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Sleep tracking

Jørgen Riis Jepsen, Hanna B Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MS) represents a cluster of risk factors related to insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is a strong risk factor for chronic metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and is related to nutritional factors, sleep patterns, work-related stress, fatigue, and physical activity - all of which are critical issues at sea. We have previously demonstrated a MS prevalence of 24.2% in Danish seafarers. This study aimed to follow the trend of MS after 2 years' intervention...
2016: International Maritime Health
Steven Steinhubl
Despite having the basic tools necessary to appropriately identify and manage individuals with hypertension for over half a century it remains the single greatest contributing risk factor to morbidity and mortality worldwide today. Since diagnosis and effective treatment availability are not issues, this major failing in care can be attributed to inadequate systems of care: systems that have led to only <20% of hypertensive individuals globally having their blood pressure adequately controlled. Even in the US, where it is one of the most common reasons for a primary care visit, and with over $42...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jean-François Brunet, Dominique Dagenais, Marc Therrien, Daniel Gartenberg, Geneviève Forest
Despite its high sensitivity and validity in the context of sleep loss, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) could be improved. The aim of the present study was to validate a new smartphone PVT-type application called sleep-2-Peak (s2P) by determining its ability to assess fatigue-related changes in alertness in a context of extended wakefulness. Short 3-min versions of s2P and of the classic PVT were administered at every even hour during a 35-h total sleep deprivation protocol. In addition, subjective measures of sleepiness were collected...
September 8, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Stanislav V Rozov, Janneke C Zant, Kestutis Gurevicius, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Pertti Panula
AIM: Under natural conditions diurnal rhythms of biological processes of the organism are synchronized with each other and to the environmental changes by means of the circadian system. Disturbances of the latter affect hormonal levels, sleep-wakefulness cycle and cognitive performance. To study mechanisms of such perturbations animal models subjected to artificial photoperiods are often used. The goal of current study was to understand the effects of circadian rhythm disruption, caused by a short light-dark cycle regime, on activity of the cerebral cortex in rodents...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
C Daniela Schwindel, Zaneta Navratilova, Karim Ali, Masami Tatsuno, Bruce L McNaughton
UNLABELLED: The hippocampus is thought to contribute to episodic memory by creating, storing, and reactivating patterns that are unique to each experience, including different experiences that happen at the same location. Hippocampus can combine spatial and contextual/episodic information using a dual coding scheme known as "global" and "rate" remapping. Global remapping selects which set of neurons can activate at a given location. Rate remapping readjusts the firing rates of this set depending on current experience, thus expressing experience-unique patterns at each location...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Giulia L Poerio, Stephen Kellett, Peter Totterdell
This study examined in real time the role of sleep and daydreaming as potentiating states for subsequent dissociation in depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD). Research and theory suggests that dissociation may be exacerbated and maintained by a labile sleep-wake cycle in which "dream-like" mentation intrudes into waking life and fuels dissociative symptoms. We explore and extend this idea by examining the state of daydreaming in dissociation. Daydreaming is a state of consciousness between dreaming and waking cognition that involves stimulus-independent and task-unrelated mentation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Sunil Sharma, Anasua Chakraborty, Anindita Chowdhury, Umer Mukhtar, Leslee Willes, Stuart F Quan
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of several adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but can be mitigated with positive airway pressure therapy (PAP). The nonadherence of patients with SDB on PAP in the outpatient setting ranges from 29% to 84%. However, adherence of PAP in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) admitted for decompensated CHF and in whom SDB has been diagnosed in the hospital setting is not known...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
A R Weighall, L M Henderson, D J Barr, S A Cairney, M G Gaskell
Lexical competition is a hallmark of proficient, automatic word recognition. Previous research suggests that there is a delay before a new spoken word becomes engaged in this process, with sleep playing an important role. However, data from one method - the visual world paradigm - consistently show competition without a delay. We trained 42 adults and 40 children (aged 7-8) on novel word-object pairings, and employed this paradigm to measure the time-course of lexical competition. Fixations to novel objects upon hearing existing words (e...
August 22, 2016: Brain and Language
Carmen Pizarro, Fabian van Essen, Fabian Linnhoff, Robert Schueler, Christoph Hammerstingl, Georg Nickenig, Dirk Skowasch, Marcel Weber
BACKGROUND: COPD and congestive heart failure represent two disease entities of growing global burden that share common etiological features. Therefore, we aimed to identify the degree of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in COPD as a function of COPD severity stages and concurrently placed particular emphasis on the presence of overlapping obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: A total of 85 COPD outpatients (64.1±10.4 years, 54.1% males) and 20 controls, matched for age, sex, and smoking habits, underwent speckle tracking echocardiography for LV longitudinal strain imaging...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Jennifer G Andrews, Aida Soim, Shree Pandya, Christina P Westfield, Emma Ciafaloni, Deborah J Fox, David J Birnkrant, Christopher M Cunniff, Daniel W Sheehan
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) causes progressive respiratory muscle weakness and decline in function, which can go undetected without monitoring. DMD respiratory care guidelines recommend scheduled respiratory assessments and use of respiratory assist devices. To determine the extent of adherence to these guidelines, we evaluated respiratory assessments and interventions among males with DMD in the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network (MD STARnet) from 2000 to 2011...
October 2016: Respiratory Care
Donald Jones, Nebojsa Skrepnik, Richard M Toselli, Bruno Leroy
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is one of the leading causes of disability in the United States. One relatively new strategy that could be helpful in the management of OA is the use of mHealth technologies, as they can be used to increase physical activity and promote exercise, which are key components of knee OA management. OBJECTIVE: Currently, no published data on the use of a mHealth approach to comprehensively monitor physical activity in patients with OA are available, and similarly, no data on whether mHealth technologies can impact outcomes are available...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Lynette Vernon, Kathryn L Modecki, Bonnie L Barber
Concerns are growing about adolescents' problematic social networking and possible links to depressed mood and externalizing behavior. Yet there remains little understanding of underlying processes that may account for these associations, including the mediating role of sleep disruption. This study tests this putative mediating process and examines change in problematic social networking investment and disrupted sleep, in relation to change in depressed mood and externalizing behavior. A sample of 874 students (41% male; 57...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Margaret L McNeely, Kristin L Campbell, Marc Webster, Urve Kuusk, Karen Tracey, John Mackey
BACKGROUND: Lymphedema is a prevalent long-term effect of breast cancer treatment that is associated with reduced quality of life. More recent observational data suggest that the addition of night-time compression to day-time use of a compression garment results in better long-term control of arm lymphedema. The primary objectives of the randomized controlled phase of the trial are to determine the efficacy of night-time compression on arm lymphedema volume maintenance and quality of life in breast cancer survivors who have completed intensive reduction treatment for their lymphedema...
2016: BMC Cancer
Diogo Pimentel, Jeffrey M Donlea, Clifford B Talbot, Seoho M Song, Alexander J F Thurston, Gero Miesenböck
Sleep disconnects animals from the external world, at considerable risks and costs that must be offset by a vital benefit. Insight into this mysterious benefit will come from understanding sleep homeostasis: to monitor sleep need, an internal bookkeeper must track physiological changes that are linked to the core function of sleep. In Drosophila, a crucial component of the machinery for sleep homeostasis is a cluster of neurons innervating the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFB) of the central complex. Artificial activation of these cells induces sleep, whereas reductions in excitability cause insomnia...
August 18, 2016: Nature
Gina Segovia-Siapco, Joan Sabaté
BACKGROUND: Traditional paper-based methods to assess food intake can be cumbersome for adolescents; use of mobile phones to track and photograph what they eat may be a more convenient, reliable, and compelling way to collect data. OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to determine (1) the feasibility of using personal mobile phones to send food records with digital images (FRDIs) among free-living adolescents and (2) whether the quality of food records differed between a high-level intervention group (ie, face-to-face training plus real-time support) and a low-level intervention group (ie, telephone training plus next-day follow-up)...
2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Malek I Makki, Cornelia Hagmann
Using fiber tracking we investigated the early interhemispheric to cortical development by segmenting the corpus callosum (CC) in five substructures, genu, rostrum, body, isthmus, and splenium, and to examine gender differences in healthy, term neonates. Twenty neonates (11 boys aged 39 ± 2 days, nine girls aged 39 ± 1 days) were scanned in natural sleep with diffusion tensor imging and 35 gradient directions. Fiber tracking was performed using the FACT algorithm. The CC was segments in five substructures on midsagittal imaging...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
I S M van der Wurff, C von Schacky, K Berge, P A Kirschner, R H M de Groot
INTRODUCTION: The influence of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation on brain functioning is debated. Some studies have found positive effects on cognition in children with learning difficulties, elderly people with cognitive impairment and depression scores in depressed individuals. Other studies have found null or negative effects. Observational studies in adolescents have found positive associations between fish consumption (containing n-3 LCPUFAs) and academic achievement...
2016: BMJ Open
Jianliang Tong, Jun Maruta, Kristin J Heaton, Alexis L Maule, Umesh Rajashekar, Lisa A Spielman, Jamshid Ghajar
To aid a clear and unified visual perception while tracking a moving target, both eyes must be coordinated, so the image of the target falls on approximately corresponding areas of the fovea of each eye. The movements of the two eyes are decoupled during sleep, suggesting a role of arousal in regulating binocular coordination. While the absence of visual input during sleep may also contribute to binocular decoupling, sleepiness is a state of reduced arousal that still allows for visual input, providing a context within which the role of arousal in binocular coordination can be studied...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Thomas Andrillon, Andreas Trier Poulsen, Lars Kai Hansen, Damien Léger, Sid Kouider
UNLABELLED: Sleep is characterized by a loss of behavioral responsiveness. However, recent research has shown that the sleeping brain is not completely disconnected from its environment. How neural activity constrains the ability to process sensory information while asleep is yet unclear. Here, we instructed human volunteers to classify words with lateralized hand responses while falling asleep. Using an electroencephalographic (EEG) marker of motor preparation, we show how responsiveness is modulated across sleep...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Chris M D Kocur, Line Lomheim, Olivia Molenda, Kela P Weber, Leanne M Austrins, Brent E Sleep, Hardiljeet K Boparai, Elizabeth A Edwards, Denis M O'Carroll
Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) is an emerging technology for the remediation of contaminated sites. However, there are concerns related to the impact of nZVI on in situ microbial communities. In this study, the microbial community composition at a contaminated site was monitored over two years following the injection of nZVI stabilized with carboxymethyl cellulose (nZVI-CMC). Enhanced dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes to nontoxic ethene was observed long after the expected nZVI oxidation. The abundance of Dehalococcoides (Dhc) and vinyl chloride reductase (vcrA) genes, monitored using qPCR, increased by over an order of magnitude in nZVI-CMC-impacted wells...
July 19, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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