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Camila V Ventura, Maria Paula Fernandez, Ivan A Gonzalez, Delia M Rivera-Hernandez, Roberto Lopez-Alberola, Maria Peinado, Angelica A Floren, Patricia A Rodriguez, Basil K Williams, Gabriela de la Vega Muns, Ana J Rodriguez, Catherin Negron, Brenda Fallas, Audina M Berrocal
A 6-day-old female baby with known diagnosis of congenital Zika infection was referred for ophthalmologic examination. The mother (37 years old) was referred for a pruritic rash, conjunctival hyperemia, and malaise at 12 weeks of gestation while still living in Venezuela. Upon arrival to Miami, Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure was confirmed during prenatal screening. At birth, due to the known exposure, a complete congenital ZIKV workup was performed, including brain ultrasound and MRI, which disclosed calcifications in the frontal lobe...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Cailei Zhao, Yongxin Li, Weiguo Cao, Kui Xiang, Heye Zhang, Jian Yang, Yungen Gan
To explore the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in the quantitative assessment of early brain microstructure changes before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt in children with high intracranial pressure hydrocephalus.Ten patients with communicating hydrocephalus (age: 2-36 months) and 14 age-/gender-matched controls (age: 2-36 months) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent the ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure. The imaging data were collected before and 3 months after the operation...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ashraf Raslan, Gerd Fabian Volk, Martin Möller, Vincent Stark, Nikolas Eckhardt, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To examine by intraoperative electric stimulation which peripheral facial nerve (FN) branches are functionally connected to which facial muscle functions. STUDY DESIGN: Single-center prospective clinical study. METHODS: Seven patients whose peripheral FN branching was exposed during parotidectomy under FN monitoring received a systematic electrostimulation of each branch starting with 0.1 mA and stepwise increase to 2 mA with a frequency of 3 Hz...
October 18, 2016: Laryngoscope
Takuya Toyonaga, Shigeru Yamaguchi, Kenji Hirata, Kentaro Kobayashi, Osamu Manabe, Shiro Watanabe, Shunsuke Terasaka, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Naoya Hattori, Tohru Shiga, Yuji Kuge, Shinya Tanaka, Yoichi M Ito, Nagara Tamaki
PURPOSE: Metabolic activity and hypoxia are both important factors characterizing tumor aggressiveness. Here, we used F-18 fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to define metabolically active hypoxic volume, and investigate its clinical significance in relation to progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in glioblastoma patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Glioblastoma patients (n = 32) underwent FMISO PET, FDG PET, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgical intervention...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Christoph Scherfler, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Margarete Delazer, Ronny Beer, Thomas Bodner, Georg Spinka, Mario Kofler, Bettina Pfausler, Christian Kremser, Michael Schocke, Thomas Benke, Elke R Gizewski, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
OBJECTIVE: MRI parameters of iron concentration (R2*, transverse relaxation rate), microstructural integrity (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), as well as gray and white matter volumes were analyzed in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and uncomplicated clinical course to detect the evolution of brain tissue changes 3 weeks and 12 months after ictus. METHODS: MRI scans of 14 SAH patients (aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, n = 5; no aneurysm n = 9) were compared with 14 age-matched healthy control subjects...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Hye-Jin Park, Kang-Woo Lee, Eun S Park, Stephanie Oh, Run Yan, Jie Zhang, Thomas G Beach, Charles H Adler, Michael Voronkov, Steven P Braithwaite, Jeffry B Stock, M Maral Mouradian
OBJECTIVE: Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric holoenzyme composed of a catalytic C subunit, a structural A subunit, and one of several regulatory B subunits that confer substrate specificity. The assembly and activity of PP2A are regulated by reversible methylation of the C subunit. α-Synuclein, which aggregates in Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), is phosphorylated at Ser129, and PP2A containing a B55α subunit is a major phospho-Ser129 phosphatase...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Wanyue Wang, Natalia Dounskaia
How gravity influences neural control of arm movements remains under debate. We tested three alternative interpretations suggested by previous research: (1) that muscular control includes two components, tonic which compensates for gravity and phasic which produces the movement; (2) that there is a tendency to exploit gravity to reduce muscle effort; and (3) that there is a tendency to use a trailing pattern of joint control during which either the shoulder or elbow is rotated actively and the other joint rotates predominantly passively, and to exploit gravity for control of the passively rotated joint...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
J Willis Kiessling, Dean A Hertzler, David E M Drucker, Heather S Spader
BACKGROUND: This case report illustrates the need to evaluate the possibility of multiple arterial sources when presented with a frontal epidural hematoma associated with facial trauma. CASE DESCRIPTION: Our patient presented after being struck in the face by a baseball. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain revealed a large frontal epidural hematoma. Intraoperatively, bleeding from a frontal branch of the middle meningeal artery was encountered and cauterized, and the hematoma was removed...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
E Mark Mahone, Deana Crocetti, Laura Tochen, Tina Kline, Stewart H Mostofsky, Harvey S Singer
BACKGROUND: Complex motor stereotypies in children are repetitive rhythmic movements that have a predictable pattern and location, seem purposeful, but serve no obvious function, tend to be prolonged, and stop with distraction, e.g., arm or hand flapping, waving. They occur in both "primary" (otherwise typically developing) and secondary conditions. These movements are best defined as habitual behaviors and therefore pathophysiologically hypothesized to reside in premotor to posterior putamen circuits...
September 8, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Shannon B Juengst, Galen Switzer, Byung Mo Oh, Patricia M Arenth, Amy K Wagner
INTRODUCTION: Behavioral changes often occur after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can lead to poor health, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. Challenges in evaluating these behaviors often result from the complexity and variability in the way they are conceptualized and defined. We propose and test a conceptual model that is specific to behavioral symptoms after TBI, to serve as a basis for better assessment and treatment. We hypothesized that clusters of individuals, with unique emotional, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics, would emerge that would illustrate this conceptual model...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Bhim Mani Adhikari, Martin Norgaard, Kristen M Quinn, Jenine Ampudia, Justin Squirek, Mukesh Dhamala
Musical improvisation offers an excellent experimental paradigm for the study of real-time human creativity. It involves moment-to-moment decision-making, monitoring of one's performance, and utilizing external feedback to spontaneously create new melodies or variations on a melody. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to study the brain activity during musical improvisation, aiming to unlock the mystery of human creativity. What brain resources come together and how these are utilized during musical improvisation is not well understood...
October 18, 2016: Brain Connectivity
James M Bjork, Thomas K Burroughs, Laura M Franke, Treven C Pickett, Sade E Johns, F Gerard Moeller, William C Walker
In military populations, traumatic brain injury (TBI) also holds potential to increase impulsivity and impair mood regulation due to blast injury effects on ventral frontal cortex - to put military personnel at risk for suicide or substance abuse. We assessed a linkage between depression and impaired behavioral inhibition in 117 blast-exposed service members (SM) and veterans with post-concussion syndrome (PCS), where PCS was defined using a Rivermead Postconcussive Symptom Questionnaire (RPQ) modified to clarify whether each symptom worsened compared to pre-blast...
October 7, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Jingyi Dong, Xiaoteng Lu, Chen Shao, Jie Huang, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid
The morphology and morphogenesis of a new saline soil hypotrich, Lamtostyla salina n. sp., collected from Longfeng Wetland in Daqing, north China, were studied based on live observations and protargol stained specimens. The new species is characterized as follows: body very flexible but not contractile, lanceolate with anterior end broadly rounded, widest at about 1/3 of body length, posterior end narrowly rounded; cortical granules colourless and scattered; amphisiellid median cirral row ends ahead of mid-body, composed of 5-13 cirri; 4-20 frontoventral cirri arranged in 2-4 rows; three frontal, one buccal and 2-6 transverse cirri; usually one left and one right marginal row, composed of 17-51 and 20-51 cirri respectively; usually two dorsal kineties; two macronuclear nodules and two micronuclei...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Siyu Zhang, Min Xu, Wei-Cheng Chang, Chenyan Ma, Johnny Phong Hoang Do, Daniel Jeong, Tiffany Lei, Jiang Lan Fan, Yang Dan
Long-range projections from the frontal cortex are known to modulate sensory processing in multiple modalities. Although the mouse has become an increasingly important animal model for studying the circuit basis of behavior, the functional organization of its frontal cortical long-range connectivity remains poorly characterized. Here we used virus-assisted circuit mapping to identify the brain networks for top-down modulation of visual, somatosensory and auditory processing. The visual cortex is reciprocally connected to the anterior cingulate area, whereas the somatosensory and auditory cortices are connected to the primary and secondary motor cortices...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Min-Hee Lee, Youngjin Lee, Yoon Ho Hwang, Areum Min, Bong Soo Han, Dong Youn Kim
Sleep restriction (SR) is defined as the condition of not having enough sleep, and it can cause brain injury. In this study, we examined the impact of SR on the structural brain network. We obtained diffusion MRI (dMRI) data for the SR group of fourteen participants who got less than or equal to 5.5 h of sleep for the last 1 month and normal group of the same number of participants who got 7 h of sleep. We constructed the structural brain networks from the dMRI data and analyzed them using graph theoretical approaches...
September 30, 2016: Neuroreport
Egesta Lopci, Laura Olivari, Lorenzo Bello, Pierina Navarria, Arturo Chiti
We report the case of a 55-year-old woman with cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA). Her medical history included brain surgery for small vascular lesions and suspicion of cerebral malignancy. C methionine PET (C-METH PET) demonstrated a diffusely increased uptake on the right hemisphere. Contrast-enhanced MRI documented a massive lesion with a diffuse "nidus" appearance, involving the right cerebral hemisphere (sparing the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior frontal lobe), the brainstem, and the middle cerebellar peduncle...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Andrew C Lynn, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Michael N Hallquist, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Robert P Walters, Patti Kelly Harrison, Ransom W Campbell, David W Harrison
Hostile men have reliably displayed an exaggerated sympathetic stress response across multiple experimental settings, with cardiovascular reactivity for blood pressure and heart rate concurrent with lateralized right frontal lobe stress (Trajanoski et al., in Diabetes Care 19(12):1412-1415, 1996; see Heilman et al., in J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 38(1):69-72, 1975). The current experiment examined frontal lobe regulatory control of glucose in high and low hostile men with concurrent left frontal lobe (Control Oral Word Association Test [verbal]) or right frontal lobe (Ruff Figural Fluency Test [nonverbal]) stress...
February 1, 2016: Brain Informatics
Paul S Foster, Valeria Drago, Brad J Ferguson, Patti Kelly Harrison, David W Harrison
The most frequently used measures of executive functioning are either sensitive to left frontal lobe functioning or bilateral frontal functioning. Relatively little is known about right frontal lobe contributions to executive functioning given the paucity of measures sensitive to right frontal functioning. The present investigation reports the development and initial validation of a new measure designed to be sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning, the Figure Trail Making Test (FTMT). The FTMT, the classic Trial Making Test, and the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) were administered to 42 right-handed men...
December 2015: Brain Informatics
Joe Bathelt, Duncan Astle, Jessica Barnes, F Lucy Raymond, Kate Baker
Childhood speech and language deficits are highly prevalent and are a common feature of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it is difficult to investigate the underlying causal pathways because many diagnostic groups have a heterogeneous aetiology. Studying disorders with a shared genetic cause and shared cognitive deficits can provide crucial insight into the cellular mechanisms and neural systems that give rise to those impairments. The current study investigated structural brain differences of individuals with mutations in ZDHHC9, which is associated with a specific neurodevelopmental phenotype including prominent speech and language impairments and intellectual disability...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
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