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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724204/gait-and-balance-impairment-after-acute-methanol-poisoning
#1
Kamila Peterová, Hana Brožová, Jiří Klempíř, Irena Lišková, Ondřej Bezdíček, Petr Ridzoň, Manuela Vaněčková, Sergej Zakharov, Daniela Pelclová, Michal Miovský, Evžen Růžička
Neurological sequelae including gait impairment were reported in survivors after methanol intoxication; however, no systematic study has been published so far. We aimed to analyse gait and balance impairment in a group of Czech methanol poisoning survivors. We examined 43 patients (age 46±13 years) 2-8 months after methanol poisoning and 43 healthy controls. Investigations contained a shortened version of Falls Efficacy Scale (FES), clinical tests of gait and balance including Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and gait analysis using GaitRite(®) system, neurological and neuropsychological examination, brain imaging, EMG and tests of alcohol consumption...
July 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723388/region-specific-impairments-in-parvalbumin-interneurons-in-social-isolation-reared-mice
#2
Hiroshi Ueno, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Shinji Murakami, Naoya Kitamura, Kenta Wani, Motoi Okamoto, Yosuke Matsumoto, Takeshi Ishihara
Many neuropsychiatric disorders show localized dysfunction in specific cortical regions. The mechanisms underlying such region-specific vulnerabilities are unknown. Post-mortem analyses have demonstrated a selective reduction in the expression of parvalbumin (PV) in GABAergic interneurons in the frontal rather than the sensory cortex of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and bipolar disorders. PV neurons are surrounded by perineuronal nets (PNNs), and are protected from oxidative stress...
July 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723344/social-cognition-impairments-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-associations-with-deficits-in-interpersonal-behaviour-apathy-and-impaired-self-awareness
#3
Anne M Buunk, Jacoba M Spikman, Wencke S Veenstra, Peter Jan van Laar, Jan D M Metzemaekers, J Marc C van Dijk, Linda C Meiners, Rob J M Groen
Behavioural disturbances are frequently found after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). Social cognition impairments have been suggested as a possible underlying mechanism for behavioural problems. Also, aSAH is likely to result in damage affecting frontal-subcortical circuits underlying social cognition. Therefore, we aimed to investigate social cognition after aSAH and its associations with behavioural problems (deficits in interpersonal behaviour, apathy, and impaired self-awareness) and focal as well as diffuse brain damage...
July 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722769/promoter-iv-bdnf-deficiency-disturbs-cholinergic-gene-expression-of-chrna5-chrm2-and-chrm5-effects-of-drug-and-environmental-treatments
#4
Kazuko Sakata, Abigail E Overacre
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes maturation of cholinergic neurons. However, how activity-dependent BDNF expression affects specific cholinergic gene expression remains unclear. This study addressed this question by determining mRNA levels of 22 acetylcholine receptor subunits, the choline transporter (CHT), and the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in mice deficient in activity-dependent BDNF via promoter IV (KIV) and control wild-type mice. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed significant reductions in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 5 (CHRNA5) in the frontal cortex and hippocampus and M5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM5) in the hippocampus, but significant increases in M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM2) in the frontal cortex of KIV mice compared to wild-type mice...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722243/differences-between-caucasian-and-asian-attractive-faces
#5
S C Rhee
INTRODUCTION: There are discrepancies between the public's current beauty desires and conventional theories and historical rules regarding facial beauty. This photogrammetric study aims to describe in detail mathematical differences in facial configuration between attractive Caucasian and attractive Asian faces. METHODS: To analyse the structural differences between attractive Caucasian and attractive Asian faces, frontal face and lateral face views for each race were morphed; facial landmarks were defined, and the relative photographic pixel distances and angles were measured...
July 19, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721443/a-diffusion-spectrum-imaging-based-tractographic-study-into-the-anatomical-subdivision-and-cortical-connectivity-of-the-ventral-external-capsule-uncinate-and-inferior-fronto-occipital-fascicles
#6
Sandip S Panesar, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Christopher P Deibert, David Fernandes-Cabral, Vijayakrishna Rowthu, Pinar Celtikci, Emrah Celtikci, William D Hula, Sudhir Pathak, Juan C Fernández-Miranda
PURPOSE: The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) are major fronto-capsular white matter pathways. IFOF connects frontal areas of the brain to parieto-occipital areas. UF connects ventral frontal areas to anterior temporal areas. Both fascicles are thought to subserve higher language and emotion roles. Controversy pertaining to their connectivity and subdivision persists in the literature, however. METHODS: High-definition fiber tractography (HDFT) is a non-tensor tractographic method using diffusion spectrum imaging data...
July 18, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721087/epicrania-fugax-combining-forward-and-backward-paroxysms-in-the-same-patient-the-first-four-cases
#7
Johanna Barón-Sánchez, Álvaro Gutiérrez-Viedma, Marina Ruiz-Piñero, Alicia Pérez-Pérez, Ángel Luis Guerrero, María L Cuadrado
BACKGROUND: The first description of epicrania fugax (EF) reported brief painful paroxysms that start in posterior regions of the scalp and move forward to reach the ipsilateral forehead, eye, or nose. A backward variation, wherein pain stems from frontal areas and radiates to the posterior scalp, has also been acknowledged. We report four patients with features reminiscent of EF and the coexistence of forward and backward pain paroxysms. METHODS: We considered all patients attending the headache outpatient office at two tertiary hospitals from March 2008 to March 2016...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721052/study-of-the-combinatorial-impact-of-empathy-and-emotion-on-the-processing-of-conflicts-of-interest-with-the-event-related-potential-technique
#8
Xiaoli He, Ni Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Studies have found that empathy is important in moral development and violence suppression, and emotion also affects empathy. However, the combinatorial effect of emotion and empathy on the processing of conflicts is not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 44 undergraduate students (23 in low-empathy group and 21 in high-empathy group) were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to positive, negative, and neutral emotion evoking, as well as conflicting or nonconflicting proposals...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720860/altered-hippocampal-volume-and-functional-connectivity-in-males-with-internet-gaming-disorder-comparing-to-those-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#9
Eun Jin Yoon, Jung-Seok Choi, Heejung Kim, Bo Kyung Sohn, Hee Yeon Jung, Jun-Young Lee, Dai-Jin Kim, Sun-Won Park, Yu Kyeong Kim
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and shares clinical, neuropsychological, and personality characteristics with alcohol use disorder (AUD), but IGD dose not entail brain exposure to toxic agents, which renders it different from AUD. To achieve a clear understanding of the neurobiological features of IGD, we aimed to identify morphological and functional changes in IGD and compare them with those in AUD. Individuals with IGD showed larger volume in the hippocampus/amygdala and precuneus than healthy controls (HCs)...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720781/distinct-top-down-and-bottom-up-brain-connectivity-during-visual-perception-and-imagery
#10
N Dijkstra, P Zeidman, S Ondobaka, M A J van Gerven, K Friston
Research suggests that perception and imagination engage neuronal representations in the same visual areas. However, the underlying mechanisms that differentiate sensory perception from imagination remain unclear. Here, we examine the directed coupling (effective connectivity) between fronto-parietal and visual areas during perception and imagery. We found an increase in bottom-up coupling during perception relative to baseline and an increase in top-down coupling during both perception and imagery, with a much stronger increase during imagery...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720741/-transvenous-embolization-by-direct-puncture-of-the-superior-sagittal-sinus-using-indocyanine-green-icg-videoangiography-for-treatment-of-dural-arteriovenous-fistula-of-the-transverse-sigmoid-sinus-a-case-report
#11
Jo Matsuzaki, Kenichi Kono, Arisa Umesaki, Yojiro Kashimura, Hiroaki Matsumoto, Tomoaki Terada
We report a case of dural arteriovenous fistula at the left transverse sinus and sigmoid sinus(TS-dAVF), which was treated with transvenous embolization(TVE)by direct puncture of the superior sagittal sinus(SSS)under indocyanine green(ICG)fluoroscopic guidance. A 71-year-old woman presented with pulsatile tinnitus and progressive dementia. A left TS-dAVF with retrograde SSS and cortical venous reflux(Cognard type IIb)was demonstrated on cerebral angiography. The left internal jugular vein and distal portion of the right transverse sinus were occluded...
July 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720526/effects-of-musical-expertise-on-oscillatory-brain-activity-in-response-to-emotional-sounds
#12
Sophie Nolden, Simon Rigoulot, Pierre Jolicoeur, Jorge L Armony
Emotions can be conveyed through a variety of channels in the auditory domain, be it via music, non-linguistic vocalizations, or speech prosody. Moreover, recent studies suggest that expertise in one sound category can impact the processing of emotional sounds as they found that musicians process more efficiently emotional musical and vocal sounds than non-musicians. However, the neural correlates of these modulations, especially their time course, are not very well understood. Consequently, we focused here on how the neural processing of emotional information varies as a function of sound category and expertise of participants...
July 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720215/autoimmune-meningitis-and-encephalitis-in-adult-onset-still-disease-case-report
#13
Bożek Milena, Konopko Magdalena, Wierzba-Bobrowicz Teresa, Witkowski Grzegorz, Makowicz Grzegorz, Sienkiewicz-Jarosz Halina
INTRODUCTION: Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disease of unknown cause. Its symptoms usually include persistent fever, fugitive salmon-colored rash, arthritis, sore throat (not specific), but it may also lead to internal organs' involvement, which presents with enlargement of the liver and spleen, swollen lymph nodes, carditis or pleuritis - potentially life-threatening complications. In rare cases, AOSD can cause aseptic meningitis or/and encephalitis...
July 8, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720085/my-child-cannot-breathe-while-sleeping-a-report-of-three-cases-and-review
#14
Won Hee Seo, Minkyu Park, So-Hee Eun, Seonkyeong Rhie, Dae Jin Song, Kyu-Young Chae
BACKGROUND: Sudden breath-holding episodes during sleep in young children are potentially related to sudden infant death syndrome and other life-threatening events. Additionally, these episodes can negatively affect child's growth and development. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present 3 cases of preschool children with similar paroxysmal nocturnal waking events associated with choking that had different etiologies (nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux disease, and parasomnia, respectively)...
July 18, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719854/clinically-silent-alzheimer-s-and-vascular-pathologies-influence-brain-networks-supporting-executive-function-in-healthy-older-adults
#15
Brian T Gold, Christopher A Brown, Jonathan G Hakun, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Charles D Smith
Aging is associated with declines in executive function. We examined how executive functional brain systems are influenced by clinically silent Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and cerebral white-matter hyperintensities (WMHs). Twenty-nine younger adults and 34 cognitively normal older adults completed a working memory paradigm while functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Older adults further underwent lumbar cerebrospinal fluid draw for the assessment of AD pathology and FLAIR imaging for the assessment of WMHs...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719711/ct-and-mri-features-in-adult-patients-with-orbital-subperiosteal-abscess-secondary-to-paranasal-sinus-mucocele
#16
Chang-Wei Ding, Qiu-Shi Wang, Qi-Yong Guo, Jun Zhang, Zhen-Hai Wang
Orbital subperiosteal abscess (OSPA) secondary to paranasal sinus mucocele (PSM) is rare, and it may be misdiagnosed as PSM with orbital invasion or even as a malignant neoplasm. The present study explored the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of OSPA. The cases of 13 patients with OSPA secondary to PSM were retrospectively reviewed. CT had been performed in 12, MRI in 7, and postcontrast MRI in 4. OSPA was revealed as a well-demarcated, spindle-shaped mass that was broad-based and located beneath the superior orbital wall (orbital roof) in 11 and at the medial wall in 2...
July 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719572/neuroimaging-correlates-of-post-stroke-aphasia-rehabilitation-in-a-pilot-randomized-trial-of-constraint-induced-aphasia-therapy
#17
Rodolphe Nenert, Jane B Allendorfer, Amber M Martin, Christi Banks, Angel Ball, Jennifer Vannest, Aimee R Dietz, Jerzy P Szaflarski
BACKGROUND Recovery from post-stroke aphasia is a long and complex process with an uncertain outcome. Various interventions have been proposed to augment the recovery, including constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT). CIAT has been applied to patients suffering from post-stroke aphasia in several unblinded studies to show mild-to-moderate linguistic gains. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the neuroimaging correlates of CIAT in patients with chronic aphasia related to left middle cerebral artery stroke...
July 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719018/ante-mortem-csf-tau-levels-correlate-with-post-mortem-tau-pathology-in-ftld
#18
D J Irwin, A Lleó, S X Xie, C T McMillan, D Wolk, E B Lee, V M Van Deerlin, L M Shaw, J Q Trojanowski, M Grossman
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that 1) antemortem cerebrospinal fluid tau levels correlate with postmortem tau pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and 2) tauopathy patients have higher phosphorylated-tau levels compared to TDP-43 proteinopathy patients while accounting for Alzheimer's disease co-pathology. METHODS: Patients had autopsy-confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tauopathy (n=31), TDP-43 proteinopathy (n=49), or Alzheimer's disease (n=26) with antemortem cerebrospinal fluid...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718763/a-theory-of-working-memory-without-consciousness-or-sustained-activity
#19
Darinka Trübutschek, Sébastien Marti, Andrés Ojeda, Jean-Rémi King, Yuanyuan Mi, Misha Tsodyks, Stanislas Dehaene
Working memory and conscious perception are thought to share similar brain mechanisms, yet recent reports of non-conscious working memory challenge this view. Combining visual masking with magnetoencephalography, we investigate the reality of non-conscious working memory and dissect its neural mechanisms. In a spatial delayed-response task, participants reported the location of a subjectively unseen target above chance-level after several seconds. Conscious perception and conscious working memory were characterized by similar signatures: a sustained desynchronization in the alpha/beta band over frontal cortex, and a decodable representation of target location in posterior sensors...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718751/aging-strikes-the-self-face-advantage-in-featural-processing
#20
Haoyue Qian, Zhiguo Wang, Lingyue Yan, Xiangping Gao
Background/Study Context: The face is the most distinctive physical feature of a person. Previous work has shown that one's own face (self-face) is advantageous in perception. Here the authors investigate how aging influences the configural and featural processing of self-face. METHODS: Older and young adults searched for their own faces and faces of strangers (Experiment 1) or acquaintances (Experiment 2) among distractor faces. The configural and featural processing of faces was assessed with face inversion in Experiment 1 and with changes in point of view in Experiment 2...
July 2017: Experimental Aging Research
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