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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Hiroyasu Kamiyama, Takanori Miyazaki, Yu Kinoshita, Nakao Ota, Kosumo Noda, Takaharu Shonai, Osamu Takahashi, Sadahisa Tokuda, Rokuya Tanikawa
OBJECT: Regardless of acceptable surgical results of middle cerebral artery aneurysms (MCAs), MCA territory infarction (MCATI) is still one of major problems needing to be solved to archive the better outcome. Authors aimed to investigate the MCATI in patients with surgically treated MCA aneurysms. METHODS: The data of 286 consecutive patients with 322 MCA aneurysms was retrospectively evaluated. The aneurysm location was classified into the early frontal cortical branch (EFCB), early temporal cortical branch (ETCB), bi- or trifurcation (M1-2), and distal aneurysms on the insular, opercular, or cortical segments of MCA (distal MCA)...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Ju-Hwi Kim, Woo-Youl Jang, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Sub Moon, Shin Jung, Kyung-Hwa Lee, In-Young Kim
In this study, we report a case of solitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) without skull or systemic lesions, including reviewing the initial magnetic resonance (MR) findings of cerebral LCH. A 36-year-old male patient presented with generalized tonic-clonic type seizure. Brain MR imaging showed a 3cm mass lesion involving the right frontal lobe. It showed iso-intensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. After gadolinium enhancement, the mass showed heterogeneous enhancement with perilesional edema and additional adjacent leptomeningeal enhancement...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Chun-Yu Tse, Yip Long-Yin, Troby Ka-Yan Lui, Xue-Zhen Xiao, Yang Wang, Winnie Chiu Wing Chu, Nathan Allen Parks, Sandra Sau-Man Chan, Sebastiaan Franciscus Wijnandus Neggers
Current theories of pre-attentive deviant detection postulate that before the Superior Temporal Cortex (STC) detects a change, the Inferior Frontal Cortex (IFC) engages in stimulus analysis, which is particularly critical for ambiguous deviations (e.g., deviant preceded by a short train of standards). These theories rest on the assumption that IFC and STC are functionally connected, which has only been supported by correlational brain imaging studies. We examined this functional connectivity assumption by applying Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to disrupt IFC function, while measuring the later STC mismatch response with the event-related optical signal (EROS)...
June 18, 2018: NeuroImage
Matthew McMillin, Stephanie Grant, Gabriel Frampton, Anca D Petrescu, Jessica Kain, Elaina Williams, Rebecca Haines, Lauren Canady, Sharon DeMorrow
Background & Aims: Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious neurologic complication of acute and chronic liver diseases. We previously showed that aberrant bile acid signaling contributes to the development of hepatic encephalopathy via farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated mechanisms in neurons. In the brain, a novel alternative bile acid synthesis pathway, catalyzed by cytochrome p450 46A1 (Cyp46A1), is the primary mechanism by which the brain regulates cholesterol homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine if FXR activation in the brain altered cholesterol homeostasis during hepatic encephalopathy...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Richard Bido-Medina, Jonathan Wirsich, Minelly Rodríguez, Jairo Oviedo, Isidro Miches, Pamela Bido, Luis Tusen, Peter Stoeter, Sepideh Sadaghiani
Objective: To determine the impact of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection on brain structure and functional organization of severely affected adult patients with neurological complications that extend beyond Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)-like manifestations and include symptoms of the central nervous system (CNS). Methods: In this first case-control neuroimaging study, we obtained structural and functional magnetic resonance images in nine rare adult patients in the subacute phase, and healthy age- and sex-matched controls...
June 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Sirio Cocozza, Teresa Costabile, Enrico Tedeschi, Filomena Abate, Camilla Russo, Agnese Liguori, Walter Del Vecchio, Francesca Paciello, Mario Quarantelli, Alessandro Filla, Arturo Brunetti, Francesco Saccà
Objective: The aim of this study was to perform the first resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) analysis in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) patients to assess possible brain functional connectivity (FC) differences in these patients, and test their correlations with neuropsychological performances. Methods: In total, 24 FRDA patients (M/F: 15/9, mean age 31.3 ± 15.0) and 24 healthy controls (HC; M/F: 15/9, mean age 30.7 ± 15.5) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
June 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Laura J de Schipper, Anne Hafkemeijer, Jeroen van der Grond, Johan Marinus, Johanna M L Henselmans, Jacobus J van Hilten
Background: Functional imaging methods, such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, reflect changes in neural connectivity and may help to assess the widespread consequences of disease-specific network changes in Parkinson's disease. In this study we used a relatively new graph analysis approach in functional imaging: eigenvector centrality mapping. This model-free method, applied to all voxels in the brain, identifies prominent regions in the brain network hierarchy and detects localized differences between patient populations...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Saba Pasha, Keith Baldwin
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the differences in sagittal spinopelvic parameters between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) Lenke types and non-scoliotic controls through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: AIS classification mainly focuses on frontal curve differences; however, the variations in the sagittal spinopelvic alignment in the current classification system is not fully established...
June 20, 2018: Spine
Manveer Garcha, Keithan Sivakumar, Megan Leary, Hussam A Yacoub
Capgras syndrome is one of a variety of delusional misidentification syndromes that can be associated with acute ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disease, or metabolic conditions. Most cases reported in the literature are associated with frontal and/or parietal lobe involvement. Transient Capgras syndrome is rare but has been reported. We present a case of transient Capgras syndrome following bilateral cerebral ischemic infarcts in the frontal, parietal, and temporal regions, and involving the right prefrontal cortex...
June 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Lilian Assunção Felippe, Pedro Rippel Salgado, Diego de Souza Silvestre, Suhaila Mahmoud Smaili Santos, Gustavo Christofoletti
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a 6-month exercise program on cognition and mobility in participants with multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: Prospective, single blind, controlled clinical trial. SETTING: A community rehabilitation program within a large metropolitan health service. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight patients with multiple sclerosis, referred for outpatient rehabilitation. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were allocated to one of two groups and undertook a cognitive-motor exercise program or monitoring (control group)...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
V M Vostrikov, N A Uranova
AIM: Oligodendrocyte abnormalities are thought to be one of the key cellular pathologies involved in disturbances of neuronal connectivity in schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The density of oligodendrocytes in layer III of the prefrontal cortex, BA10, in schizophrenia (n=20) was compared to controls (n=20) using optical dissector method. MANCOVA was applied for group comparisons. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The density of oligodendrocytes was significantly lower in each sublayers of layer III (≤20% p≤0...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
E N Yakusheva, P Yu Mylnikov, I V Chernykh, A V Shchulkin
AIM: To study an effect of the antioxidant and antihypoxant mexidol (ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate) on the transcription factor Nrf2 expression in neuronal nucleis of frontal cortex cells autor the common carotid artery unilateral occlusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed on 64 male Wistar rats. The Nrf2 expression was determined immunohistochemically. RESULTS: Single intraperitoneal mexidol (120 mg/kg b.w.) infusion and oral (100 mg/kg p...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Shuzhi Zhao, Yangding Li, Min Li, Ruonan Wang, Yanzhi Bi, Yajuan Zhang, Xiaoqi Lu, Dahua Yu, Likun Yang, Kai Yuan
Studying the neural correlates of craving to smoke is of great importance to improve treatment outcomes in smoking addiction. According to previous studies, the critical roles of striatum and frontal brain regions had been revealed in addiction. However, few studies focused on the hub of brain regions in the 12 h abstinence induced craving in young smokers. Thirty-one young male smokers were enrolled in the present study. A within-subject experiment design was carried out to compare functional connectivity density between 12-h smoking abstinence and smoking satiety conditions during resting state in young adult smokers by using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM)...
June 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Shunsuke Koga, Naomi Kouri, Ronald L Walton, Mark T W Ebbert, Keith A Josephs, Irene Litvan, Neill Graff-Radford, J Eric Ahlskog, Ryan J Uitti, Jay A van Gerpen, Bradley F Boeve, Adam Parks, Owen A Ross, Dennis W Dickson
Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a clinically heterogeneous tauopathy, which has overlapping clinicopathologic and genetic characteristics with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). This study aimed to elucidate whether transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) pathology contributes to clinicopathologic heterogeneity of CBD. Paraffin-embedded sections of the midbrain, pons, subthalamic nucleus, and basal forebrain from 187 autopsy-confirmed CBD cases were screened with immunohistochemistry for phospho-TDP-43...
June 20, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Hirotsugu Yamamoto, Hiromichi Naito, Takaaki Osako, Kohei Tsukahara, Taihei Yamada, Tetsuya Yumoto, Atsuyoshi Iida, Yoshinori Kosaki, Makio Oka, Fumika Endo, Akira Gochi, Atsunori Nakao
A healthy 10-year-old boy vomited during sleep and later complained of abdominal pain; he became drowsy and uncommunicative. At the nearby hospital E.R., he deteriorated rapidly, and his respiratory movements were absent with cardiac arrest. He was immediately resuscitated. Brain MRI showed no abnormalities. EEG revealed an abnormal pattern with recurrent multifocal epileptiform activity over the bilateral occipital and frontal regions during sleep. Based on the clinical/radiological findings we diagnosed Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS), a benign form of early-onset pediatric epilepsy characterized by autonomic symptoms...
June 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
Chikako Ikeda, Osamu Yokota, Tomoko Miki, Shintaro Takenoshita, Hideki Ishizu, Seishi Terada, Norihito Yamada
Neurodegenerative diseases in which tau accumulation plays a cardinal role in the pathogenic process are called tauopathies, and when tau isoforms having four repeats of the microtubule binding sites, four-repeat tau, are selectively accumulated as pathological hallmarks, the term four-repeat tauopathy is used. The major four-repeat tauopathies are progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and argyrophilic grain disease (AGD). Historically, neuronal cytopathologies, e.g., neurofibrillary tangles and ballooned neurons, were emphasized as characteristic lesions in PSP and CBD...
June 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
Elena Aggius-Vella, Claudio Campus, Monica Gori
Vision seems to have a pivotal role in developing spatial cognition. A recent approach, based on sensory calibration, has highlighted the role of vision in calibrating hearing in spatial tasks. It was shown that blind individuals have specific impairments during audio spatial bisection tasks. Vision is available only in the frontal space, leading to a "natural" blindness in the back. If vision is important for audio space calibration, then the auditory frontal space should be better represented than the back auditory space...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kiran Grant, Stefanie Hassel, Jacqueline A Bobyn, Geoffrey B C Hall, Glenda M MacQueen
Deficits in theory of mind (ToM) processing have been observed in people with bipolar disorder (BD), but the neural basis of these deficits remains unclear. Here, we studied the relations between neural activation, dysfunctional beliefs and behavioral responses in people with BD during a second-order ToM task. Twenty-five patients and 25 healthy-control participants (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a novel ToM task. The Dysfunctional Attitudes scale (DAS) and the Brief Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory (BHAPPI) were used to assess dysfunctional beliefs...
June 4, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Andrius Radziunas, Vytenis Pranas Deltuva, Arimantas Tamasauskas, Rymante Gleizniene, Aiste Pranckeviciene, Kestutis Petrikonis, Adomas Bunevicius
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are common in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association of cortical thickness, cortical and subcortical volume with sleep disturbances in PD patients. METHODS: Twenty-eight PD patients (14 men and 14 women, median age 58 years) were evaluated for sleep disturbances with PDSS and underwent brain MRI. Control group consisted of 28 healthy volunteers who were matched by age and gender...
June 20, 2018: BMC Neurology
Barbara Schmidt, Hannah Kanis, Clay B Holroyd, Wolfgang H R Miltner, Johannes Hewig
In this study, we address the effect of anxiety measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) on EEG and risk decisions. We selected 20 high and 20 low anxious participants based on their STAI trait scores in the upper or lower quartile of the norm distribution and implemented a risk game developed in our laboratory. We investigate if high anxious individuals exert more cognitive control, reflected in higher frontal midline theta (FMT) power when they make a risky decision, and if they act less risky compared to low anxious individuals...
June 20, 2018: Psychophysiology
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