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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672758/explaining-the-gender-gap-in-sickness-absence
#1
K A Østby, A Mykletun, W Nilsen
Background: In many western countries, women have a much higher rate of sickness absence than men. To what degree the gender differences in sickness absence are caused by gender differences in health is largely unknown. Aims: To assess to what degree the gender gap in sickness absence can be explained by health factors and work- and family-related stressors. Methods: Norwegian parents participating in the Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study were asked about sickness absence and a range of factors possibly contributing to gender differences in sickness absence, including somatic and mental health, sleep problems, job control/demands, work-home conflicts, parent-child conflicts and stressful life events...
April 17, 2018: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655936/dynamic-causal-modelling-on-infant-fnirs-data-a-validation-study-on-a-simultaneously-recorded-fnirs-fmri-dataset
#2
Chiara Bulgarelli, Anna Blasi, Simon Arridge, Samuel Powell, Carina de Klerk, Victoria Southgate, Sabrina Brigadoi, William Penny, Sungho Tak, Antonia Hamilton
Tracking the connectivity of the developing brain from infancy through childhood is an area of increasing research interest, and fNIRS provides an ideal method for studying the infant brain as it is compact, safe and robust to motion. However, data analysis methods for fNIRS are still underdeveloped compared to those available for fMRI. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) is an advanced connectivity technique developed for fMRI data, that aims to estimate the coupling between brain regions and how this might be modulated by changes in experimental conditions...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650506/evaluating-the-validity-of-current-mainstream-wearable-devices-in-fitness-tracking-under-various-physical-activities-comparative-study
#3
Junqing Xie, Dong Wen, Lizhong Liang, Yuxi Jia, Li Gao, Jianbo Lei
BACKGROUND: Wearable devices have attracted much attention from the market in recent years for their fitness monitoring and other health-related metrics; however, the accuracy of fitness tracking results still plays a major role in health promotion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a host of latest wearable devices in measuring fitness-related indicators under various seminatural activities. METHODS: A total of 44 healthy subjects were recruited, and each subject was asked to simultaneously wear 6 devices (Apple Watch 2, Samsung Gear S3, Jawbone Up3, Fitbit Surge, Huawei Talk Band B3, and Xiaomi Mi Band 2) and 2 smartphone apps (Dongdong and Ledongli) to measure five major health indicators (heart rate, number of steps, distance, energy consumption, and sleep duration) under various activity states (resting, walking, running, cycling, and sleeping), which were then compared with the gold standard (manual measurements of the heart rate, number of steps, distance, and sleep, and energy consumption through oxygen consumption) and calculated to determine their respective mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs)...
April 12, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643758/prevalence-of-supplement-use-in-recreationally-active-kazakhstan-university-students
#4
Denis Vinnikov, Zhanna Romanova, Anar Dushpanova, Karashash Absatarova, Zhazira Utepbergenova
Background: Little is known about the supplements use and recreational sport practices in Kazakhstan university students. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain supplements use prevalence and their predictors in this population. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of both undergraduate and graduate level students was completed in 2017 et al.-Farabi Kazakh National University, the largest higher institution in the country, from almost all Schools. A 45-item questionnaire was used to record physical activity, supplements use, lifestyle attributes (smoking, alcohol, sleep, etc...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643054/wearable-activity-tracker-use-among-australian-adolescents-usability-and-acceptability-study
#5
Nicola D Ridgers, Anna Timperio, Helen Brown, Kylie Ball, Susie Macfarlane, Samuel K Lai, Kara Richards, Kelly A Mackintosh, Melitta A McNarry, Megan Foster, Jo Salmon
BACKGROUND: Wearable activity trackers have the potential to be integrated into physical activity interventions, yet little is known about how adolescents use these devices or perceive their acceptability. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the usability and acceptability of a wearable activity tracker among adolescents. A secondary aim was to determine adolescents' awareness and use of the different functions and features in the wearable activity tracker and accompanying app...
April 11, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609728/the-risk-of-fatigue-and-sleepiness-in-the-ridesharing-industry-an-american-academy-of-sleep-medicine-position-statement
#6
Michael Berneking, Ilene M Rosen, Douglas B Kirsch, Ronald D Chervin, Kelly A Carden, Kannan Ramar, R Nisha Aurora, David A Kristo, Raman K Malhotra, Jennifer L Martin, Eric J Olson, Carol L Rosen, James A Rowley, Indira Gurubhagavatula
The ridesharing-or ride-hailing-industry has grown exponentially in recent years, transforming quickly into a fee-for-service, unregulated taxi industry. While riders are experiencing the benefits of convenience and affordability, two key regulatory and safety issues deserve consideration. First, individuals who work as drivers in the ridesharing industry are often employed in a primary job, and they work as drivers during their "off" time. Such a schedule may lead to driving after extended periods of wakefulness or during nights, both of which are factors that increase the risk of drowsy driving accidents...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606199/gps-identified-vulnerabilities-of-savannah-woodland-primates-to-leopard-predation-and-their-implications-for-early-hominins
#7
Lynne A Isbell, Laura R Bidner, Eric K Van Cleave, Akiko Matsumoto-Oda, Margaret C Crofoot
Predation is thought to have been a key selection pressure in primate evolution, especially in the savannah-woodland habitats where several early hominin species lived. However, predator-primate prey relationships are still poorly understood because human presence often deters predators, limiting our ability to quantify the impact of predation. Synchronized high-resolution tracking of leopards (Panthera pardus), vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and olive baboons (Papio anubis) during a 14-month study in Kenya revealed that increased vulnerability to leopard predation was not associated with higher encounter rates, smaller body size, smaller group size, or greater distance from refuges, contrary to long-standing inferences...
May 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570610/dietary-sialyllactose-does-not-influence-measures-of-recognition-memory-or-diurnal-activity-in-the-young-pig
#8
Stephen A Fleming, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Sharon M Donovan, Ryan N Dilger
Sialic acid (SA) is an integral component of gangliosides and signaling molecules in the brain and its dietary intake may support cognitive development. We previously reported that feeding sialyllactose, a milk oligosaccharide that contains SA, alters SA content and diffusivity in the pig brain. The present research sought to expand upon such results and describe the effects of feeding sialyllactose on recognition memory and sleep/wake activity using a translational pig model. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to a customized milk replacer containing 0 g/L or 380 g/L of sialyllactose from postnatal day (PND) 2-22...
March 23, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569016/promis-%C3%A2-29-v2-0-profile-physical-and-mental-health-summary-scores
#9
Ron D Hays, Karen L Spritzer, Benjamin D Schalet, David Cella
PURPOSE: The PROMIS-29 v2.0 profile assesses pain intensity using a single 0-10 numeric rating item and seven health domains (physical function, fatigue, pain interference, depressive symptoms, anxiety, ability to participate in social roles and activities, and sleep disturbance) using four items per domain. This paper describes the development of physical and mental health summary scores for the PROMIS-29 v2.0. METHOD: We conducted factor analyses of PROMIS-29 scales on data collected from two internet panels (n = 3000 and 2000)...
March 22, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559050/nighttime-trauma-fellow-care-is-associated-with-improved-outcomes-after-injury
#10
Jessica H Beard, Niels D Martin, Patrick M Reilly, Mark J Seamon
Time of admission and surgeon experience may explain variations in trauma outcomes. We hypothesized that earlier admission time by a more experienced trauma surgeon leads to improved outcomes after injury. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using trauma registry and performance improvement data at our Level 1 trauma center. Consecutive patients presenting at night from 2013 to 2014 were dichotomized into early (6:00 pm-12:00 am) and late (12:01 am-7:00 am) cohorts. Second year trauma fellows acting as attendings and staff trauma surgeons were categorized as less and more experienced, respectively...
March 1, 2018: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555427/temporal-evolution-of-neural-activity-and-connectivity-during-microsleeps-when-rested-and-following-sleep-restriction
#11
Govinda R Poudel, Carrie R H Innes, Richard D Jones
Even when it is critical to stay awake, such as when driving, sleep deprivation weakens one's ability to do so by substantially increasing the propensity for microsleeps. Microsleeps are complete lapses of consciousness but, paradoxically, are associated with transient increases in cortical activity. But do microsleeps provide a benefit in terms of attenuating the need for sleep? And is the neural response to microsleeps altered by the degree of homeostatic drive to sleep? In this study, we continuously monitored eye-video, visuomotor responsiveness, and brain activity via fMRI in 20 healthy subjects during a 20-min visuomotor tracking task following a normally-rested night and a sleep-restricted (4-h) night...
March 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535027/new-waves-rhythmic-electrical-field-stimulation-systematically-alters-spontaneous-slow-dynamics-across-mouse-neocortex
#12
Anastasia Greenberg, Javad Karimi Abadchi, Clayton T Dickson, Majid H Mohajerani
The signature rhythm of slow-wave forebrain activity is the large amplitude, slow oscillation (SO: ∼1 Hz) made up of alternating synchronous periods of activity and silence at the single cell and network levels. On each wave, the SO originates at a unique location and propagates across the neocortex. Attempts to manipulate SO activity using electrical fields have been shown to entrain cortical networks and enhance memory performance. However, neural activity during this manipulation has remained elusive due to methodological issues in typical electrical recordings...
March 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528974/changes-in-morning-salivary-melatonin-correlate-with-prefrontal-responses-during-working-memory-performance
#13
William D S Killgore, Haley C Kent, Sara A Knight, Anna Alkozei
Humans demonstrate a circadian rhythm of melatonin production that closely tracks the daily light/dark cycle, with profound increases in circulating levels during the night-time and nearly nonexistent levels during daylight hours. Although melatonin is known to play a role in preparing the brain and body for sleep, its effects on cognition and brain function are not well understood. We hypothesized that declines in morning melatonin would be associated with increased functional activation within cortical regions involved in alertness, attention, and executive function...
March 9, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525474/medical-care-tasks-among-spousal-dementia-caregivers-links-to-care-related-sleep-disturbances
#14
Courtney A Polenick, Amanda N Leggett, Donovan T Maust, Helen C Kales
OBJECTIVE: Medical care tasks are commonly provided by spouses caring for persons living with dementia (PLWDs). These tasks reflect complex care demands that may interfere with sleep, yet their implications for caregivers' sleep outcomes are unknown. The authors evaluated the association between caregivers' medical/nursing tasks (keeping track of medications; managing tasks such as ostomy care, intravenous lines, or blood testing; giving shots/injections; and caring for skin wounds/sores) and care-related sleep disturbances...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496186/a-comparative-study-of-rail-pedestrian-trespassing-crash-injury-severity-between-highway-rail-grade-crossings-and-non-crossings
#15
Meng Zhang, Asad J Khattak, Jun Liu, David Clarke
Rail-trespassing crashes that involve various levels of injuries to pedestrians are under-researched. Rail trespassing could occur at crossings where pedestrians are present at the wrong time and at non-crossings where pedestrians are not legally allowed to be present. This paper presents a comparative study examining rail-trespassing crashes in two contexts: highway-rail grade crossings vs. non-crossings. How pre-crash trespassing behaviors and other factors (e.g., crash time, locations, and socio-demographics) differ between grade crossings and non-crossings are explored...
February 26, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491217/nelumbo-nucifera-seed-extract-promotes-sleep-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Kyungae Jo, Hyeon-Son Choi, SangDuck Jeon, Chang-Won Ahn, Hyung Joo Suh
The sleep-promoting effects of the water extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds (NNE) were investigated in an invertebrate model. The effects of NNE on the subjective nighttime activity, sleep episodes, and sleep time were determined using Drosophila melanogaster and locomotor activity monitoring systems in basal and caffeine-induced arousal conditions. The movements of fruit flies were analyzed using the Noldus EthoVision-XT system, and the levels of neuromodulators were analyzed using HPLC. Expression of neuromodulator receptors was analyzed using real-time PCR...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489881/impairment-of-vascular-strain-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#17
Max Jonathan Stumpf, Christian Alexander Schaefer, Jan Krycki, Robert Schueler, Carmen Pizarro, Georg Nickenig, Martin Steinmetz, Dirk Skowasch, Izabela Tuleta
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Aim of this present study was to evaluate and extend recent research on the influence of obstructive sleep apnea on vascular strain. METHODS: A total number of 98 patients were integrated in the study. Patients were grouped according to the Apnea-Hypopnea-Index (AHI) in patients with mild-to-moderate OSA (5/h ≤ AHI < 30/h), severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30/h) and controls (AHI < 5/h)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489850/assessment-of-the-fitbit-charge-2-for-monitoring-heart-rate
#18
Simone Benedetto, Christian Caldato, Elia Bazzan, Darren C Greenwood, Virginia Pensabene, Paolo Actis
Fitness trackers are devices or applications for monitoring and tracking fitness-related metrics such as distance walked or run, calorie consumption, quality of sleep and heart rate. Since accurate heart rate monitoring is essential in fitness training, the objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and precision of the Fitbit Charge 2 for measuring heart rate with respect to a gold standard electrocardiograph. Fifteen healthy participants were asked to ride a stationary bike for 10 minutes and their heart rate was simultaneously recorded from each device...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453399/association-of-sleep-and-circadian-activity-rhythm-with-emotional-face-processing-among-12-month-old-infants
#19
Wanqi Sun, Shirley Xin Li, Guanghai Wang, Shumei Dong, Yanrui Jiang, Karen Spruyt, Jiefan Ling, Qi Zhu, Tatia Mei-Chun Lee, Fan Jiang
Sleep and circadian rhythmicity both play an important role in human's cognitive functioning, yet the way in which early development of sleep and circadian rhythm affects cognitive processes and social learning in infants remains less understood. We examined the association of sleep and circadian activity rhythm (CAR) with face and emotional information processing in 12-month old infants. Face processing was measured by eye tracking, whereby infants' scanning patterns and pupil dilations were calculated when they were presented with neutral, pleasant and unpleasant faces...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447996/sleep-food-cravings-and-taste
#20
Wen Lv, Graham Findlayson, Robin Dando
OBJECTIVE: Taste is influenced by factors from our environment, psychology, and from our own physiological state. The objective of the study was to determine whether sleep influences our sense of taste or our cravings for food. METHOD: 57 healthy panelists, predominantly of college age, submitted to sleep tracking, and subsequently underwent a series of sensory tests, using basic prototypic tastants as well as real foods. Panelists were also evaluated to quantify food cravings, using both the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, and the Control of Eating Questionnaire...
February 12, 2018: Appetite
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