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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215055/occupational-hazards-for-home-care-nurses-across-the-rural-to-urban-gradient-in-ontario-canada
#1
Matthew Wong, Margaret Saari, Erin Patterson, Martine Puts, Ann E Tourangeau
The purpose of this paper was to describe occupational hazards for nurses working in home care (HC) and explore how they differ across the rural-to-urban gradient. Responses (n = 823) from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 of HC nurses registered to practise nursing in the Province of Ontario, Canada were used. Using chi-square analysis and posthoc pairwise tests with a Bonferroni correction, 14 occupational hazards were individually tested for differences between four geographical settings (rural, town, suburban or urban areas)...
February 19, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214722/when-high-pressure-system-constraints-and-a-social-justice-mission-collide-a-socio-structural-analysis-of-emergency-department-social-work-services
#2
Megan Moore, Margaret Cristofalo, Danae Dotolo, Nicole Torres, Alexandra Lahdya, Leyna Ho, Mia Vogel, Mollie Forrester, Bonnie Conley, Susan Fouts
The emergency department (ED) can be a critical intervention point for many patients with multifaceted needs. Social workers have long been part of interdisciplinary ED teams. This study aimed to contribute to the limited understanding of social worker-patient interactions and factors influencing social work services in this setting. This paper reports a qualitative content analysis of social work medical record notes (N = 1509) of services provided to trauma patients in an urban, public, level 1 trauma center and an in-depth analysis of semi-structured interviews with ED social workers (N = 10)...
February 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214559/radiation-therapy-for-invasive-breast-cancer-increases-the-risk-of-second-primary-lung-cancer-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-analysis
#3
Yi-Jhih Huang, Tsai-Wang Huang, Fu-Huang Lin, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Chang-Huei Tsao, Wu-Chien Chien
INTRODUCTION: Although the risk factors for lung cancer are well documented, it remains unclear if previous radiation therapy (RT) to treat breast cancer (BC) increases the incidence of second primary lung cancer. We determined the overall incidence of second primary lung cancer after previous RT for all clinical stages of BC. METHODS: After analyzing the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database, 986,713 individuals were randomly enrolled from 2000 to 2010 for cohort analysis...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214281/patient-characterization-and-usage-trends-of-proton-beam-therapy-for-localized-prostate-cancer-in-the-united-states-a-study-of-the-national-cancer-database
#4
Arya Amini, David Raben, E David Crawford, Thomas W Flaig, Elizabeth R Kessler, Elaine T Lam, Paul Maroni, Thomas J Pugh
PURPOSE: To evaluate usage trends and identify factors associated with proton beam therapy (PBT) compared to alternative forms of external beam radiation therapy (RT) (EBRT) for localized prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for men with localized (N0, M0) prostate cancer diagnosed between 2004 and 2013, treated with EBRT, with available data on EBRT modality (photon vs. PBT). Binary multiple logistic regression identified variables associated with EBRT modality...
February 14, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214145/effect-of-reduction-mammoplasty-on-acute-radiation-side-effects-and-use-of-lumpectomy-cavity-boosts
#5
Jolinta Y Lin, Rachel Bluebond-Langner, Enid Choi, Sally Cheston, Elizabeth M Nichols, Randi J Cohen, Soren M Bentzen, Cynthia Drogula, Susan Kesmodel, Emily Bellavance, Paula Rosenblatt, Katherine Tkaczuk, Sheri Slezak, Steven J Feigenberg
PURPOSE: Reduction mammoplasty (RM) during breast-conserving surgery is popular among women with large-volume breasts because it reduces redundant breast folds and may decrease skin-related morbidity from radiation therapy. However, RM may obscure the lumpectomy cavity (LC) and pose challenges to administering an LC boost, potentially affecting local control. We investigated the impact of RM on acute side effects and use of LC boosts. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The records of 645 consecutive women treated with whole-breast irradiation at an urban university and 2 community practices between January 2012 and December 2014 were reviewed on an institutional review board-approved study...
January 7, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214120/linking-potential-heat-source-and-sink-to-urban-heat-island-heterogeneous-effects-of-landscape-pattern-on-land-surface-temperature
#6
Weifeng Li, Qiwen Cao, Kun Lang, Jiansheng Wu
Rapid urbanization has significantly contributed to the development of urban heat island (UHI). Regulating landscape composition and configuration would help mitigate the UHI in megacities. Taking Shenzhen, China, as a case study area, we defined heat source and heat sink and identified strong and weak sources as well as strong and weak sinks according to the natural and socioeconomic factors influencing land surface temperature (LST). Thus, the potential thermal contributions of heat source and heat sink patches were differentiated...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214118/optimizing-peri-urban-ecosystems-pure-to-re-couple-urban-rural-symbiosis
#7
REVIEW
Yong-Guan Zhu, Brian J Reid, Andrew A Meharg, Steve A Banwart, Bo-Jie Fu
Globally, rapid urbanization, along with economic development, is dramatically changing the balance of biogeochemical cycles, impacting upon ecosystem services and impinging on United Nation global sustainability goals (inter alia: sustainable cities and communities; responsible consumption and production; good health and well-being; clean water and sanitation, and; to protect and conserve life on land and below water). A key feature of the urban ecosystems is that nutrient stocks, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), are being enriched...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213653/perceived-risk-of-avian-influenza-and-urbanization-in-northern-vietnam
#8
Melissa L Finucane, Nghiem Tuyen, Sumeet Saksena, James H Spencer, Jefferson M Fox, Nguyen Lam, Trinh Dinh Thau, Tran Duc Vien, Nancy Davis Lewis
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is an important public health concern because of potential for widespread morbidity and mortality in humans and poultry and associated devastating economic losses. We examined how perceptions of the risk of HPAI in poultry vary across communes/wards in the north of Vietnam at different levels of urbanization (rural, peri-urban, urban). Analyses of questionnaire responses from 1081 poultry raisers suggested that the perceived risk of HPAI in poultry was highest in peri-urban and rural settings...
February 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213572/impact-of-expanding-the-prehospital-stroke-bypass-time-window-in-a-large-geographic-region
#9
Ian G Stiell, Catherine M Clement, Kristy Campbell, Mukul Sharma, Doug Socha, Marco L A Sivilotti, Albert Jin, Jeffrey J Perry, Jim Lumsden, Cally Martin, Mark Froats, Richard Dionne, John Trickett
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Ontario Acute Stroke Medical Redirect Paramedic Protocol (ASMRPP) was revised to allow paramedics to bypass to designated stroke centers if total transport time would be <2 hours and total time from symptom onset <3.5 hours. We sought to evaluate the impact and safety of implementing the Revised ASMRPP. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month implementation study involving prehospital patients presenting with possible stroke symptoms. A total of 1317 basic and advanced life support paramedics, of 9 land services in 10 rural counties and 5 cities, used the Revised ASMRPP to take appropriate patients directly to 6 designated stroke centers...
February 17, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213110/effect-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-stroke-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
Fuu-Jen Tsai, Tsung-Jung Ho, Chi-Fung Cheng, Xiang Liu, Hsinyi Tsang, Ting-Hsu Lin, Chiu-Chu Liao, Shao-Mei Huang, Ju-Pi Li, Cheng-Wen Lin, Jaung-Geng Lin, Jung-Chun Lin, Chih-Chien Lin, Wen-Miin Liang, Ying-Ju Lin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) include stroke, which is a cerebrovascular disturbance characterized by reduced blood flow in the brain, leading to death or physical disability. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used in ancient China for the treatment of diabetes and stroke by supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the frequencies and patterns of CHM treatment for stroke patients with T2D and the outcomes of long-term use in Taiwan...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212969/lessons-learned-when-introducing-pharmacogenomic-panel-testing-into-clinical-practice
#11
Marc B Rosenman, Brian Decker, Kenneth D Levy, Ann M Holmes, Victoria M Pratt, Michael T Eadon
OBJECTIVES: Implementing new programs to support precision medicine in clinical settings is a complex endeavor. We describe challenges and potential solutions based on the Indiana GENomics Implementation: an Opportunity for the Underserved (INGenious) program at Eskenazi Health-one of six sites supported by the Implementing GeNomics In pracTicE network grant of the National Institutes of Health/National Human Genome Research Institute. INGenious is an implementation of a panel of genomic tests...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212900/basic-educational-needs-of-midwifery-students-for-taking-the-role-of-an-assistance-in-disaster-situations-a-cross-sectional-study-in-iran
#12
Z Taghizadeh, M Khoshnam Rad, A Montazeri
BACKGROUND: After disasters, the disaster medical assistance team composed of skilful healthcare staff should be available at the disaster site for providing care to disaster's victims. It is believed that midwives are at the front line of the disaster management team and should be prepared for providing care to mothers and children. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the midwifery students' basic educational needs for taking the role of an assistant in disaster situations...
January 22, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212681/toxoplasma-gondii-survey-in-cats-from-two-environments-of-the-city-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-by-modified-agglutination-test-on-sera-and-filter-paper
#13
Paula F Bolais, Philippe Vignoles, Pamela F Pereira, Rafael Keim, Abdelkrim Aroussi, Khadja Ismail, Marie-Laure Dardé, Maria Regina Amendoeira, Aurélien Mercier
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan with a worldwide distribution, in warm-blood animals, including humans. Local conditions and environmental disturbances may influence transmission dynamics of a zoonotic agent. This study evaluates the epidemiology of T. gondii based on toxoplasmosis prevalence in two populations of cats living in distinct urbanization conditions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Among 372 domestic cats sampled, 265 were from a public shelter located downtown Rio and 107 from a relatively preserved wild environment in a residential area...
February 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212625/prevalence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-associated-factors-among-visceral-leishmaniasis-infected-patients-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-facility-based-cross-sectional-study
#14
Mekuriaw Alemayehu, Mamo Wubshet, Nebiyu Mesfin, Abebaw Gebayehu
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis coinfection with HIV/AIDS has emerged as a series of disease pattern. It most often results in unfavorable responses to treatment, frequent relapses, and deaths. Scarce data is available regarding the prevalence of HIV and associated factors among Visceral Leishmaniasis coinfected patients. This study sought to determine the prevalence of HIV and associated factors among Visceral Leishmaniasis infected patients. METHODS: Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from October, 2015 to August, 2016 in Northwest Ethiopia...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212610/factors-associated-with-stigma-attitude-towards-people-living-with-hiv-among-general-individuals-in-heilongjiang-northeast-china
#15
Xin Li, Lili Yuan, Xiaoxia Li, Jingli Shi, Liying Jiang, Chundi Zhang, Xiujing Yang, Yeli Zhang, Donghui Zhao, Yashuang Zhao
BACKGROUND: HIV-related stigma always is major obstacles to an effective HIV response worldwide. The effect of HIV-related stigma on HIV prevention and treatment is particularly serious in China. This study was to examine stigma attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) among general individuals in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China and the factors associated with stigma attitude, including socio-demographic factors and HIV/AIDS Knowledge. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Heilongjiang Province, China...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212426/sustainability-of-common-pool-resources
#16
Raja Rajendra Timilsina, Koji Kotani, Yoshio Kamijo
Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212424/risk-factors-for-central-nervous-system-tumors-in-children-new-findings-from-a-case-control-study
#17
Rebeca Ramis, Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Diana Gómez-Barroso, Gonzalo López-Abente, Antonio Morales-Piga, Elena Pardo Romaguera, Nuria Aragonés, Javier García-Pérez
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system tumors (CNS) are the most frequent solid tumor in children. Causes of CNS tumors are mainly unknown and only 5% of the cases can be explained by genetic predisposition. We studied the effects of environmental exposure on the incidence of CNS tumors in children by subtype, according to exposure to industrial and/or urban environment, exposure to crops and according to socio-economic status of the child. METHODS: We carried out a population-based case-control study of CNS tumors in Spain, covering 714 incident cases collected from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (period 1996-2011) and 4284 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212408/prevalence-and-associated-comorbidities-of-restless-legs-syndrome-rls-data-from-a-large-population-based-door-to-door-survey-on-19176-adults-in-tehran-iran
#18
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Arash Rahmani, Mahdiyeh Shafieesabet, Mahshid Soori, Ahmad Delbari, Mohammad Reza Motamed, Johan Lökk
BACKGROUND: Discrepancies have been reported in the prevalence rate of restless legs syndrome (RLS) among different ethnic groups and geographic populations. Furthermore, there are disagreements on determinant factors and associated comorbidities of RLS. We aimed to estimate prevalence of RLS and investigate its associated comorbid conditions and risk factors in a large population-based door-to-door survey. METHODS: Following a multistage random sampling from the households lived in 22 urban districts of Tehran, Iran, 19176 participants with ≥30 years of age were recruited...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212349/household-dengue-prevention-interventions-expenditures-and-barriers-to-aedes-aegypti-control-in-machala-ecuador
#19
Naveed Heydari, David A Larsen, Marco Neira, Efraín Beltrán Ayala, Prissila Fernandez, Jefferson Adrian, Rosemary Rochford, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is an efficient vector for the transmission of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses, causing major epidemics and a significant social and economic burden throughout the tropics and subtropics. The primary means of preventing these diseases is household-level mosquito control. However, relatively little is known about the economic burden of Ae. aegypti control in resource-limited communities. We surveyed residents from 40 households in a high-risk community at the urban periphery in the city of Machala, Ecuador, on dengue perceptions, vector control interventions, household expenditures, and factors influencing purchasing decisions...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212309/the-association-of-knowledge-and-behaviours-related-to-salt-with-24-h-urinary-salt-excretion-in-a-population-from-north-and-south-india
#20
Claire Johnson, Sailesh Mohan, Kris Rogers, Roopa Shivashankar, Sudhir Raj Thout, Priti Gupta, Feng J He, Graham A MacGregor, Jacqui Webster, Anand Krishnan, Pallab K Maulik, K Srinath Reddy, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Bruce Neal
Consumer knowledge is understood to play a role in managing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and may be influenced by level of education. The association between population knowledge, behaviours and actual salt consumption was explored overall, and for more-educated compared to less-educated individuals. A cross-sectional survey was done in an age-and sex-stratified random sample of 1395 participants from urban and rural areas of North and South India. A single 24-h urine sample, participants' physical measurements and questionnaire data were collected...
February 16, 2017: Nutrients
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