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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679104/local-action-on-outdoor-air-pollution-to-improve-public-health
#1
REVIEW
Sotiris Vardoulakis, Rachel Kettle, Paul Cosford, Paul Lincoln, Stephen Holgate, Jonathan Grigg, Frank Kelly, David Pencheon
OBJECTIVES: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, jointly with Public Health England, have developed a guideline on outdoor air pollution and its links to health. The guideline makes recommendations on local interventions that can help improve air quality and prevent a range of adverse health outcomes associated with road-traffic-related air pollution. METHODS: The guideline was based on a rigorous assessment of the scientific evidence by an independent advisory committee, with input from public health professionals and other professional groups...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676480/medication-state-at-the-time-of-the-offense-medication-noncompliance-insight-and-criminal-responsibility
#2
Caroline Titcomb Parrott, Michelle A Jones, Stanley L Brodsky, Clayton Shealy
This study used a mixed quantitative-qualitative methodology to examine whether mock jurors considered a defendant's meta-responsibility - specifically, the defendant's medication noncompliance and degree of insight into his/her schizophrenia - when determining the person's criminal responsibility. The degree of expert witness explanation regarding these factors was also varied. Participants (n = 173) were grouped into 30 juries, randomized across five conditions, and shown mock testimony and attorney arguments based on a real not guilty by reason of insanity court case...
April 20, 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672561/rich-table-but-short-life-diffuse-idiopathic-skeletal-hyperostosis-in-danish-astronomer-tycho-brahe-1546-1601-and-its-possible-consequences
#3
Sacha Kacki, Petr Velemínský, Niels Lynnerup, Sylva Kaupová, Alizé Lacoste Jeanson, Ctibor Povýšil, Martin Horák, Jan Kučera, Kaare Lund Rasmussen, Jaroslav Podliska, Zdeněk Dragoun, Jiří Smolík, Jens Vellev, Jaroslav Brůžek
The exhumation of Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was performed in 2010 to verify speculative views on the cause of his death. Previous analyses of skeletal and hair remains recovered from his grave refuted the presumption that he died from poisoning. These studies also outlined the possibility that he actually died from an acute illness, echoing the rather vague and inaccurate testimony of some historical records. We performed a detailed paleopathological analysis of Tycho Brahe's skeletal remains, along with a reconstruction of his diet based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analysis and an estimate of his physical status (relative body fat) based on medullar and cortical dimensions of the femoral shaft...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651863/incarnation-and-the-dynamics-of-medical-promises-dhea-as-a-fountain-of-youth-hormone
#4
Boris Hauray, Sébastien Dalgalarrondo
For more than a decade, the sociology of hope and expectations has gained growing influence in the social studies of health, medicine, and healthcare. This literature has stressed the role of representations of the future-through images, metaphors, theories, or visions-in the medical sector and analyzed the translation of these discursive contents into social practices and organizations. This article builds on these results and intends to explore a dimension that has received less attention: the incarnation of medical promises...
April 1, 2018: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649672/leading-up-to-saying-yes-a-qualitative-study-on-the-experience-of-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy-regarding-presurgical-investigation-for-resective-surgery
#5
Patti Shih, Armin Nikpour, Andrew Bleasel, Geoffrey Herkes, Rebecca Mitchell, Rebecca Seah, Virginia Mumford, Jeffrey Braithwaite, Sanjyot Vagholkar, Frances Rapport
OBJECTIVES: Adult patients with refractory epilepsy who are potential candidates for resective surgery undergo a period of presurgical investigation in tertiary epilepsy centers (TECs), where they engage extensively with healthcare professionals and receive a range of treatment-related information. This qualitative study aimed to examine the experiences of adult patients with refractory epilepsy leading up to and during presurgical investigation and how their perceptions of resective surgery are shaped...
April 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623788/on-the-occurrence-of-the-invasive-freshwater-limpet-ferrissia-californica-mollusca-gastropoda-planorbidae-in-japan
#6
Luca Vecchioni, Federico Marrone, Marco Arculeo, Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow
Two members of the genus Ferrissia Walker, 1903, namely Ferrissia nipponica (Kuroda, 1949) and F. japonica Habe and Burch, 1965, have been reported to occur in Japan, but due to a lack of molecular data, doubts have been expressed as to their validity. Furthermore, the possible presence of allochthonous Ferrissia taxa has been stated under a variety of names, so that even now there is no consensus on their presence and identity. Recently, freshwater limpets belonging to the planorbid genus Ferrissia were collected in an irrigation trough on the Izu island of Hachijōjima, Tokyo, Japan...
April 2018: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611061/enhancing-initial-parental-engagement-in-interventions-for-parents-of-young-children-a-systematic-review-of-experimental-studies
#7
REVIEW
Carolina Gonzalez, Alina Morawska, Divna M Haslam
Low rates of participation in parenting interventions may undermine their effectiveness. Although a wide range of strategies to engage parents in interventions are described in the literature, little is known about which engagement strategies are most effective in enhancing parental engagement. This systematic review explores effective engagement strategies to encourage initial parental engagement (recruitment, enrolment, and first attendance) in parenting interventions for parents of children aged 2-8 years old...
April 2, 2018: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609735/gender-expert-advice-and-judicial-gatekeeping-in-the-united-states
#8
Timothy L O'Brien
This article investigates the role of gender in decision-making by examining trial judges' decisions to admit or exclude expert witness testimony. An analysis of civil rights cases in United States district courts (n = 198) reveals that male judges are substantially more likely than females to exclude expert evidence. Importantly, this pattern cannot be attributed to other characteristics of judges, experts, or courts that may influence judges' rulings. These findings are consistent with theories of gender, organizations, and science that suggest that women are more likely than men to consider expert advice...
May 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604517/a-210-pb-chronological-study-in-sediments-from-po%C3%A3-os-de-caldas-alkaline-massif-pcam-brazil
#9
F R M Matamet, D M Bonotto
The Constant Flux and Constant Sedimentation (CF:CS) of supported/excess210 Pb model was successfully used to study sediment profiles from Antas stream, located in the region of Poços de Caldas city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Historical changes in the region were tracked from evaluating the sedimentation rate by the210 Pb method. In that site, Osamu Utsumi mine was the first mining-industrial complex for the production of concentrated uranium in Brazil. Four sediment testimonies were sampled along Antas stream in order to determine sedimentation rates using210 Pb as geochronometer...
March 22, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594160/job-related-stress-in-forensic-interviewers-of-children-with-use-of-therapy-dogs-compared-with-facility-dogs-or-no-dogs
#10
Diane Walsh, Mariko Yamamoto, Neil H Willits, Lynette A Hart
Sexually abused children providing essential testimony regarding crimes in forensic interviews now sometimes are provided facility dogs or therapy dogs for comfort. Facility dogs are extensively trained to work with forensic interviewers; when using therapy dogs in interviews, volunteers are the dog handlers. Interviews can impact child welfare workers' mental health causing secondary traumatic stress (STS). To investigate this stress, first data were gathered on stress retrospectively for when interviewers initially started the job prior to working with a dog, and then currently, from forensic interviewers using a facility dog, a therapy or pet dog, or no dog...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575499/keeping-secrets-leslie-e-keeley-the-gold-cure-and-the-nineteenth-century-neuroscience-of-addiction
#11
Timothy A Hickman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dr Leslie E. Keeley was perhaps the world's most famous addiction cure doctor at the turn of the twentieth century, but mainstream medicine dismissed him as a quack because he dispensed a secret cure. The article aims to describe Keeley's now largely forgotten story and to draw attention to the role of contextual issues in the acceptance or rejection of any theory of addiction, particularly the neuroscientific theories of the early twenty first century. METHODS: This study is a qualitative assessment and contextualisation of historical documents...
March 25, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574835/a-history-of-forensic-anthropology
#12
EDITORIAL
Douglas H Ubelaker
Forensic anthropology represents a dynamic and rapidly evolving complex discipline within anthropology and forensic science. Academic roots extend back to early European anatomists but development coalesced in the Americas through high-profile court testimony, assemblage of documented collections and focused research. Formation of the anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1972, the American Board of Forensic Anthropology in 1977/1978 and other organizational advances provided important stimuli for progress...
April 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567660/noninvasive-detection-of-cocaine-and-heroin-use-with-single-fingerprints-determination-of-an-environmental-cutoff
#13
Mahado Ismail, Derek Stevenson, Catia Costa, Roger Webb, Marcel de Puit, Melanie Bailey
BACKGROUND: Recent publications have explored the possibility of using fingerprints to confirm drug use, but none has yet dealt with environmental contamination from fingertips. Here we explored the possibility of establishing an environmental cutoff for drug testing from a single fingerprint. METHODS: Fingerprint samples (n = 100) were collected from the hands of 50 nondrug users before and after handwashing to establish separate environmental cutoff values and testing protocols for cocaine, benzoylecgonine, heroin, and 6-monoacetylmorphine...
March 22, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557817/epidermis-and-enamel-insights-into-gnawing-criticisms-of-human-bitemark-evidence
#14
Robert E Barsley, Mark L Bernstein, Paula C Brumit, Robert B J Dorion, Gregory S Golden, James M Lewis, John D McDowell, Roger D Metcalf, David R Senn, David Sweet, Richard A Weems
Critics describe forensic dentists' management of bitemark evidence as junk science with poor sensitivity and specificity and state that linkages to a biter are unfounded. Those vocal critics, supported by certain media, characterize odontologists' previous errors as egregious and petition government agencies to render bitemark evidence inadmissible. Odontologists acknowledge that some practitioners have made past mistakes. However, it does not logically follow that the errors of a few identify a systemic failure of bitemark analysis...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551154/-when-the-trap-closes-in
#15
Anne L
The poignant testimony of Anne L. illustrates perfectly how the spiral of an abuser's hold closes around the victim. She describes how she met Charles and how their relationship, between passionate love and hate, hope and disillusion, progressed from psychological war to beatings, resulting in absolute domination. Supported today by a specialised network, even though she has managed to leave him, many questions remain for this victim and her scars are far from healed.
March 2018: Soins. Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542863/results-from-a-pilot-study-of-a-computer-based-role-playing-game-for-young-people-with-psychosis
#16
Jeffrey Olivet, Morgan Haselden, Sarah Piscitelli, Rachael Kenney, Alexander Shulman, Deborah Medoff, Lisa Dixon
AIM: Recent research on first episode psychosis (FEP) has demonstrated the effectiveness of coordinated specialty care (CSC) models to support young adults and their families, yet few tools exist to promote engagement in care. This study aimed to develop a prototype computer-based role-playing game (RPG) designed for young people who have experienced FEP, and conduct a pilot study to determine feasibility and test whether the game improves consumers' attitudes toward treatment and recovery...
March 15, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531969/blood-vessel-segmentation-in-modern-wide-field-retinal-images-in-the-presence-of-additive-gaussian-noise
#17
Morteza Modarresi Asem, Iman Sheikh Oveisi, Mona Janbozorgi
Retinal blood vessels indicate some serious health ramifications, such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. Thanks to modern imaging technology, high-resolution images provide detailed information to help analyze retinal vascular features before symptoms associated with such conditions fully develop. Additionally, these retinal images can be used by ophthalmologists to facilitate diagnosis and the procedures of eye surgery. A fuzzy noise reduction algorithm was employed to enhance color images corrupted by Gaussian noise...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504504/the-role-of-community-health-workers-in-supporting-south-africa-s-hiv-aids-treatment-programme
#18
Shauna Mottiar, Tom Lodge
Community health workers deployed around South Africa's primary health care clinics, supply indispensable support for the world's largest HIV/AIDS treatment programme. Interviews with these workers illuminated the contribution they make to anti-retroviral treatment (ART) of HIV/AIDS patients and the motivations that sustain their engagement. Their testimony highlights points of stress in the programme and supplies insights into the quality of its implementation. Finally, the paper addresses issues about the sustainability of a programme that depends on a group of workers who are not yet fully incorporated into the public sector...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485953/the-association-between-patient-sociodemographic-characteristics-and-generic-drug-use-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Ahmed U Mishuk, Jingjing Qian, Jennifer N Howard, Ilene Harris, Gavriella Frank, Zippora Kiptanui, Richard Hansen
BACKGROUND: Generic drugs are bioequivalent and cost-effective alternatives to brand drugs. In 2014, $254 billion was saved because of the use of generic drugs in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To critically assess evidence on the association between patient characteristics and generic drug use in order to inform the development of educational outreach for improving generic drug use among patients. METHODS: We systematically searched the literature between January 2005 and December 2016 using PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and EBSCO IPA-MEDLINE for potentially relevant studies...
March 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471226/examining-effects-of-medical-cannabis-narratives-on-beliefs-attitudes-and-intentions-related-to-recreational-cannabis-a-web-based-randomized-experiment
#20
Sharon R Sznitman, Nehama Lewis
BACKGROUND: This experimental study tests effects of exposure to video narratives about successful symptom relief with Medical Cannabis (MC) on attitudes, beliefs, and intentions related to recreational cannabis use. METHODS: Patient video testimonials were modeled after those found in extant media coverage. Israeli participants (N = 396) recruited through an online survey company were randomly assigned to view a narrative or a non-narrative video containing equivalent information about MC...
January 31, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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