatment-centers-in-mexico-city
#20
Jazmín Mora-Ríos, Miriam Ortega-Ortega, Maria Elena Medina-Mora
: Social rejection of drug use is greater than that directed at other psychiatric conditions, like depression and anxiety, which may lead to social exclusion of substance users and prevent them from seeking and receiving treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the stigma and discrimination related to addiction in treatment centers in Mexico City. METHODS: Data are from a broad mixed methods study. The present study is a qualitative analysis of 35 in-depth interviews of drug users, family members, and providers, using guidelines for the exploration of experiences of stigma and discrimination related to substance abuse...
December 27, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
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