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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239946/a-voxel-based-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression
#1
Jonathan Repple, Susanne Meinert, Dominik Grotegerd, Harald Kugel, Ronny Redlich, Katharina Dohm, Dario Zaremba, Nils Opel, Christian Buerger, Katharina Förster, Theresa Nick, Volker Arolt, Walter Heindel, Michael Deppe, Udo Dannlowski
OBJECTIVE: The absence of neurobiological diagnostic markers of bipolar disorder (BD) leads to its frequent misdiagnosis as unipolar depression (UD). We investigated if changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) could help to differentiate BD from UD in the state of depression. METHODS: Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) we employed a voxel-based analysis approach to examine fractional anisotropy (FA) in 86 patients experiencing an acute major depressive episode according to DSM-IV (N=39 BD, mean age 39...
February 27, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239865/effect-of-weight-and-frontal-area-of-external-telemetry-packages-on-the-kinematics-activity-levels-and-swimming-performance-of-small-bodied-sharks
#2
I A Bouyoucos, C D Suski, J W Mandelman, E J Brooks
This study sought to observe the effects of submerged weight and frontal cross-sectional area of external telemetry packages on the kinematics, activity levels and swimming performance of small-bodied juvenile sharks, using lemon sharks Negaprion brevirostris (60-80 cm total length, LT ) as a model species. Juveniles were observed free-swimming in a mesocosm untagged and with small and large external accelerometer packages that increased frontal cross-sectional area of the animals and their submerged weight...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239791/mri-study-for-the-features-of-brain-conduction-pathways-in-patients-with-an-ultra-high-risk-of-endogenous-psychoses
#3
A S Tomyshev, I S Lebedeva, T A Akhadov, M A Omel'chenko, M V Ublinskii, N A Semenova, V G Kaleda
Diffusion parameters of brain tracts (n=18) were studied in 27 men with ultra-high risk of endogenous attack-like psychoses and 27 mentally healthy men of the same age group (fractional anisotropy; and average, radial, and axial diffusion). Correlation analysis was performed between these parameters and severity of mental disorders (SOPS scale). The indexes of radial diffusion and axial diffusion were shown to change in the left anterior thalamic radiation and right posterior cingulum bundle, respectively. Our results are consistent with published data that disturbances in the frontal and temporal lobes play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia...
February 27, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239531/brain-structure-working-memory-and-response-inhibition-in-childhood-leukemia-survivors
#4
Ellen van der Plas, Russell J Schachar, Johann Hitzler, Jennifer Crosbie, Sharon L Guger, Brenda J Spiegler, Shinya Ito, Brian J Nieman
INTRODUCTION: Survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) approach 95%. At the same time, there is growing concern that chemotherapy causes alterations in brain development and cognitive abilities. We performed MRI measurements of white and gray matter volume to explore how variation in brain structure may be related to cognitive abilities in ALL survivors and healthy controls. METHODS: The sample included 24 male ALL survivors who had completed contemporary treatment 3-11 years prior, and 21 age- and sex-matched controls...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239498/cognitive-pragmatic-rehabilitation-program-in-schizophrenia-a-single-case-fmri-study
#5
Ilaria Gabbatore, Francesca M Bosco, Elisabetta Geda, Luigi Gastaldo, Sergio Duca, Tommaso Costa, Bruno G Bara, Katiuscia Sacco
Introduction. The present study was intended to evaluate the effects of a rehabilitative training, the Cognitive Pragmatic Treatment (CPT), aimed at improving communicative-pragmatic abilities and the related cognitive components, on the cerebral modifications of a single case patient diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods. The patient underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, before and after the treatment. In order to assess brain changes, we calculated the Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation (ALFF) index of the resting-state fMRI signal, which is interpreted as reflecting the intensity of the spontaneous regional activity of the brain...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239344/selective-attention-enhances-beta-band-cortical-oscillation-to-speech-under-cocktail-party-listening-conditions
#6
Yayue Gao, Qian Wang, Yu Ding, Changming Wang, Haifeng Li, Xihong Wu, Tianshu Qu, Liang Li
Human listeners are able to selectively attend to target speech in a noisy environment with multiple-people talking. Using recordings of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), this study investigated how selective attention facilitates the cortical representation of target speech under a simulated "cocktail-party" listening condition with speech-on-speech masking. The result shows that the cortical representation of target-speech signals under the multiple-people talking condition was specifically improved by selective attention relative to the non-selective-attention listening condition, and the beta-band activity was most strongly modulated by selective attention...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239337/local-and-distant-dysregulation-of-synchronization-around-interictal-spikes-in-bects
#7
Emilie Bourel-Ponchel, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Patrick Berquin, Fabrice Wallois
Objective: High Density electroencephalography (HD EEG) is the reference non-invasive technique to investigate the dynamics of neuronal networks in Benign Epilepsy with Centro-Temporal Spikes (BECTS). Analysis of local dynamic changes surrounding Interictal Epileptic Spikes (IES) might improve our knowledge of the mechanisms that propel neurons to the hypersynchronization of IES in BECTS. Transient distant changes in the dynamics of neurons populations may also interact with neuronal networks involved in various functions that are impaired in BECTS patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238814/neural-basis-of-cognitive-assessment-in-alzheimer-disease-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-subjective-memory-complaints
#8
Jordi A Matías-Guiu, María Nieves Cabrera-Martín, María Valles-Salgado, Alicia Pérez-Pérez, Teresa Rognoni, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, José Luis Carreras, Jorge Matías-Guiu
INTRODUCTION: Interpreting cognitive tests is often challenging. The same test frequently examines multiple cognitive functions, and the functional and anatomical basis underlying test performance is unknown in many cases. This study analyses the correlation of different neuropsychological test results with brain metabolism in a series of patients evaluated for suspected Alzheimer disease. METHODS: 20 healthy controls and 80 patients consulting for memory loss were included, in which cognitive study and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET were performed...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238777/up-regulation-of-igf-1-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-piglets-exposed-to-an-environmentally-enriched-arena
#9
Sarah M Brown, Rebecca Peters, Alistair B Lawrence
Environmental enrichment (EE) is widely used in the life sciences to study effects of environment on the brain. In pigs, despite lack of EE being a key welfare issue there is little understanding of brain effects of EE in pigs. This project aimed to study the effects of exposure to an EE arena on piglet behaviours and on brain gene expression levels with a focus on IGF-1 and related genes. Eight litters of large white×landrace×Hampshire piglets were farrowed and raised in a free farrowing system (PigSAFE)...
February 23, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238621/psychiatric-and-behavioral-side-effects-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-in-adolescents-and-children-with-epilepsy
#10
B Chen, K Detyniecki, H Choi, L Hirsch, A Katz, A Legge, R Wong, A Jiang, R Buchsbaum, P Farooque
PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to compare the psychiatric and behavioral side effect (PBSE) profiles of both older and newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in children and adolescent patients with epilepsy. METHOD: We used logistic regression analysis to test the correlation between 83 non-AED/patient related potential predictor variables and the rate of PBSE. We then compared for each AED the rate of PBSEs and the rate of PBSEs that led to intolerability (IPBSE) while controlling for non-AED predictors of PBSEs...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238296/pyriform-aperture-enlargement-in-all-aspects
#11
E Esen, N Bayar Muluk, N Altintoprak, K Ipci, C Cingi
BACKGROUND: The pyriform aperture comprises the central area of facial bone structure. It is formed by the free corners of the nasal bone and the frontal processes of the maxillae, which articulate with each other at the nasomaxillary suture lines. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis might be linked to various craniofacial problems. This review presents all aspects of pyriform aperture stenosis and enlargement. METHODS: A literature search was conducted...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238188/microglia-activation-and-phagocytosis-relationship-with-aging-and-cognitive-impairment-in-the-rhesus-monkey
#12
Eli Shobin, Michael P Bowley, Larissa I Estrada, Nadine C Heyworth, Mary E Orczykowski, Sherri A Eldridge, Samantha M Calderazzo, Farzad Mortazavi, Tara L Moore, Douglas L Rosene
While cognitive decline is observed in the normal aging monkey, neurons are not lost with age. Instead, frontal white matter is lost as myelin degenerates and both correlate with age-related cognitive decline. As age-related myelin damage increases, there should be an increase in clearance of damaged myelin by microglial phagocytosis. In this study, brains of behaviorally tested rhesus monkeys were assessed using unbiased stereology to quantify the density of activated microglia (LN3 antibody positive) and phagocytic microglia (galectin-3 (Gal-3) antibody positive) in three white matter regions: the corpus callosum, cingulum bundle (CGB), and frontal white matter (FWM)...
February 25, 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237772/factors-related-to-shunt-survival-in-paediatric-hydrocephalus-could-failure-be-avoided
#13
Sara Iglesias, Bienvenido Ros, Álvaro Martín, Antonio Carrasco, Miguel Segura, Angela Ros, Francisca Rius, Miguel Ángel Arráez
BACKGROUND: Improved shunt survival and a better understanding of factors related to failure in paediatric hydrocephalus still pose a challenge for neurosurgeons, in order to avoid morbidity and mortality, as well as the economic impact of repeated revision surgeries. For these reasons, an analysis is performed on the factors related to the first shunt failure in the long-term follow-up of a series in a single centre. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on 166 hydrocephalic paediatric patients shunted for the first time between 2000 and 2014...
February 22, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237741/focused-stimulation-of-dorsal-subthalamic-nucleus-improves-reactive-inhibitory-control-of-action-impulses
#14
N C van Wouwe, S Pallavaram, F T Phibbs, D Martinez-Ramirez, J S Neimat, B M Dawant, P F D Haese, K E Kanoff, W P M van den Wildenberg, M S Okun, S A Wylie
Frontal-basal ganglia circuitry dysfunction caused by Parkinson's disease impairs important executive cognitive processes, such as the ability to inhibit impulsive action tendencies. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's disease improves the reactive inhibition of impulsive actions that interfere with goal-directed behavior. An unresolved question is whether this effect depends on stimulation of a particular Subthalamic Nucleus subregion. The current study aimed to 1) replicate previous findings and additionally investigate the effect of chronic versus acute Subthalamic Nucleus stimulation on inhibitory control in Parkinson's disease patients off dopaminergic medication 2) test whether stimulating Subthalamic Nucleus subregions differentially modulate proactive response control and the proficiency of reactive inhibitory control...
February 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237711/pharmacological-inhibition-of-faah-modulates-tlr-induced-neuroinflammation-but-not-sickness-behaviour-an-effect-partially-mediated-by-central-trpv1
#15
Rebecca J Henry, Daniel M Kerr, Lisa E Flannery, Marykate Killilea, Edel M Hughes, Louise Corcoran, David P Finn, Michelle Roche
Aberrant activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs), key components of the innate immune system, has been proposed to underlie and exacerbate a range of central nervous system disorders. Increasing evidence supports a role for the endocannabinoid system in modulating inflammatory responses including those mediated by TLRs, and thus this system may provide an important treatment target for neuroinflammatory disorders. However, the effect of modulating endocannabinoid tone on TLR-induced neuroinflammation in vivo and associated behavioural changes is largely unknown...
February 22, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237655/a-prospective-comparison-of-lower-extremity-kinematics-and-kinetics-between-injured-and-non-injured-collegiate-cross-country-runners
#16
Robert I Dudley, Derek N Pamukoff, Scott K Lynn, Robert D Kersey, Guillermo J Noffal
Collegiate cross country runners are at risk for running related injuries (RRI) due to high training volume and the potential for aberrant lower extremity biomechanics. However, there is a need for prospective research to determine biomechanical risk factors for RRI. The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare ankle, knee, and hip kinematics and kinetics and ground reaction force characteristics between injured and non-injured cross country runners over a 14-week season. Biomechanical running analyses were conducted on 31 collegiate-cross country runners using a 3-dimensional motion capture system and force plate prior to the start of the season...
February 23, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237619/glutamate-affects-the-production-of-epoxyeicosanoids-within-the-brain-the-up-regulation-of-brain-cyp2j-through-the-mapk-creb-signaling-pathway
#17
Mingzhou Liu, Quanfei Zhu, Jinhua Wu, Xuming Yu, Mingbai Hu, Xianfei Xie, Zheqiong Yang, Jing Yang, Yu-Qi Feng, Jiang Yue
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and chronic glutamate excitotoxicity has been thought to be involved in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated the effects of glutamate at concentrations lower than the usual extrasynaptic concentrations on the production of epoxyeicosanoids mediated by brain CYP2J. Glutamate increased CYP2J2 mRNA levels in astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner, while an antagonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5 receptor) attenuated the glutamate-induced increases in CYP2J2 levels by glutamate...
February 22, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237434/rapidly-progressive-frontal-necrotic-plaque-in-an-immunosuppressed-host
#18
Antonio Sahuquillo-Torralba, Marta Garrido-Jareño, Margarita Llavador-Ros, Rafael Botella-Estrada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237296/frontal-subcortical-circuitry-in-social-attachment-and-relationships-a-cross-sectional-fmri-ale-meta-analysis
#19
Shu-Hui Lee, Zachary M Walker, James B Hale, S H Annabel Chen
Researchers have explored the concept of attachment in multiple ways, from animal studies examining imprinting to abnormal attachment in psychopathology. However, until recently, few have considered how neural circuitry develops the effective social bonds that are subsequently replicated in relationships across the lifespan. This current cross-sectional study undertook a fMRI Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analyses to examine the neurocircuitry that governs emotional and behavioural functions critical for building effective social relationships in children and adults...
February 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237186/a-learning-based-markerless-approach-for-full-body-kinematics-estimation-in-natura-from-a-single-image
#20
Ami Drory, Hongdong Li, Richard Hartley
We present a supervised machine learning approach for markerless estimation of human full-body kinematics for a cyclist from an unconstrained colour image. This approach is motivated by the limitations of existing marker-based approaches restricted by infrastructure, environmental conditions, and obtrusive markers. By using a discriminatively learned mixture-of-parts model, we construct a probabilistic tree representation to model the configuration and appearance of human body joints. During the learning stage, a Structured Support Vector Machine (SSVM) learns body parts appearance and spatial relations...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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