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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445947/characteristics-and-comparison-of-colorectal-cancer-incidence-in-beijing-with-other-regions-in-the-world
#1
Zhongmin Li, Lei Yang, Changzheng Du, Xuedong Fang, Ning Wang, Jin Gu
BACKGROUND: Population-based epidemiologic studies about colorectal cancer are lacking in China. This study aims to provide a basis for colorectal cancer screening and prevention, through analysis and comparisons the characteristics of the trends in colorectal cancer incidence in Beijing and selected representative regions. RESULTS: The annual incidence rate in Beijing region increased significantly, from 9.40/100,000 in 1998 to 18.61/100,000 in 2012. The stratified rate showed that the incidence of distal colon adenocarcinoma increased substantially in men, especially in those aged > 75 years and residing in urban areas...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445806/patient-engagement-at-the-margins-health-care-providers-assessments-of-engagement-and-the-structural-determinants-of-health-in-the-safety-net
#2
Mark D Fleming, Janet K Shim, Irene Yen, Ariana Thompson-Lastad, Sara Rubin, Meredith Van Natta, Nancy J Burke
Increasing "patient engagement" has become a priority for health care organizations and policy-makers seeking to reduce cost and improve the quality of care. While concepts of patient engagement have proliferated rapidly across health care settings, little is known about how health care providers make use of these concepts in clinical practice. This paper uses 20 months of ethnographic and interview research carried out from 2015 to 2016 to explore how health care providers working at two public, urban, safety-net hospitals in the United States define, discuss, and assess patient engagement...
April 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445642/the-predictive-power-of-clean-bed-filtration-theory-for-fecal-indicator-bacteria-removal-in-stormwater-biofilters
#3
Emily Parker, Megan A Rippy, Andrew Mehring, Brandon Winfrey, Richard F Ambrose, Lisa A Levin, Stanley B Grant
Green infrastructure (also referred to as low impact development, or LID) has the potential to transform urban stormwater runoff from an environmental threat to a valuable water resource. In this paper we focus on the removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, a pollutant responsible for runoff-associated inland and coastal beach closures) in stormwater biofilters (a common type of green infrastructure). Drawing on a combination of previously published and new laboratory studies of FIB removal in biofilters, we find that 66% of the variance in FIB removal rates can be explained by clean bed filtration theory (CBFT, 31%), antecedent dry period (14%), study effect (8%), biofilter age (7%), and the presence or absence of shrubs (6%)...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445512/proportions-of-circulating-follicular-helper-t-cells-are-reduced-and-correlate-with-memory-b-cells-in-hiv-infected-children
#4
Daniel M Muema, Gladys N Macharia, Babatunde A Olusola, Amin S Hassan, Greg W Fegan, James A Berkley, Britta C Urban, Eunice W Nduati
INTRODUCTION: HIV causes defects in memory B cells in children, but the mechanisms of those defects have not been fully elucidated. One possible mechanism is the lack of T-cell help to B cells during immune reactions. However, few studies have assessed the effect of HIV on follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) in children. METHODS: In this study, follicular-homing CD4 T cells and memory B cells were assessed in HIV-infected children and compared with children from the community...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445432/multispectral-lidar-data-for-land-cover-classification-of-urban-areas
#5
Salem Morsy, Ahmed Shaker, Ahmed El-Rabbany
Airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) systems usually operate at a monochromatic wavelength measuring the range and the strength of the reflected energy (intensity) from objects. Recently, multispectral LiDAR sensors, which acquire data at different wavelengths, have emerged. This allows for recording of a diversity of spectral reflectance from objects. In this context, we aim to investigate the use of multispectral LiDAR data in land cover classification using two different techniques. The first is image-based classification, where intensity and height images are created from LiDAR points and then a maximum likelihood classifier is applied...
April 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445431/assessing-diabetes-and-factors-associated-with-foregoing-medical-care-among-persons-with-diabetes-disparities-facing-american-indian-alaska-native-black-hispanic-low-income-and-southern-adults-in-the-u-s-2011-2015
#6
Samuel D Towne, Jane Bolin, Alva Ferdinand, Emily Joy Nicklett, Matthew Lee Smith, Marcia G Ory
Objective: Identify individual- and place-based factors associated with diagnosed diabetes and forgone medical care among those diagnosed with diabetes. Background: Diabetes affects millions of individuals globally. In the U.S. alone the prevalence rate of diagnosed diabetes has more than doubled over the past 20 years (4.2% in 1994 to 10% in 2014). Methods: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2011-2015) was used to identify factors associated with self-reported diabetes diagnoses (ever diagnosed) among U...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445430/impact-of-land-use-on-pm2-5-pollution-in-a-representative-city-of-middle-china
#7
Haiou Yang, Wenbo Chen, Zhaofeng Liang
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution has become one of the greatest urban issues in China. Studies have shown that PM2.5 pollution is strongly related to the land use pattern at the micro-scale and optimizing the land use pattern has been suggested as an approach to mitigate PM2.5 pollution. However, there are only a few researches analyzing the effect of land use on PM2.5 pollution. This paper employed land use regression (LUR) models and statistical analysis to explore the effect of land use on PM2.5 pollution in urban areas...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445425/association-of-long-term-near-highway-exposure-to-ultrafine-particles-with-cardiovascular-diseases-diabetes-and-hypertension
#8
Yu Li, Kevin J Lane, Laura Corlin, Allison P Patton, John L Durant, Mohan Thanikachalam, Mark Woodin, Molin Wang, Doug Brugge
Ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations are elevated near busy roadways, however, their effects on prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension are not well understood. To investigate these associations, data on demographics, diseases, medication use, and time of activities were collected by in-home surveys for 704 participants in three pairs of near-highway and urban background neighborhoods in and near Boston (MA, USA). Body mass index (BMI) was measured for a subset of 435 participants...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445398/consensus-based-cooperative-control-based-on-pollution-sensing-and-traffic-information-for-urban-traffic-networks
#9
Antonio Artuñedo, Raúl M Del Toro, Rodolfo E Haber
Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks...
April 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445210/perceived-discrimination-and-longitudinal-change-in-kidney-function-among-urban-adults
#10
May A Beydoun, Angedith Poggi-Burke, Alan B Zonderman, Ola S Rostant, Michele K Evans, Deidra C Crews
OBJECTIVE: Perceived discrimination has been associated with psychosocial distress and adverse health outcomes. We examined associations of perceived discrimination measures with changes in kidney function in a prospective cohort study, the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the LifeSpan. METHODS: Our study included 1,620 participants with preserved baseline kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73m) (662 Whites and 958 African-Americans (AA), aged 30-64 years)...
April 26, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445158/the-hdac-inhibitor-valproate-induces-a-bivalent-status-of-the-cd20-promoter-in-cll-patients-suggesting-distinct-epigenetic-regulation-of-cd20-expression-in-cll-in-vivo
#11
Annarita Scialdone, Muhammad Sharif Hasni, Jesper Kofoed Damm, Andreas Lennartsson, Urban Gullberg, Kristina Drott
Treatment with anti-CD20 antibodies is only moderately efficient in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a feature which has been explained by the inherently low CD20 expression in CLL. It has been shown that CD20 is epigenetically regulated and that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) can increase CD20 expression in vitro in CLL. To assess whether HDACis can upregulate CD20 also in vivo in CLL, the HDACi valproate was given to three del13q/NOTCH1wt CLL patients and CD20 levels were analysed (the PREVAIL study)...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444863/the-prevalence-of-type-2-diabetes-in-urban-bo-sierra-leone-and-in-the-16-countries-of-the-west-africa-region
#12
Abu James Sundufu, Cecil N Bockarie, Kathryn H Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to measure the prevalence of diabetes among adults in urban Bo, Sierra Leone, and to compare the new result to the diabetes prevalence rates reported from studies across West Africa. METHODS: A total of 694 outpatients ages 18 and older at Bo Government Hospital were tested for diabetes between January 2012 and December 2014. Diabetes was defined as a fasting blood sugar level of ≥126 mg/dl (≥7.0 mmol/l). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of diabetes was 6...
April 26, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444645/outdoor-ambient-air-pollution-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-the-neuroinflammation-hypothesis
#13
REVIEW
Richard L Jayaraj, Eric A Rodriguez, Yi Wang, Michelle L Block
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Accumulating research indicates that ambient outdoor air pollution impacts the brain and may affect neurodegenerative diseases, yet the potential underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. RECENT FINDINGS: The neuroinflammation hypothesis holds that elevation of cytokines and reactive oxygen species in the brain mediates the deleterious effects of urban air pollution on the central nervous system (CNS). Studies in human and animal research document that neuroinflammation occurs in response to several inhaled pollutants...
April 25, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444603/physiological-functioning-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa-l-under-heavy-roadside-traffic-an-approach-to-screen-potential-species-for-abatement-of-urban-air-pollution
#14
H Singh, Savita, R Sharma, S Sinha, M Kumar, P Kumar, A Verma, S K Sharma
The mitigation potential of avenue tree species needs a sound understanding, especially for landscape planning or planting tree species on roadside, especially in city limits where there is huge traffic due to more number of vehicles. A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the impact of heavy traffic movement and pollution thereof on physiological functioning of Lagerstroemia speciosa trees planted on roadside in terms of carbon absorption, mitigation potential and adaptive behavior. Trees on roadside exhibited reduced carbon assimilation (36...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444516/trap-nesting-hymenoptera-and-their-network-with-parasites-in-recovered-riparian-forests-brazil
#15
G J Araujo, R Fagundes, Y Antonini
Different aspects of human activities can cause environmental change that endanger species persistence, alter species distributions, and lead to changes in antagonistic and mutualistic interactions, whereas deforestation and flooding of riparian forest results in landscapes consisting of patchily distributed riparian forest fragments in a matrix of pastures, plantations, and urban areas. Therefore, we assessed the richness, abundance, and trophic interactions of trap-nesting Hymenoptera and their parasites at four patches of restored riparian forest and at one reference natural fragment, of different sizes and ages, located at the Volta Grande Reservoir, in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states to answer the following questions: (1) Does the richness and abundance of cavity-nesting bees and wasps differ in riparian forest fragments according to the seasonal periods? (2) Does the composition of cavity-nesting bees and wasps vary among restoration and reference sites and between climate seasons (wet and dry)? (3) How do the degrees of specialization of the parasites vary among the patches of forest? We recorded 12 species of wasps, eight of bees, and nine species of parasites...
April 25, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444273/urban-rural-differences-in-diabetes-associated-mortality-in-china-reply
#16
Fiona Bragg, Liming Li, Zhengming Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444269/urban-rural-differences-in-diabetes-in-china
#17
Haoyu Wang, Yaxin Lai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444240/non-specific-effects-of-oral-polio-vaccine-on-diarrheal-burden-and-etiology-among-bangladeshi-infants
#18
Alexander Upfill-Brown, Mami Taniuchi, James A Platts-Mills, Beth Kirkpatrick, Stacey L Burgess, M Steven Oberste, William Weldon, Eric Houpt, Rashidul Haque, K Zaman, William A Petri
Background: As the global polio eradication initiative prepares to cease use of oral polio vaccine (OPV) in 2020, there is increasing interest in understanding if oral vaccination provides non-specific immunity to other infections so that the consequences of this transition can be effectively planned for and mitigated. Methods: Data was collected from infants in an urban slum in Bangladesh (Mirpur, Dhaka) as part of the PROVIDE study. Following vaccination with tOPV at 6,10, and 14 weeks, infants were randomly assigned to receive tOPV (n=315) or IPV (n=299) at 39 weeks...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444059/-anthropometric-profile-of-children-in-accordance-with-the-structure-of-daycare-centers
#19
Dixis Figueroa Pedraza
The scope of this article is to evaluate the structure of public daycare centers and the anthropometric profile of children in the city of Campina Grande in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. It is a cross-sectional study that involved 793 children attended in daycare centers. Information to describe the daycare centers were included (structure related to the capacity of demand and the processing power of school meals, reception system of children, location area) and the anthropometric status of the children (Height/Age, Weight/Height)...
April 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443998/-detection-of-stool-antigens-of-echinococcus-granulosus-in-dogs-belonging-to-slaughterhouse-workers-and-offal-merchants-in-metropolitan-lima
#20
Veronika Merino, Néstor Falcón, Noelia Morel, Gualberto González
Objective: To demonstrate the presence of Echinoccocus granulosus in the definitive host in the city of Lima, Perú, by detecting parasite antigens in the stool of dogs belonging to offal handlers and merchants in authorized slaughterhouses in Metropolitan Lima. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 58 dogs and examined using the coproELISA technique for the detection of secretory/excretory antigens of E. granulosus. A survey was conducted to obtain information on pet feeding and handling practices...
April 20, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
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