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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028974/temporal-dynamics-of-human-frontal-and-cingulate-neural-activity-during-conflict-and-cognitive-control
#1
Eleonora Bartoli, Christopher R Conner, Cihan M Kadipasaoglu, Sudha Yellapantula, Matthew J Rollo, Cameron S Carter, Nitin Tandon
Cognitive control refers to the ability to produce flexible, goal-oriented behavior in the face of changing task demands and conflicting response tendencies. A classic cognitive control experiment is the Stroop-color naming task, which requires participants to name the color in which a word is written while inhibiting the tendency to read the word. By comparing stimuli with conflicting word-color associations to congruent ones, control processes over response tendencies can be isolated. We assessed the spatial specificity and temporal dynamics in the theta and gamma bands for regions engaged in detecting and resolving conflict in a cohort of 13 patients using a combination of high-resolution surface and depth recordings...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028955/gamma-band-oscillations-preferential-for-nociception-can-be-recorded-in-the-human-insula
#2
Giulia Liberati, Anne Klöcker, Maxime Algoet, Dounia Mulders, Marta Maia Safronova, Susana Ferrao Santos, José-Géraldo Ribeiro Vaz, Christian Raftopoulos, André Mouraux
Transient nociceptive stimuli elicit robust phase-locked local field potentials (LFPs) in the human insula. However, these responses are not preferential for nociception, as they are also elicited by transient non-nociceptive vibrotactile, auditory, and visual stimuli. Here, we investigated whether another feature of insular activity, namely gamma-band oscillations (GBOs), is preferentially observed in response to nociceptive stimuli. Although nociception-evoked GBOs have never been explored in the insula, previous scalp electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography studies suggest that nociceptive stimuli elicit GBOs in other areas such as the primary somatosensory and prefrontal cortices, and that this activity could be closely related to pain perception...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028949/pyramidal-cell-subtypes-and-their-synaptic-connections-in-layer-5-of-rat-frontal-cortex
#3
Yasuo Kawaguchi
The frontal cortical areas make a coordinated response that generates appropriate behavior commands, using individual local circuits with corticostriatal and corticocortical connections in longer time scales than sensory areas. In secondary motor cortex (M2), situated between the prefrontal and primary motor areas, major subtypes of layer 5 corticostriatal cells are crossed-corticostriatal (CCS) cells innervating both sides of striatum, and corticopontine (CPn) cells projecting to the ipsilateral striatum and pontine nuclei...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028941/dysregulation-of-cortical-neuron-dna-methylation-profile-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Stefano Nardone, Dev Sharan Sams, Antonino Zito, Eli Reuveni, Evan Elliott
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome whose etiology includes genetic and environmental components. Since epigenetic marks are sensitive to environmental insult, they may be involved in the development of ASD. Initial brain studies have suggested a dysregulation of epigenetic marks in ASD. However, due to cellular heterogeneity in the brain, these studies have not determined if there is a true change in the neuronal epigenetic signature. Here, we report a genome-wide methylation study on fluorescence-activated cell sorting-sorted neuronal nuclei from the frontal cortex of 16 male ASD and 15 male control subjects...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028808/functional-characterization-of-gabaa-receptor-mediated-modulation-of-cortical-neuron-network-activity-in-microelectrode-array-recordings
#5
Benjamin M Bader, Anne Steder, Anders Bue Klein, Bente Frølund, Olaf H U Schroeder, Anders A Jensen
The numerous γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) subtypes are differentially expressed and mediate distinct functions at neuronal level. In this study we have investigated GABAAR-mediated modulation of the spontaneous activity patterns of primary neuronal networks from murine frontal cortex by characterizing the effects induced by a wide selection of pharmacological tools at a plethora of activity parameters in microelectrode array (MEA) recordings. The basic characteristics of the primary cortical neurons used in the recordings were studied in some detail, and the expression levels of various GABAAR subunits were investigated by western blotting and RT-qPCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028621/combining-valgus-knee-brace-and-lateral-foot-wedges-reduces-external-forces-and-moments-in-osteoarthritis-patients
#6
Amir Ali Jafarnezhadgero, Anderson S Oliveira, Seyed Hamed Mousavi, Morteza Madadi-Shad
Osteoarthritis progression can be related to the external knee adduction and flexion moments during walking. Lateral foot wedges and knee braces have been used as treatment for osteoarthritis, but little is known about their influence on knee joint moments generated in the sagittal and frontal planes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was determine the effects of the isolated and combined use of valgus knee brace and lateral wedge foot orthotic on peak forces and moments during gait in knee osteoarthritis patients...
October 5, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027868/posttraumatic-complications-in-pediatric-skull-fracture-dural-sinus-thrombosis-arterial-dissection-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-leakage
#7
Adedamola Adepoju, Matthew A Adamo
OBJECTIVE Skull fracture is associated with several intracranial injuries. The object of this study was to determine the rate of fracture associated with venous thrombosis, intracranial arterial dissection (ICAD), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage in pediatric patients. Further, the authors aimed to highlight the features of pediatric skull fracture that predict poor neurological outcomes. METHOD In this retrospective study, the authors evaluated the records of 258 pediatric patients who had incurred a traumatic skull fracture in the period from 2009 to 2015...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027198/shape-analysis-of-spatial-relationships-between-orbito-ocular-and-endocranial-structures-in-modern-humans-and-fossil-hominids
#8
Ana Sofia Pereira-Pedro, Michael Masters, Emiliano Bruner
The orbits and eyes of modern humans are situated directly below the frontal lobes and anterior to the temporal lobes. Contiguity between these orbital and cerebral elements could generate spatial constraints, and potentially lead to deformation of the eye and reduced visual acuity during development. In this shape analysis we evaluate whether and to what extent covariation exists between ocular morphology and the size and spatial position of the frontal and temporal areas in adult modern humans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to investigate patterns of variation among the brain and eyes, while computed tomography (CT) was used to compare cranial morphology in this anatomical region among modern humans, extinct hominids and chimpanzees...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027066/white-matter-microstructure-of-the-human-mirror-neuron-system-is-related-to-symptom-severity-in-adults-with-autism
#9
Odette Fründt, Robert Schulz, Daniel Schöttle, Bastian Cheng, Götz Thomalla, Hanna Braaß, Christos Ganos, Nicole David, Ina Peiker, Andreas K Engel, Tobias Bäumer, Alexander Münchau
Mirror neuron system (MNS) dysfunctions might underlie deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Diffusion tensor imaging based probabilistic tractography was conducted in 15 adult ASD patients and 13 matched, healthy controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was quantified to assess group differences in tract-related white matter microstructure of both the classical MNS route (mediating "emulation") and the alternative temporo-frontal route (mediating "mimicry"). Multiple linear regression was used to investigate structure-function relationships between MNS connections and ASD symptom severity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026951/multimodal-correlation-of-dynamic-18-f-av-1451-perfusion-pet-and-neuronal-hypometabolism-in-18-f-fdg-pet
#10
Jochen Hammes, Isabel Leuwer, Gérard N Bischof, Alexander Drzezga, Thilo van Eimeren
PURPOSE: Cerebral glucose metabolism measured with [18F]-FDG PET is a well established marker of neuronal dysfunction in neurodegeneration. The tau-protein tracer [18F]-AV-1451 PET is currently under evaluation and shows promising results. Here, we assess the feasibility of early perfusion imaging with AV-1451 as a substite for FDG PET in assessing neuronal injury. METHODS: Twenty patients with suspected neurodegeneration underwent FDG and early phase AV-1451 PET imaging...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026674/chronic-headache-caused-by-a-titanium-fixation-plate-report-of-two-cases
#11
Shigeomi Yokoya, Akihiko Hino, Hideki Oka
BACKGROUND: We report two patients with chronic postcraniotomy headache who showed rapid alleviation of pain after removal of titanium miniplates. CASE DESCRIPTION: (Case 1) A 26-year-old woman underwent a right frontal craniotomy and excision of the entire cerebral cavernous malformation. Eleven years later, she developed headache. The titanium plate was removed and the patient presented complete amelioration of headache. (Case 2) A 50-year-old man underwent an aneurysm clipping via the lateral supraorbital approach of the left side...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026664/supratentorial-extraparenchymal-schwannoma-mimicking-parasagittal-meningioma-a-rare-case-report
#12
Uday S Raswan, Irfan Bhat, Nuzhat Samoon, Sajad H Arif, Masood Laharwal, Sarbjit S Chhiber, Altaf Umar Ramzan
BACKGROUND: Intracranial schwannomas not related to cranial nerves are very rare. Young age, no known history of neurofibromatosis, and seizure as initial symptom have been reported to be associated with intraparenchymal schwannoma. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of supratentorial parasagittal schwannoma in the right frontal region presenting with seizure episode in a 70-year-old man. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a right frontal solid, enhancing extra-axial lesion based on anterior and middle third junction of superior sagittal sinus...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026384/clinical-and-cranial-computed-tomography-scan-findings-in-adults-following-road-traffic-accidents-in-kampala-uganda
#13
Geoffrey Erem, Samuel Bugeza, Elsie Kiguli Malwadde
BACKGROUND: Globally, road traffic accidents are a major cause of death and disability. The developing countries bear a disproportionately large share of the RTAs which account for about 85% of the deaths. Most of these RTAs result in head injury, which globally, most scholars and medical practitioners consider a significant economic, social and medical problem. In Mulago National referral hospital, RTA is the leading cause of surgical admission. OBJECTIVE: To describe the cranial computed tomography (CT) scan findings in adults following RTA in Mulago hospital...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026366/trigeminal-trophic-syndrome-associated-with-the-use-of-synthetic-marijuana
#14
Fawad A Khan, Rinu Manacheril, Robin Ulep, Julie E Martin, Anil Chimakurthy
BACKGROUND: Trigeminal trophic syndrome (TTS) is an uncommon disorder of the trigeminal nerve tract and trigeminal brainstem nucleus. The syndrome is characterized by a triad of unilateral crescentic ulcers with anesthesia and paresthesias of the involved trigeminal dermatomes. CASE REPORT: A 24-year-old right-handed black female presented to our emergency department with a 4-week history of rapidly progressive painless desquamation/denudation of skin over her right face and scalp...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026095/alterations-of-regional-homogeneity-and-functional-connectivity-in-pituitary-adenoma-patients-with-visual-impairment
#15
Guidong Song, Jicheng Qiu, Chuzhong Li, Jiye Li, Songbai Gui, Haibo Zhu, Yazhuo Zhang
Evidences have showed that the deprivation of vision can considerably alter the resting-state activity both within and beyond the visual cortices. However, the functional changes of the brain cortices related to partially vision-deprivation are still largely unknown. Using resting-state functional MR imaging, we quantitatively evaluated the regional homogeneity(ReHo) and functional connectivity(FC) changes between 25 pituitary adenoma patients with visual impairment and 25 healthy controls(HCs). Compared with HCs, PAs exhibited significant increased ReHo in the left superior occipital gyrus, bilateral middle occipital gyrus and reduced ReHo in the left inferior frontal gyrus and right middle temporal gyrus...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025688/altered-medial-frontal-feedback-learning-signals-in-anorexia-nervosa
#16
Fabio Bernardoni, Daniel Geisler, Joseph A King, Amir-Homayoun Javadi, Franziska Ritschel, Julia Murr, Andrea M F Reiter, Veit Rössner, Michael N Smolka, Stefan Kiebel, Stefan Ehrlich
BACKGROUND: In their relentless pursuit of thinness, individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) engage in maladaptive behaviors (restrictive food choices and overexercising) that may originate in altered decision making and learning. METHODS: In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we employed computational modeling to elucidate the neural correlates of feedback learning and value-based decision making in 36 female patients with AN and 36 age-matched healthy volunteers (12-24 years)...
August 30, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025428/compound-heterozygosity-for-two-ghr-missense-mutations-in-a-patient-affected-by-laron-syndrome-a-case-report
#17
Stefania Moia, Daniele Tessaris, Silvia Einaudi, Luisa de Sanctis, Gianni Bona, Simonetta Bellone, Flavia Prodam
BACKGROUND: Mutations localized in the Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR) gene are often associated with the pathogenesis of Laron Syndrome, an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder characterized by severe growth retardation. Biochemically, patients present normal to high circulating GH levels, in presence of very low or undetectable IGF-I levels, which do not rise after rhGH treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 3.8 years old girl with symmetrical short stature (-3...
October 12, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025226/a-histopathologic-diagnosis-of-vascular-occlusion-after-injection-of-hyaluronic-acid-filler-findings-of-intravascular-foreign-body-and-skin-necrosis
#18
Seiichi Maruyama
Before injecting hyaluronic acid (HA) filler into high-risk zones of the face, considerable caution must be exercised, including careful selection of the most appropriate filler, volume, and injection technique. Rare but severe adverse events have occurred during and after injection of HA filler in or around the periorbital region, such as skin necrosis and blindness. In the present case, involving a 57-year-old woman, approximately 0.1 mL of HA was injected into each side of the glabella to minimize wrinkles...
October 1, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025005/correlation-of-pain-reduction-with-fmri-bold-response-in-osteoarthritis-patients-treated-with-paracetamol-randomized-double-blind-crossover-clinical-efficacy-study
#19
Yong Yue, Agron Collaku
Objective: To assess the relationship between the analgesic efficacy of extended-release paracetamol (ER-APAP) and brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal activation in response to painful stimulation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods: This placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover, randomized trial (N = 25) comprised three treatment periods in which patients received four doses of an eight-hour ER-APAP caplet (2 x 665 mg), four doses of matched placebo, and no treatment...
August 29, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024818/differential-cortical-contribution-of-syntax-and-semantics-an-fmri-study-on-two-word-phrasal-processing
#20
Marianne Schell, Emiliano Zaccarella, Angela D Friederici
Linguistic expressions consist of sequences of words combined together to form phrases and sentences. The neurocognitive process handling word combination is drawing increasing attention among the neuroscientific community, given that the underlying syntactic and semantic mechanisms of such basic combinations-although essential to the generation of more complex structures-still need to be consistently determined. The current experiment was conducted to disentangle the neural networks supporting syntactic and semantic processing at the level of two-word combinations...
September 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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