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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335583/is-accessibility-to-dental-care-facilities-in-rural-areas-associated-with-number-of-teeth-in-elderly-residents
#1
Tsuyoshi Hamano, Miwako Takeda, Kazumichi Tominaga, Kristina Sundquist, Toru Nabika
Given that public transportation networks are less developed in rural than in urban areas, a lack of accessibility to dental care facilities could be a barrier to routine dental checkups. Thus, we hypothesized that the distance to the dental care facilities is a risk factor for tooth loss. The aim of this study was to test whether there is an association between the distance to dental care facilities, estimated by geographic information systems, and number of teeth, assessed by an oral examination, among elderly residents of a rural area in Japan...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335539/abundance-of-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-virulence-associated-genes-in-well-and-borehole-water-used-for-domestic-purposes-in-a-peri-urban-community-of-south-africa
#2
Akebe Luther King Abia, Lisa Schaefer, Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa, Wouter Le Roux
In the absence of pipe-borne water, many people in Africa, especially in rural communities, depend on alternative water sources such as wells, boreholes and rivers for household and personal hygiene. Poor maintenance and nearby pit latrines, however, lead to microbial pollution of these sources. We evaluated the abundance of Escherichia coli and the prevalence of pathogenic E. coli virulence genes in water from wells, boreholes and a river in a South African peri-urban community. Monthly samples were collected between August 2015 and November 2016...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335486/implicit-regularization-for-reconstructing-3d-building-rooftop-models-using-airborne-lidar-data
#3
Jaewook Jung, Yoonseok Jwa, Gunho Sohn
With rapid urbanization, highly accurate and semantically rich virtualization of building assets in 3D become more critical for supporting various applications, including urban planning, emergency response and location-based services. Many research efforts have been conducted to automatically reconstruct building models at city-scale from remotely sensed data. However, developing a fully-automated photogrammetric computer vision system enabling the massive generation of highly accurate building models still remains a challenging task...
March 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335464/a-geographic-information-assisted-temporal-mixture-analysis-for-addressing-the-issue-of-endmember-class-and-endmember-spectra-variability
#4
Wenliang Li, Changshan Wu
Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) is a common approach for parameterizing biophysical fractions of urban environment and widely applied in many fields. For successful SMA, the selection of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been assumed as the most important step. Thanks to the spatial heterogeneity of natural and urban landscapes, the variability of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been widely considered as the profound error source in SMA. To address the challenging problems, we proposed a geographic information-assisted temporal mixture analysis (GATMA)...
March 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335448/a-community-multi-omics-approach-towards-the-assessment-of-surface-water-quality-in-an-urban-river-system
#5
David J Beale, Avinash V Karpe, Warish Ahmed, Stephen Cook, Paul D Morrison, Christopher Staley, Michael J Sadowsky, Enzo A Palombo
A multi-omics approach was applied to an urban river system (the Brisbane River (BR), Queensland, Australia) in order to investigate surface water quality and characterize the bacterial population with respect to water contaminants. To do this, bacterial metagenomic amplicon-sequencing using Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and untargeted community metabolomics using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were utilized. The multi-omics data, in combination with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) counts, trace metal concentrations (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) and in-situ water quality measurements collected from various locations along the BR were then used to assess the health of the river ecosystem...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335404/perceptions-of-health-co-benefits-in-relation-to-greenhouse-gas-emission-reductions-a-survey-among-urban-residents-in-three-chinese-cities
#6
Jinghong Gao, Guozhang Xu, Wenjun Ma, Yong Zhang, Alistair Woodward, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Sari Kovats, Paul Wilkinson, Tianfeng He, Hualiang Lin, Tao Liu, Shaohua Gu, Jun Wang, Jing Li, Jun Yang, Xiaobo Liu, Jing Li, Haixia Wu, Qiyong Liu
Limited information is available on the perceptions of stakeholders concerning the health co-benefits of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of urban residents on the health co-benefits involving GHG abatement and related influencing factors in three cities in China. Beijing, Ningbo and Guangzhou were selected for this survey. Participants were recruited from randomly chosen committees, following quotas for gender and age in proportion to the respective population shares...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335082/reporting-of-mitotic-rate-in-cutaneous-melanoma-a-study-using-the-national-cancer-data-base
#7
Patrick D Lorimer, Emily C Benham, Kendall Walsh, Yimei Han, Meghan R Forster, Terry Sarantou, Richard L White, Joshua S Hill
BACKGROUND: The seventh edition of the American Joint Commission on Cancer staging manual (AJCC7, published 2009), updated thin cutaneous melanoma staging protocols with the incorporation of mitotic rate (MR). In these patients, higher MR is associated with decreased survival. This study utilizes the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to evaluate MR reporting since AJCC7. METHODS: The NCDB was queried for patients with primary cutaneous melanoma from 1998 to 2013...
March 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334986/addressing-london-s-modern-urban-health-challenges-learning-from-other-global-cities
#8
Y G Doyle, A J Mills, M Korkodilos
Around 150 cities have emerged as notable at a global scale. With a global population of fewer than 12%, they generate 46% of world gross domestic product. There is growing interest in how cities can accelerate health improvements through wider social and economic collaboration. A team led by Public Health England in London visited counterparts in New York City and Paris to examine how city health leaders addressed public health challenges. The three cities have similar health challenges but different legal, political and fiscal resources for promoting and protecting health...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334747/the-family-planning-conundrum-in-afghanistan
#9
Hemat Shafiqullah, Ayako Morita, Keiko Nakamura, Kaoruko Seino
In Afghanistan, despite the high awareness levels of contraceptive methods, the contraceptive prevalence is low and short birth spacing is common. The aim of this study was to understand the perception about family planning and contraceptive utilization among reproductive-aged married women, their husbands, their mothers-in-law, religious leaders and healthcare providers. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were conducted among married women of reproductive age ( n =  482), their husbands ( n =  133), their mothers-in-law ( n =  194), their religious leaders ( n =  16), and healthcare providers ( n =  36) in rural and urban areas in five provinces...
October 20, 2016: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334686/influence-of-organizational-context-on-nursing-home-staff-burnout-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-care-aides-in-western-canada
#10
Stephanie A Chamberlain, Andrea Gruneir, Matthias Hoben, Janet E Squires, Greta G Cummings, Carole A Estabrooks
PURPOSE: Our study examined care aide characteristics, organizational context, and frequency of dementia-related resident responsive behaviours associated with burnout. Burnout is the experience of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and professional inefficacy. Care aide burnout has implications for turnover, staff health, and quality of care. DESIGN AND METHODS: We used surveys collected from 1194 care aides from 30 urban nursing homes in three Western Canadian provinces...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334585/uptake-and-utilization-of-practice-guidelines-in-hospitals-in-the-united-states-the-case-of-routine-episiotomy
#11
Katy B Kozhimannil, Pinar Karaca-Mandic, Cori J Blauer-Peterson, Neel T Shah, Jonathan M Snowden
BACKGROUND: The gap between publishing and implementing guidelines differs based on practice setting, including hospital geography and teaching status. On March 31, 2006, a Practice Bulletin published by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommended against the routine use of episiotomy and urged clinicians to make judicious decisions to restrict the use of the procedure. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated changes in trends of episiotomy use before and after the ACOG Practice Guideline was issued in 2006, focusing on differences by hospital geographic location (rural/urban) and teaching status...
January 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334348/evaluation-of-the-potential-for-secondary-kill-for-ingested-insecticides-in-the-common-bed-bug-hemiptera-cimicidae
#12
Yvonne K Matos, Angela Sierras, Coby Schal
Baits are a preferred method of urban pest management. Baits enable more targeted insecticide applications with a fraction of the active ingredient used in residual sprays. Bait translocation by foragers, and consequent secondary kill of nonforagers, enhances bait effectiveness in social insects, and in other group-living species like German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.). We investigated the potential for secondary kill in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.), another gregarious species, using a liquid bait...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334278/local-and-landscape-drivers-of-parasitoid-abundance-richness-and-composition-in-urban-gardens
#13
Julia M Burks, Stacy M Philpott
Urbanization negatively affects biodiversity, yet some urban habitat features can support diversity. Parasitoid wasps, an abundant and highly diverse group of arthropods, can inhabit urban areas and do well in areas with higher host abundance, floral resources, or local or landscape complexity. Parasitoids provide biological control services in many agricultural habitats, yet few studies have examined diversity and abundance of parasitoids in urban agroecosystems to understand how to promote conservation and function...
March 8, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334225/pom-thalamocortical-input-drives-layer-specific-microcircuits-in-somatosensory-cortex
#14
Nicholas J Audette, Joanna Urban-Ciecko, Megumi Matsushita, Alison L Barth
Higher-order thalamic nuclei, such as the posterior medial nucleus (POm) in the somatosensory system or the pulvinar in the visual system, densely innervate the cortex and can influence perception and plasticity. To systematically evaluate how higher-order thalamic nuclei can drive cortical circuits, we investigated cell-type selective responses to POm stimulation in mouse primary somatosensory (barrel) cortex, using genetically targeted whole-cell recordings in acute brain slices. We find that ChR2-evoked thalamic input selectively targets specific cell types in the neocortex, revealing layer-specific modules for the summation and processing of POm input...
March 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334192/insecticidal-properties-of-essential-oils-and-some-of-their-constituents-on-the-turkestan-cockroach-blattodea-blattidae
#15
Sudip Gaire, Mary O'Connell, Francisco O Holguin, Anup Amatya, Scott Bundy, Alvaro Romero
The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become the most important peridomestic species in urban areas of the Southwestern United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of botanical compounds to control this urban pest. We tested the acute toxicity and repellency of six botanical constituents and three essential oils on Turkestan cockroach nymphs. Chemical composition of the essential oils was also determined. Topical and fumigant assays with nymphs showed that thymol was the most toxic essential oil constituent, with a LD50 of 0...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334061/instrumental-variable-estimation-of-causal-odds-ratios-using-structural-nested-mean-models
#16
Roland A Matsouaka, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen
We consider estimating causal odds ratios using an instrumental variable under a logistic structural nested mean model (LSNMM). Current methods for LSNMMs either rely heavily on possible "uncongenial" modeling assumptions or involve intricate numerical challenges, which have impeded their use. In this article, we present an alternative method that ensures a congenial parametrization, circumvents computational complexity of existing methods, and is easy to implement. We illustrate the proposed method to (1) estimate the causal effect of years of education on earnings using data from the NLSYM and (2) assess the impact of moving families from high to low-poverty neighborhoods had on lifetime major depressive disorder among adolescents in the "Moving to Opportunity (MTO) for Fair Housing Demonstration Project" from the Department of Housing and Urban Development...
February 6, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334034/contrasting-effects-of-visiting-urban-green-space-and-the-countryside-on-biodiversity-knowledge-and-conservation-support
#17
Deborah F Coldwell, Karl L Evans
Conservation policy frequently assumes that increasing people's exposure to green-space enhances their knowledge of the natural world and desire to protect it. Urban development is, however, considered to be driving declining connectedness to nature. Despite this the evidence base supporting the assumption that visiting green-spaces promotes biodiversity knowledge and conservation support, and the impacts of urbanization on these relationships, is surprisingly limited. Using data from door-to-door surveys of nearly 300 residents in three pairs of small and large urban areas in England we demonstrate that people who visit green-space more regularly have higher biodiversity knowledge and support for conservation (measured using scales of pro-environmental behavior)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334003/analysis-of-the-communities-of-an-urban-mobile-phone-network
#18
Federico Botta, Charo I Del Genio
Being able to characterise the patterns of communications between individuals across different time scales is of great importance in understanding people's social interactions. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the community structure of the network of mobile phone calls in the metropolitan area of Milan revealing temporal patterns of communications between people. We show that circadian and weekly patterns can be found in the evolution of communities, presenting evidence that these cycles arise not only at the individual level but also at that of social groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333989/street-trees-reduce-the-negative-effects-of-urbanization-on-birds
#19
João Carlos de Castro Pena, Felipe Martello, Milton Cezar Ribeiro, Richard A Armitage, Robert J Young, Marcos Rodrigues
The effects of streets on biodiversity is an important aspect of urban ecology, but it has been neglected worldwide. Several vegetation attributes (e.g. street tree density and diversity) have important effects on biodiversity and ecological processes. In this study, we evaluated the influences of urban vegetation-represented by characteristics of street trees (canopy size, proportion of native tree species and tree species richness)-and characteristics of the landscape (distance to parks and vegetation quantity), and human impacts (human population size and exposure to noise) on taxonomic data and functional diversity indices of the bird community inhabiting streets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333963/why-don-t-urban-youth-in-zambia-use-condoms-the-influence-of-gender-and-marriage-on-non-use-of-male-condoms-among-young-adults
#20
Jessie Pinchoff, Christopher B Boyer, Namuunda Mutombo, Rachna Nag Chowdhuri, Thoai D Ngo
BACKGROUND: Zambia experiences high unmet need for family planning and high rates of HIV, particularly among youth. While male condoms are widely available and 95% of adults have heard of them, self-reported use in the past 12 months is low among young adults (45%). This study describes factors associated with non-use of male condoms among urban young adults in Zambia. METHODS: A household cross-sectional survey in four urban districts was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 among sexually active young adults ages 18-24 years...
2017: PloS One
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