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Elisabet Sundewall Thorén, Julie Hefting Pedersen, Nis Ove Jørnæs
Purpose: This paper describes the results from the iterative development and usability testing of an online audiological rehabilitation (OAR) program. The OAR was based on previous experience with Internet interventions and OAR. Method: The described OAR consisted of weekly learning modules, each of which had a specific topic and contained information and learning activities. A virtual coach, a trained audiologist, led the participants through the modules. The participants' feedback was collected using the "think-aloud" method in which the participants gave their feedback in a structured manner...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Danièle Pacaud, Jean-François Lemay, Erick Richmond, Stéphane Besançon, Dhruvi Hasnani, Sujata M Jali, Carmen Mazza
Diabetes affects many children living in developing countries. Through an informal survey, five SWEET (Better control in Pediatric and Adolescent diabeteS: Working to crEate CEnTers of Reference) centers from developing countries (Mali, Costa Rica, Argentina and two from India) share their perspective on caring for children with diabetes. Each center provides a description of the population of children with diabetes they serve, the organization of care, and the challenges encountered on a daily basis in the provision of this care...
October 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
Parul Jain, Eric Hoffman, Michael Beam, Shan Susan Xu
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are widespread in the United States among people ages 15-24 years and cost almost $16 billion yearly. It is therefore important to understand message design strategies that could help reduce these numbers. Guided by exemplification theory and the extended parallel process model (EPPM), this study examines the influence of message format and the presence versus absence of a graphic image on recipients' accessibility of STI attitudes regarding safe sex. Results of the experiment indicate a significant effect from testimonial messages on increased attitude accessibility regarding STIs compared to statistical messages...
October 12, 2016: Health Communication
Julio Jiménez, Axel Ramos, Francisco E Ramos-Rivera, Clement Gwede, Gwendolyn P Quinn, Susan Vadaparampil, Thomas Brandon, Vani Simmons, Eida Castro
Cancer is the leading cause of death in Puerto Rico, suggesting a need for improved strategies, programs, and resources devoted to cancer prevention. Enhanced prevention needs in Puerto Rico were initially identified in pilot studies conducted by the Ponce School of Medicine (PSM) in collaboration with the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC). In the current study, we used community engagement to identify specific needs in cancer prevention and education and strategies to create culturally attuned, effective cancer prevention education programs...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Moritz Berning, Anita Hardon
This study examines how experimentation with designer drugs is mediated by the Internet. We selected a popular drug forum that presents reports on self-experimentation with little or even completely unexplored designer drugs to examine: (1) how participants report their "trying out" of new compounds and (2) how participants reduce the pharmacological uncertainty associated with using these substances. Our methods included passive observation online, engaging more actively with the online community using an avatar, and off-line interviews with key interlocutors to validate our online findings...
September 2016: Contemporary Drug Problems
Amanda Rees
This paper explores how three central figures in the field of British prehistory - Sir Arthur Keith, Sir Grafton Elliot Smith and Louis Leakey - deployed different disciplinary practices and narrative devices in the popular accounts of human bio-cultural evolution that they produced during the early decades of the twentieth century. It shows how they used a variety of strategies, ranging from virtual witness through personal testimony to tactile demonstration, to ground their authority to interpret the increasingly wide range of fossil material available and to answer the bewildering variety of questions that could be asked about them...
September 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
Kirk Bansak, Jens Hainmueller, Dominik Hangartner
What types of asylum seekers are Europeans willing to accept? We conducted a conjoint experiment asking 18,000 eligible voters in 15 European countries to evaluate 180,000 profiles of asylum seekers that randomly varied on nine attributes. Asylum seekers who have higher employability, have more consistent asylum testimonies and severe vulnerabilities, and are Christian rather than Muslim received the greatest public support. These results suggest that public preferences over asylum seekers are shaped by sociotropic evaluations of their potential economic contributions, humanitarian concerns about the deservingness of their claims, and anti-Muslim bias...
October 14, 2016: Science
Mário J D S Santos
BACKGROUND: The option of a planned home birth defies medical and social normativity across countries. In Denmark, despite the dramatic decline in the home birth rates between 1960 and 1980, the right to choose the place of birth was preserved. Little has been produced documenting this process. AIM: To present and discuss Susanne Houd's reflection on the history and social dynamics of home birth in Denmark, based in an in-depth interview. METHODS: This paper is part of wider Short Term Scientific Mission (STSM), in which this interview was framed as oral history...
October 1, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Kim Brøsen, Stig Ejdrup Andersen, Jeanett Borregaard, Hanne Rolighed Christensen, Palle Mark Christensen, Kim Peder Dalhoff, Per Damkier, Jesper Hallas, Jens Heisterberg, Niels Jessen, Gesche Jürgens, Jens Peter Konnerup Kampmann, Britt Elmedal Laursen, Torben Laursen, Lars Peter Nielsen, Birgitte Klindt Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Ljubica Vukelic Andersen, Thomas Senderovitz, Jesper Sonne
The Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology was founded in 1976, and mainly thanks to the persistent efforts of the Society, clinical pharmacology became an independent medical speciality in Denmark in 1996. Since then, clinical pharmacology has gone from strength to strength. In the Danish health care system, clinical pharmacology has established itself as an indispensible part of the efforts to promote the rational, safe and economic use of drugs. Clinical pharmacologists are active in drug committees in both hospitals and in the primary sector...
September 29, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Tiffany Lavis, Neil Brewer
Witnesses frequently make an error when reporting events they have observed. Although some error in witness reports is to be expected and does not mean the testimony as a whole is flawed, an important question is how such an error affects judgments of credibility of the witness. In 2 experiments we investigated the impact of a single demonstrated (probative or nonprobative) detail inaccuracy on judgments of the likely reliability of witness memory. Potential mediators (witness dishonesty and forgetfulness) were examined to explain the relationship between inaccuracy and perceived reliability of the witness's memory report...
September 29, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Jordan W Suchow, Daryl Fougnie, George A Alvarez
Confidence in our memories is influenced by many factors, including beliefs about the perceptibility or memorability of certain kinds of objects and events, as well as knowledge about our skill sets, habits, and experiences. Notoriously, our knowledge and beliefs about memory can lead us astray, causing us to be overly confident in eyewitness testimony or to overestimate the frequency of recent experiences. Here, using visual working memory as a case study, we stripped away all these potentially misleading cues, requiring observers to make confidence judgments by directly assessing the quality of their memory representations...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Stéphane Bernard, Thomas Castelain, Hugo Mercier, Laurence Kaufmann, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Fabrice Clément
Recent research has shown that young children rely on social cues to evaluate testimony. For instance, they prefer to endorse testimony provided by a consensual group than by a single dissenter. Given that dominance is pervasive in children's social environment, it can be hypothesized that children also use dominance relations in their selection of testimony. To test this hypothesis, a dominance asymmetry was induced between two characters either by having one repeatedly win in physical contests (physical power; Experiment 1) or by having one repeatedly impose her goals on the other (decisional power; Experiment 2)...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Cindy Wu, C Scott Hultman, Paul Diegidio, Steven Hermiz, Roja Garimella, Trisha M Crutchfield, Clara N Lee
BACKGROUND: What do patients want when looking for an aesthetic surgeon? When faced with attributes like reputation, years in practice, testimonials, photos, and pricing, which is more valuable? Moreover, are attributes procedure-specific? Currently, inadequate evidence exists on which attributes are most important to patients, and to our knowledge, none on procedure-specific preferences. OBJECTIVES: First, to determine the most important attributes to breast augmentation, combined breast/abdominal surgery, and facelift patients using conjoint analysis...
September 20, 2016: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Berit Foss, Dagfinn Nåden, Katie Eriksson
The purpose of this article is to explore what the experience of events of truth can entail in hermeneutic dialogue with text as well as the significance this can have for hermeneutic methodology in caring science. Experience of events of truth is discussed based on Hans-Georg Gadamer's ontological perspective and on Emmanuel Levinas's ethical perspective. A veritable experience of an event of truth is a testimony to the responsibility we take for the Other and to our humanity. Experience of events of truth requires that there is a connection of esteem between ethics and ontology in the reader's understanding of what Hans-Georg Gadamer calls the subject matter (Sache)...
October 2016: Nursing Science Quarterly
Suzana Inić, Stella Fatović-Ferenčić, Nikola Kujundžić
This article looks into the autobiography of the Croatian chemist and pharmacognosist Antun Vrgoč (1881-1949) entitled My Memories of the World War 1914-1920 and published in Zagreb in 1937. The author was captured in October 1914 and deported to Siberia, where he remained prisoner of war until 1920. Since there are few memoirs describing the life of Siberian prisoners during the First World War, this work is a precious testimony about the attitude towards the prisoners of war, human relations, and the survival of an AustroHungarian army officer...
November 2015: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
Emilia Bea
This article approaches the testimony of the Alsatian psychiatrist Dr Adélaïde Hautval on the pseudo-medicine that was practiced in the Medical experimentation Block 10 of Auschwitz Birkenau, and on her refusal to take part in this crime against humanity. By reading her deportation diary and the acts of a peculiar judgment in Auschwitz that was celebrated in London in 1964, we are confronted with the ethical and professional dilemmas that doctors, who were themselves prisoners, had to face in this situation, and that incited them to resist inhumanity by acts, to disobey their superiors, and to be solidary with the victims...
May 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
Katherine Shats, Timothy Brindley, James Giordano
Ongoing developments in neuroscientific techniques and technologies-such as neuroimaging-offer potential for greater insight into human behavior and have fostered temptation to use these approaches in legal contexts. Neuroscientists are increasingly called on to provide expert testimony, interpret brain images, and thereby inform judges and juries who are tasked with determining the guilt or innocence of an individual. In this essay, we draw attention to the actual capabilities and limitations of currently available assessment neurotechnologies and examine whether neuroscientific evidence presents unique challenges to existing frameworks of evidence law...
October 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
James Kite, Bridget C Foley, Anne C Grunseit, Becky Freeman
Facebook, the most widely used social media platform, has been adopted by public health organisations for health promotion and behaviour change campaigns and activities. However, limited information is available on the most effective and efficient use of Facebook for this purpose. This study sought to identify the features of Facebook posts that are associated with higher user engagement on Australian public health organisations' Facebook pages. We selected 20 eligible pages through a systematic search and coded 360-days of posts for each page...
2016: PloS One
Divya Ramamurthi, Phillip A Gall, Noel Ayoub, Robert K Jackler
OBJECTIVES: To provide regulators and the US Food and Drug Administration with a description of cessation-themed advertising among electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) brands. METHODS: We performed a content analysis of 6 months (January through June 2015) of advertising by e-cigarette brands on their company-sponsored social media channels and blogs as well as user-generated content (testimonials) appearing within brand-sponsored Web sites. An explicit claim of cessation efficacy unambiguously states that e-cigarettes help in quitting smoking, and implicit claims use euphemisms such as "It works...
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Elyse N Mowle, John F Edens, John W Clark, Karolina Sörman
Several recent studies have examined the effects of mental health and neuroscientific evidence on attitudes toward criminal defendants, suggesting that these factors may influence juror decision-making in meaningful ways. Few studies to date have manipulated both of these variables while also considering theoretically important individual difference variables (e.g., political orientation). Using a criminal case simulation, this study manipulated the presence of evidence concerning mental disorders (psychopathy and schizophrenia) and increasing levels of neuroscientific detail regarding a defendant's brain injury, and examined verdicts and sentencing recommendations in over 400 persons attending jury duty...
September 13, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
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