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Acantholytic dermatoses

Hemlata Panwar, Deepti Joshi, Garima Goel, Dinesh Asati, Kaushik Majumdar, Neelkamal Kapoor
Aims: Tzanck smear is an old but useful test for diagnosis of cutaneous dermatoses. The aim of this study was to highlight the potential usefulness and diagnostic pitfalls of Tzanck smear for diagnosis of cutaneous dermatoses and infections. Materials and Methods: This hospital based cross-sectional study was carried out on all Tzanck smears received for a period of twenty months (January 2014-August 2015). The smears were assessed to establish the utility of Tzanck smears in corroborating or excluding a diagnosis of immunobullous lesion or herpetic infection...
October 2017: Journal of Cytology
Brian J Tjarks, Steven D Billings, Jennifer S Ko
BACKGROUND: Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) is considered pivotal in diagnosing autoimmune blistering diseases. Our goal was to examine the necessity of DIF in intraepidermal bullous cases, of which pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is the prototype. METHODS: Sixty-six cases from 2010 to 2014 submitted for DIF with an intraepidermal blistering disease listed in the differential diagnosis were reviewed by 2 board-certified dermatopathologists to see if they would order DIF based on routine histologic findings...
January 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Jonathan Ho, Jag Bhawan
Acantholysis is a commonly encountered histological pattern which typically generates a differential of the pemphigus variants, Hailey-Hailey, Darier's and Grover's diseases. In addition to these diseases, the dermatologist and dermatopathologist must be aware of entities that mimic classic acantholytic dermatoses and of rare disease variants, which are characterized by acantholysis.
March 2017: Journal of Dermatology
Enzo Errichetti, Giuseppe Stinco
Over the last few years, dermoscopy has been shown to be a useful tool in assisting the noninvasive diagnosis of various general dermatological disorders. In this article, we sought to provide an up-to-date practical overview on the use of dermoscopy in general dermatology by analysing the dermoscopic differential diagnosis of relatively common dermatological disorders grouped according to their clinical presentation, i.e. dermatoses presenting with erythematous-desquamative patches/plaques (plaque psoriasis, eczematous dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, mycosis fungoides and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus), papulosquamous/papulokeratotic dermatoses (lichen planus, pityriasis rosea, papulosquamous sarcoidosis, guttate psoriasis, pityriasis lichenoides chronica, classical pityriasis rubra pilaris, porokeratosis, lymphomatoid papulosis, papulosquamous chronic GVHD, parakeratosis variegata, Grover disease, Darier disease and BRAF-inhibitor-induced acantholytic dyskeratosis), facial inflammatory skin diseases (rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, discoid lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, lupus vulgaris, granuloma faciale and demodicidosis), acquired keratodermas (chronic hand eczema, palmar psoriasis, keratoderma due to mycosis fungoides, keratoderma resulting from pityriasis rubra pilaris, tinea manuum, palmar lichen planus and aquagenic palmar keratoderma), sclero-atrophic dermatoses (necrobiosis lipoidica, morphea and cutaneous lichen sclerosus), hypopigmented macular diseases (extragenital guttate lichen sclerosus, achromic pityriasis versicolor, guttate vitiligo, idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis, progressive macular hypomelanosis and postinflammatory hypopigmentations), hyperpigmented maculopapular diseases (pityriasis versicolor, lichen planus pigmentosus, Gougerot-Carteaud syndrome, Dowling-Degos disease, erythema ab igne, macular amyloidosis, lichen amyloidosus, friction melanosis, terra firma-forme dermatosis, urticaria pigmentosa and telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans), itchy papulonodular dermatoses (hypertrophic lichen planus, prurigo nodularis, nodular scabies and acquired perforating dermatosis), erythrodermas (due to psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, mycosis fungoides, pityriasis rubra pilaris and scabies), noninfectious balanitis (Zoon's plasma cell balanitis, psoriatic balanitis, seborrheic dermatitis and non-specific balanitis) and erythroplasia of Queyrat, inflammatory cicatricial alopecias (scalp discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia and folliculitis decalvans), nonscarring alopecias (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, androgenetic alopecia and telogen effluvium) and scaling disorders of the scalp (tinea capitis, scalp psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis and pityriasis amiantacea)...
December 2016: Dermatology and Therapy
M J Sindha, B J Trangadia, P D Vihol, R S Parmar, B V Patel
AIM: The present study has been carried out to detect non-parasitic dermatoses in canines brought at the Nandini Veterinary Hospital, Surat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current investigation was carried out on skin scrapping, skin biopsy specimens, blood, and serum samples of 210 freshly registered cases of dogs with dermatological afflictions. Dogs found healthy on clinical examination were used as control animals (n=15). The incidence of non-parasitic dermatoses has been recorded as per age, breed, and sex of dogs...
November 2015: Veterinary World
L Tognetti, N Nami, M Fimiani, P Rubegni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Kanthilatha Pai, Shricharith Shetty, J Padmapriya, Sathish Pai, Lakshmi Rao
Bowen's disease is generally regarded as premalignant dermatoses. The disease affects both skin and the mucosa and has the potential to progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. There are descriptions of several histological variants of Bowen's disease like psoriasiform, atrophic, pagetoid, etc. Acantholysis of anaplastic keratinocytes with bullae/cleft formation is described in premalignant condition like actinic keratosis and adenoid variant of squamous cell carcinoma, but there is lack of report describing this phenomena in Bowen's disease...
November 2014: Indian Journal of Dermatology
M Sabatier-Vincent, J Charles, N Pinel, I Challende, A Claeys, M-T Leccia
BACKGROUND: Acantholytic dyskeratosis under BRAF inhibitors are dermatological diseases rarely reported to date. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report 2 cases of acantholytic dyskeratosis, reaching the trunk and the seborrheic zones, not itchy, appeared one month after the introduction of vemurafenib. The histological analysis was typical of a "Grover-like rash" for the 2 patients. DISCUSSION: The appearance of acantholytic dyskeratosis under vemurafenib, a BRAF inhibitor, seems related with a paradoxical activation of the MAP-kinases pathway and with a growth acceleration of lesions in which RAS mutations of keratinocytes...
November 2014: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Philip R Cohen, Taraneh Paravar, Robert A Lee
BACKGROUND: Multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can either be epithelial or histiocytic. Epithelial multinucleated giant cells are most often associated with herpes virus infections. PURPOSE: To review the histologic differential diagnosis of conditions with epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cells-since multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis are not always pathognomonic of a cutaneous herpes virus infection-and to summarize dermatoses in which herpes virus infection has been observed to coexist...
October 2014: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
Margot S Peters, Julia S Lehman, Nneka I Comfere
To better define the spectrum of neoplastic and inflammatory diseases that affect female breast skin and the nipple-areola complex, we searched an institutional dermatopathology database and identified 500 specimens of female "breast" (from consecutive records accessioned January 2009-March 2011), 143 specimens of "areola," 124 specimens of "nipple" (records from the latter 2 groups were from patients evaluated June 1992-March 2011), and 500 control specimens of "abdomen" (accessioned January 2010-March 2011)...
May 2013: American Journal of Dermatopathology
M Mohr, P Kanter, B Cribier, D Lipsker
BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common dermatosis that can involve the bald area of the scalp. We report the case of a man presenting clinical symptoms of rosacea of the forehead and the scalp, but with a histological picture of familial chronic benign pemphigus. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 47-year-old man with a history of Hailey-Hailey disease had been presenting facial dermatosis for 5 years. The clinical features were erythema with pustules and scales located on the mid-forehead and the androgenic bald area of the frontal scalp...
October 2012: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Akihiko Asahina, Akira Ishiko, Ikuo Saito, Kazuko Hasegawa, Daisuke Sawamura, Hajime Nakano
Grover's disease is an acquired dermatosis of unknown cause histopathologically characterized by the presence of acantholysis. We report an 83-year-old Japanese man who showed multiple pruritic papular lesions distributed bilaterally along Blaschko lines, necessitating the exclusion of segmental Darier's disease. No mutations in ATP2A2, ATP2C1 or keratin 5 genes were found both in the lesional skin and in peripheral leukocytes, suggesting that putative pathogenesis of Grover's disease is distinct from those of other acantholytic dermatoses...
2012: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
C Hamsch, E Hadaschik
Focal, mostly suprabasal acantholyis with development of dyskeratotic keratinocytes are typical histological features of Grover's disease. The histological distinction between other forms of acantholytic dermatoses is often difficult. A combined assessment of the histological findings and the clinical symptoms often allows a clear diagnosis. The disease is self-limiting but treatment is necessary in some cases due to the sometimes excessive pruritis.
June 2012: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
S Hanneken, A Rütten, S Eigelshoven, M Braun-Falco, S M Pasternack, T Ruzicka, M M Nöthen, R C Betz, R Kruse
Galli-Galli disease, a rare genodermatosis belonging to the spectrum of reticulate pigment dermatoses, is classified as an acantholytic variant of Dowling-Degos disease on the basis of its characteristic clinical and histological findings. In the context of this case series, Galli-Galli disease is characterized in detail based on the clinical and histopathological evaluation of 18 patients. The disease pattern is discussed in view of the current literature. In addition, a classification into two clinical subtypes is made and a genotype/phenotype correlation with mutations in the keratin 5 (KRT5) gene is established...
November 2011: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Thierry Olivry, Keith E Linder
Failure of desmosomal adhesion with ensuing keratinocyte separation - a phenomenon called acantholysis - can result from genetic, autoimmune or infectious proteolytic causes. Rare hereditary disorders of desmosomal formation have been identified in animals. Familial acantholysis of Angus calves and hereditary suprabasal acantholytic mechanobullous dermatosis of buffaloes appear to be similar to acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa of human beings. A genetic acantholytic dermatosis resembling human Darier disease has been rarely recognized in dogs...
October 2009: Veterinary Dermatology
R Baran
Red nail is a common disorder. However, a thorough examination of the patient's nails allows one to distinguish different diseases. For example, longitudinal erythronychia may be monodactylous or polydactylous. Only the former type can show histologically Bowen's disease or an amelanotic melanoma. Among the polydactylous type, the nosologic position of the acantholytic and dyskeratotic naevus versus Darier's disease is still controversial. Acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa looks like bullous Darier's disease, and acrokeratosis of Hopf may present also red longitudinal streaks...
November 2009: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Laurence Feldmeyer, Ralph M Trüeb, Lars E French, Jürg Hafner
Human herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are well-recognized complications of various dermatoses and have also been reported in both hereditary and acquired acantholytic diseases such as dyskeratosis follicularis (Darier's disease), familial benign chronic pemphigus (Hailey-Hailey disease) and pemphigus vulgaris, respectively. The possibility of HSV infection should be considered in pemphigus patients with lack of improvement under adequate immunosuppressive therapy. This has therapeutic implications, since antiviral treatment instantly clears the HSV-induced chronic erosions...
September 2010: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Melek Koç, Mukaddes Kavala, Emek Kocatürk, Ozgür Mete, Mete Ozgür, Burçe Can, Ilkin Zindanci, Selin Aktas, Selin Atkas
Warty dyskeratoma is usually characterized by solitary papules or nodules which reveal acantholytic dyskeratosis histopathologically. Warty dyskeratoma most commonly presents as a single lesion, but there are a few case reports of patients with multiple lesions. Herein we report a female patient presenting with multiple verrucous papules on the scalp diagnosed clinically and histopathologically as warty dyskeratoma.
2009: Dermatology Online Journal
Francisca Kartono, Paul K Shitabata, Cynthia M Magro, David Rayhan
A variety of clinical and histological presentations can accompany the evolution of malignant melanoma. Unusual cytological variants of malignant melanoma include balloon cell, signet ring cell, myxoid and other metaplastic changes. With the exception of a case of pemphigus-like changes associated with malignant melanoma in paraneoplastic pemphigus, acantholysis is not a common histopathological feature of malignant melanoma. We present two unique cases of malignant melanoma with varying degrees of extensive melanocytic discohesion in an acantholytic pattern mimicking pemphigus vulgaris, further referred to in this article as 'discohesive melanoma'...
February 2009: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Kenneth S Resnik, Mario DiLeonardo
Granular parakeratosis is histopathologically recognized by the presence of parakeratotic corneocytes housing keratohyaline granules. Similar to acantholytic dyskeratosis and epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, it may histopathologically represent a diagnostic finding in a specific dermatosis, one of the diagnostic features in a solitary keratosis or an incidental finding. Granular parakeratosis as an incidental finding has been reported in association with various dermatoses. This report expands the concept of granular parakeratosis as an incidental histopathologic feature by describing it in carcinomas...
June 2007: American Journal of Dermatopathology
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