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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934719/exposure-to-road-railway-and-aircraft-noise-and-arterial-stiffness-in-the-sapaldia-study-annual-average-noise-levels-and-temporal-noise-characteristics
#1
Maria Foraster, Ikenna C Eze, Emmanuel Schaffner, Danielle Vienneau, Harris Héritier, Simon Endes, Franziska Rudzik, Laurie Thiesse, Reto Pieren, Christian Schindler, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Mark Brink, Christian Cajochen, Jean Marc Wunderli, Martin Röösli, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: The impact of different transportation noise sources and noise environments on arterial stiffness remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between residential outdoor exposure to annual average road, railway, and aircraft noise levels, total noise intermittency (IR), and total number of noise events (NE) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) following a cross-sectional design. METHODS: We measured baPWV (meters/second) in 2,775 participants (49-81 y old) at the second follow-up (2010-2011) of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA)...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934711/alterations-of-larval-photo-dependent-swimming-responses-pdr-new-endpoints-for-rapid-and-diagnostic-screening-of-aquatic-contamination
#2
Luis Colón-Cruz, Lauren Kristofco, Jonathan Crooke-Rosado, Agnes Acevedo, Aranza Torrado, Bryan W Brooks, María A Sosa, Martine Behra
Detection and toxicity assessment of waterborne contaminants are crucial for protecting human health and the environment. Development of easy-to-implement, rapid and cost-effective tools to measure anthropogenic effects on watersheds are critical for responsible management, particularly in times of increasing development and urbanization. Traditionally, environmental toxicology has focused on limited endpoints, such as lethality and fertility, which are directly affecting population levels. However, more sensitive readings are needed to assess sub-lethal effects...
September 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934707/investigating-sources-and-sinks-of-n2o-expression-from-freshwater-microbial-communities-in-urban-watershed-sediments
#3
Christopher Weisener, Jumin Lee, Subba Rao Chaganti, Thomas Reid, Nick Falk, Ken Drouillard
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serve as point-source inputs for a variety of nutrients often dominated by nitrogenous compounds as a result of anthropogenic influence. These effluents can impact biogeochemical cycles in freshwater estuaries, influencing microbial communities in both the water and sediment compartments. To assess the impact of point source nutrients, a transect of sediment and pore water samples were collected from 4 locations in the Little River Sub-watershed including locations above and below the Little River Pollution Control Plant (LRPCP)...
September 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934650/influence-of-human-activities-and-organic-matters-on-occurrence-of-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-in-marine-sediment-core-a-case-study-in-the-southern-yellow-sea-china
#4
Guoguang Wang, Lijuan Feng, Jingshuai Qi, Xianguo Li
The Southern Yellow Sea (SYS) is an important reservoir of anthropogenic organic contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To reconstruct the historical records of PBDEs and examine their relationships with the human activities and organic matters, a(210)Pb-dated sediment core was collected from the central mud area in the SYS. The concentrations of tri-to hepta-BDEs (∑7PBDEs) and BDE-209 ranged from 9.8 to 99.8 pg g(-1) d.w. and from 12.1 to 855.4 pg g(-1) d.w., respectively, both displaying the increasing trends from the bottom to the surface...
September 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934628/the-heat-exposure-integrated-deprivation-index-heidi-a-data-driven-approach-to-quantifying-neighborhood-risk-during-extreme-hot-weather
#5
Nikolas Krstic, Weiran Yuchi, Hung Chak Ho, Blake B Walker, Anders J Knudby, Sarah B Henderson
Mortality attributable to extreme hot weather is a growing concern in many urban environments, and spatial heat vulnerability indexes are often used to identify areas at relatively higher and lower risk. Three indexes were developed for greater Vancouver, Canada using a pool of 20 potentially predictive variables categorized to reflect social vulnerability, population density, temperature exposure, and urban form. One variable was chosen from each category: an existing deprivation index, senior population density, apparent temperature, and road density, respectively...
September 18, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934333/supermarket-purchase-contributes-to-nutrition-related-non-communicable-diseases-in-urban-kenya
#6
Kathrin M Demmler, Stephan Klasen, Jonathan M Nzuma, Matin Qaim
BACKGROUND: While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), typically associated with high body mass index (BMI), is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people's health have not been analyzed up till now. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people's BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure (BP), and the metabolic syndrome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934184/rural-and-urban-differences-in-passenger-vehicle-occupant-deaths-and-seat-belt-use-among-adults-united-states-2014
#7
Laurie F Beck, Jonathan Downs, Mark R Stevens, Erin K Sauber-Schatz
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death in the United States. Compared with urban residents, rural residents are at an increased risk for death from crashes and are less likely to wear seat belts. These differences have not been well described by levels of rurality. REPORTING PERIOD: 2014. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS: Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths from motor-vehicle crashes and estimate the prevalence of seat belt use...
September 22, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934150/frailty-and-its-contributory-factors-in-older-adults-a-comparison-of-two-asian-regions-hong-kong-and-taiwan
#8
Ruby Yu, Wan-Chi Wu, Jason Leung, Susan C Hu, Jean Woo
This study aimed to compare the prevalence of frailty across three Chinese populations: Hong Kong, Taiwan-urban and Taiwan-rural. Contributing factors to disparities in frailty were also examined. Data were derived from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOs) and Women (MsOs) (Hong Kong) Study (n = 4000) and the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (n = 2392). Frailty was defined as an index calculated from 30 multiple deficits. The ratio of the frailty index to life expectancy at birth (FI/LE) was used as an indicator of compression of morbidity...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934005/risk-assessment-of-dietary-exposure-to-phytosterol-oxidation-products-from-baked-food-in-china
#9
Yinzhou Hu, Mengmeng Wang, Weisu Huang, Guoliang Yang, Tiantian Lou, Shiyun Lai, Baiyi Lu, Lufei Zheng
Phytosterols are nutritional phytochemicals that may undergo oxidation and be transformed into phytosterol oxidation products (POPs), thus inducing pathological and toxic effects. This work investigated 4 main phytosterols and 28 POPs in 104 kinds of commercial baked food by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The dietary exposure and hazard index values (HI) associated with POPs from baked food consumption in China were estimated by using Monte Carlo simulation. Concentrations of the total phytosterols were between 3...
September 21, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933953/differential-programming-needs-of-college-students-preferring-web-based-versus-in-person-physical-activity-programs
#10
Stephanie P Goldstein, Evan M Forman, Meghan L Butryn, James D Herbert
College students report several barriers to exercise, highlighting a need for university-based programs that address these challenges. In contrast to in-person interventions, several web-based programs have been developed to enhance program engagement by increasing ease of access and lowering the necessary level of commitment to participate. Unfortunately, web-based programs continue to struggle with engagement and less-than-ideal outcomes. One explanation for this discrepancy is that different intervention modalities may attract students with distinctive activity patterns, motivators, barriers, and program needs...
September 21, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933870/the-role-of-young-adult-social-bonds-substance-problems-and-sexual-risk-in-pathways-between-adolescent-substance-use-and-midlife-risky-sexual-behavior-among-urban-african-americans
#11
Katarzyna A Zebrak, Kerry M Green
African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections relative to other racial groups. Although substance use has been linked to risky sexual behavior, the understanding of how these associations develop over the life course remains limited, particularly the role of social bonds. This study uses structural equation modeling to examine pathways from adolescent substance use to young adult sexual risk, substance problems, and social bonds and then to midlife risky sexual behavior among African American men and women, controlling for childhood confounders...
September 21, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933770/effects-of-land-use-cover-changes-and-urban-forest-configuration-on-urban-heat-islands-in-a-loess-hilly-region-case-study-based-on-yan-an-city-china
#12
Xinping Zhang, Dexiang Wang, Hongke Hao, Fangfang Zhang, Youning Hu
In this study Yan'an City, a typical hilly valley city, was considered as the study area in order to explain the relationships between the surface urban heat island (SUHI) and land use/land cover (LULC) types, the landscape pattern metrics of LULC types and land surface temperature (LST) and remote sensing indexes were retrieved from Landsat data during 1990-2015, and to find factors contributed to the green space cool island intensity (GSCI) through field measurements of 34 green spaces. The results showed that during 1990-2015, because of local anthropogenic activities, SUHI was mainly located in lower vegetation cover areas...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933708/statewide-longitudinal-progression-of-the-whole-patient-measure-of-safety-in-south-carolina
#13
Christine B Turley, Jordan Brittingham, Aunyika Moonan, Dianne Davis, Hrishikesh Chakraborty
Meaningful improvement in patient safety encompasses a vast number of quality metrics, but a single measure to represent the overall level of safety is challenging to produce. Recently, Perla et al. established the Whole-Person Measure of Safety (WPMoS) to reflect the concept of global risk assessment at the patient level. We evaluated the WPMoS across an entire state to understand the impact of urban/rural setting, academic status, and hospital size on patient safety outcomes. The population included all South Carolina (SC) inpatient discharges from January 1, 2008, through to December 31, 2013, and was evaluated using established definitions of highly undesirable events (HUEs)...
September 4, 2017: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933196/symptoms-acceptance-of-illness-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#14
Beata Jankowska-Polańska, Aleksandra Kaczan, Katarzyna Lomper, Dariusz Nowakowski, Krzysztof Dudek
INTRODUCTION: Acceptance of illness plays a key role, allowing the patient to adapt to the disease and its treatment, and to maintain their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) despite chronic conditions. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between severity of arrhythmia symptoms, acceptance of illness and HRQOL in patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS: The study included 99 patients (mean age 64.6) treated for atrial fibrillation...
September 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933057/healthcare-finance-in-the-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia-a-qualitative-study-of-householders-attitudes
#15
Mohammed Khaled Al-Hanawi, Omar Alsharqi, Saja Almazrou, Kirit Vaidya
BACKGROUND: The public sector healthcare system in Saudi Arabia, essentially financed by oil revenues and 'free at the point of delivery', is coming under increasing strain due to escalating expenditure and an increasingly volatile oil market and is likely to be unsustainable in the medium to long term. OBJECTIVES: This study examines how satisfied the Saudi people are with their public sector healthcare services and assesses their willingness to contribute to financing the system through a national health insurance scheme...
September 20, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932955/the-sustainable-arable-land-use-pattern-under-the-tradeoff-of-agricultural-production-economic-development-and-ecological-protection-an-analysis-of-dongting-lake-basin-china
#16
Guanyi Yin, Liming Liu, Xilong Jiang
To find a solution regarding sustainable arable land use pattern in the important grain-producing area during the rapid urbanization process, this study combined agricultural production, locational condition, and ecological protection to determine optimal arable land use. Dongting Lake basin, one of the major grain producing areas in China, was chosen as the study area. The analysis of land use transition, the calculation of arable land barycenter, the landscape indices of arable land patches, and the comprehensive evaluation of arable land quality(productivity, economic location, and ecological condition) were adopted in this study...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932943/response-of-magnetic-properties-to-metal-deposition-on-urban-green-in-nanjing-china
#17
Xiang'zi Leng, Cheng Wang, Huiming Li, Xin Qian, Jinhua Wang, Yixuan Sun
Environmental magnetism is a simple and fast method that can be used to assess heavy metal pollution in urban areas from the relationships between magnetic properties and heavy metal concentrations. Leaves of Osmanthus fragrans, one of the most widely distributed evergreen trees in Nanjing, China, were collected from four different district types, i.e., residential, educational, traffic, and industrial. The magnetic properties and heavy metal concentrations were measured both for unwashed (dust-loaded) and washed leaves...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932771/urban-weather-data-and-building-models-for-the-inclusion-of-the-urban-heat-island-effect-in-building-performance-simulation
#18
M Palme, L Inostroza, G Villacreses, A Lobato, C Carrasco
This data article presents files supporting calculation for urban heat island (UHI) inclusion in building performance simulation (BPS). Methodology is used in the research article "From urban climate to energy consumption. Enhancing building performance simulation by including the urban heat island effect" (Palme et al., 2017) [1]. In this research, a Geographical Information System (GIS) study is done in order to statistically represent the most important urban scenarios of four South-American cities (Guayaquil, Lima, Antofagasta and Valparaíso)...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932702/emergency-ct-of-blunt-abdominal-trauma-experience-from-a-large-urban-hospital-in-southern-china
#19
REVIEW
Jingshan Gong, Dongdong Mei, Minjie Yang, Jianmin Xu, Yangyang Zhou
Trauma is one of the leading causes of death for men and women under the age of 45 years old, and abdominal injuries contribute to a large number of these deaths. Prompt diagnosis is very important for treatment decision making and can be life-saving. CT has become an essential imaging modality in emergency medicine. In this pictorial review, we present our experience of CT in blunt abdominal trauma and describe CT findings of common injuries, including hemoperitoneum, solid viscera, hollow viscera, mesenteric and diaphragmatic injuries...
August 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932278/assessment-of-antibiotic-susceptibility-in-lactobacillus-isolates-from-chickens
#20
Marta Dec, Renata Urban-Chmiel, Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Andrzej Wernicki
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of 88 Lactobacillus isolates derived from chickens to antibiotic substances and to detect drug-resistance genes. RESULTS: The minimal inhibitory concentration of 13 antimicrobial substances was determined by the broth microdilution method, and resistance genes were detected by PCR. We recorded a high prevalence of resistance to tiamulin (90% resistant isolates), tetracyclines (74%) and lincomycin (70%), and a moderately high frequency of resistance to enrofloxacin (48%), macrolides (42%), aminoglycosides (12...
2017: Gut Pathogens
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