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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445885/patterns-of-microglial-cell-activation-in-alzheimer-disease-and-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#1
Ricardo Taipa, Paulo Brochado, Andrew Robinson, Inês Reis, Patrício Costa, David M Mann, Manuel Melo Pires, Nuno Sousa
AIMS: Microglia-driven neuroinflammation can play an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we sought to characterize the distribution of microglial cell activation in 2 neurodegenerative dementias with distinct protein signatures, Alzheimer disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) of the TDP subtype, and to determine if there was an anatomical correlation with the phenotypes most commonly associated with these conditions...
April 27, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445878/differential-allelic-expression-of-htr1b-in-suicide-victims-genetic-and-epigenetic-effect-of-the-cis-acting-variants
#2
Ali Bani-Fatemi, Aaron Howe, Clement Zai, James L Kennedy, John Vincent, John Strauss, Albert Wong, Vincenzo De Luca
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we tested the allelic imbalance of the C861G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of HTR1B in the frontal cortex of suicide victims. METHODS: The study was conducted using 3 sets of samples. First, C861G allele-specific mRNA levels in the frontal cortex were compared between suicide (n = 13) and nonsuicide controls (n = 13) from the Stanley Medical Research postmortem brain collection. Second, we tested common variants in the HTR1B promoter for linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the C861G variant in an unrelated sample of suicide attempters (SA; n = 38) and non-SA (NSA; n = 42)...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445741/memory-scrutinized-through-electrical-brain-stimulation-a-review-of-80-years-of-experiential-phenomena
#3
REVIEW
Jonathan Curot, Thomas Busigny, Luc Valton, Marie Denuelle, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Louis Maillard, Patrick Chauvel, Jérémie Pariente, Agnès Trebuchon, Fabrice Bartolomei, Emmanuel J Barbeau
Electrical Brain Stimulations (EBS) sometimes induce reminiscences, but it is largely unknown what type of memories they can trigger. We reviewed 80 years of literature on reminiscences induced by EBS and added our own database. We classified them according to modern conceptions of memory. We observed a surprisingly large variety of reminiscences covering all aspects of declarative memory. However, most were poorly detailed and only a few were episodic. This result does not support theories of a highly stable and detailed memory, as initially postulated, and still widely believed as true by the general public...
April 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445538/gene-expression-patterns-associated-with-neurological-disease-in-human-hiv-infection
#4
Pietro Paolo Sanna, Vez Repunte-Canonigo, Eliezer Masliah, Celine Lefebvre
The pathogenesis and nosology of HIV-associated neurological disease (HAND) remain incompletely understood. Here, to provide new insight into the molecular events leading to neurocognitive impairments (NCI) in HIV infection, we analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of HIV-infected patients with or without NCI and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and control subjects. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) algorithm was used for pathway analyses in conjunction with the Molecular Signatures Database collection of canonical pathways (MSigDb)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444963/the-influence-of-frontal-alpha-asymmetry-on-the-processing-of-approach-and-withdrawal-related-stimuli-a-multichannel-psychophysiology-study
#5
Dirk Adolph, Michael von Glischinski, André Wannemüller, Jürgen Margraf
The approach-withdrawal model of hemispheric activation suggests that left frontal cortical areas mediate approach, while right frontal cortical areas mediate withdrawal motivation. Within this framework, the present study investigates the association of frontal cortical asymmetry with attentional and emotional responses toward approach- and withdrawal-related emotional stimuli. Resting frontal asymmetry was measured from 43 students before they passively viewed negative, neutral, and positive emotional pictures...
April 26, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444949/voxel-based-morphometry-meta-analysis-of-gray-and-white-matter-finds-significant-areas-of-differences-in-bipolar-patients-from-healthy-controls
#6
REVIEW
Rossana Ganzola, Simon Duchesne
OBJECTIVE: We present a retrospective meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of gray (GM) and white matter (WM) differences between patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and behaviorally healthy controls. METHODS: We used the activation likelihood estimation and Sleuth software for our meta-analysis, considering P-value maps at the cluster level inference of .05 with uncorrected P<.001. Results were visualized with the software MANGO. RESULTS: We included twenty-five articles in the analysis, and separated the comparisons where BD patients had lower GM or WM concentrations than controls (573 subjects, 21 experiments, and 117 locations/180 subjects, five experiments, and 15 locations, respectively) and the comparisons where BD patients had greater GM concentrations than controls (217 subjects, nine experiments, and 49 locations)...
April 26, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444838/modified-brow-suspension-technique-for-the-treatment-of-pseudoptosis-due-to-redundant-frontal-skin-in-the-dog-a-retrospective-study-of-25-cases
#7
Martí Cairó, Marta Leiva, Daniel Costa, Maria Teresa Peña
PURPOSE: To describe the outcome of modified brow suspension technique for the treatment of upper eyelid pseudoptosis in canine patients with redundant frontal skin folds. METHODS: Medical records from 1999 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Only dogs that underwent modified brow suspension for treating bilateral pseudoptosis were included in the study. Recorded data included breed, age, gender, main ophthalmic complaint, ocular findings, suture material used for brow suspension, number of slings placed, postoperative treatment, complications, follow-up time, and outcome...
April 25, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444556/thalamo-cortical-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#8
Kristina C Skåtun, Tobias Kaufmann, Christine L Brandt, Nhat Trung Doan, Dag Alnæs, Siren Tønnesen, Guido Biele, Anja Vaskinn, Ingrid Melle, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
The thalamus is a highly connected subcortical structure that relays and integrates sensory and cortical information, which is critical for coherent and accurate perceptual awareness and cognition. Thalamic dysfunction is a classical finding in schizophrenia (SZ), and resting-state functional MRI has implicated somatomotor and frontal lobe thalamic dysconnectivity. However, it remains unclear whether these findings generalize to different psychotic disorders, are confined to specific thalamic sub-regions, and how they relate to structural thalamic alterations...
April 25, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444467/the-role-of-perspective-in-discriminating-between-social-and-non-social-intentions-from-reach-to-grasp-kinematics
#9
Francesca Ciardo, Isabella Campanini, Andrea Merlo, Sandro Rubichi, Cristina Iani
Making correct inferences regarding social and individual intentions may be crucial for successful interactions, especially when we are required to discriminate between cooperative and competitive behaviors. The results of previous studies indicate that reach-to-grasp kinematic parameters may be used to infer the social or individual outcome of a movement. However, the majority of the studies investigated this ability by presenting reach-to-grasp movements from a third-person perspective only. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the ability to recognize the intent associated to a reach-to-grasp movement varies as a function of perspective by manipulating the perspective of observation (second- and third-perspective) within participants...
April 25, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444388/apoe%C3%AE%C2%B54-genotype-and-hypertension-modify-8-year-cortical-thinning-five-occasion-evidence-from-the-seattle-longitudinal-study
#10
Philippe Rast, Kristen M Kennedy, Karen M Rodrigue, Paul R A W Robinson, Alden L Gross, Donald G McLaren, Tom Grabowski, K Warner Schaie, Sherry L Willis
We investigated individual differences in longitudinal trajectories of brain aging in cognitively normal healthy adults from the Seattle Longitudinal Study covering 8 years of longitudinal change (across 5 occasions) in cortical thickness in 249 midlife and older adults (52-95 years old). We aimed to understand true brain change; examine the influence of salient risk factors that modify an individual's rate of cortical thinning; and compare cross-sectional age-related differences in cortical thickness to longitudinal within-person cortical thinning...
April 21, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444137/effects-of-serotonin-transporter-gene-variation-on-impulsivity-mediated-by-default-mode-network-a-family-study-of-depression
#11
Jiook Cha, Guia Guffanti, Jay Gingrich, Ardesheer Talati, Priya Wickramaratne, Myrna Weissman, Jonathan Posner
Serotonergic neurotransmission, potentially through effects on the brain's default mode network (DMN), may regulate aspects of attention including impulse control. Indeed, genetic variants of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) have been implicated in impulsivity and related psychopathology. Yet it remains unclear the mechanism by which the 5-HTT genetic variants contribute to individual variability in impulse control. Here, we tested whether DMN connectivity mediates an association between the 5-HTT genetic variants and impulsivity...
April 21, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444021/evaluation-of-facial-attractiveness-in-black-people-according-to-the-subjective-facial-analysis-criteria
#12
Andréa Reis de Melo, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira Conti, Renata Rodrigues Almeida-Pedrin, Victor Didier, Danilo Pinelli Valarelli, Leopoldino Capelozza Filho
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the facial attractiveness in 30 black individuals, according to the Subjective Facial Analysis criteria. METHODS: Frontal and profile view photographs of 30 black individuals were evaluated for facial attractiveness and classified as esthetically unpleasant, acceptable, or pleasant by 50 evaluators: the 30 individuals from the sample, 10 orthodontists, and 10 laymen. Besides assessing the facial attractiveness, the evaluators had to identify the structures responsible for the classification as unpleasant and pleasant...
February 2017: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443599/a-pott-s-puffy-tumor-associated-with-epidural-cutaneous-fistula-and-epidural-abscess-case-report
#13
Aleksandar Perić, Milanko Milojević, Dražen Ivetić
BACKGROUND: Pott's puffy tumor is characterized by a fluctuate swelling of the frontal region as a result of osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. This inflammatory lesion may propagate endocranially resulting in acute meningitis, epidural abscess, subdural empyema, cavernous sinus trombophlebitis, cerebritis, and frontal lobe abscess of the brain. CASE REPORT: We present an unusual case of a 33-year-old man suffering from the Pott's puffy tumor whose condition was further complicated by a draining epidural-cutaneous fistula and an epidural abscess...
April 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442999/roles-of-multiple-globus-pallidus-territories-of-monkeys-and-humans-in-motivation-cognition-and-action-an-anatomical-physiological-and-pathophysiological-review
#14
REVIEW
Yosuke Saga, Eiji Hoshi, Léon Tremblay
The globus pallidus (GP) communicates with widespread cortical areas that support various functions, including motivation, cognition and action. Anatomical tract-tracing studies revealed that the anteroventral GP communicates with the medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, which are involved in motivational control; the anterodorsal GP communicates with the lateral prefrontal cortex, which is involved in cognitive control; and the posterior GP communicates with the frontal motor cortex, which is involved in action control...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442883/a-comment-on-frontal-fibrosing-alopecia-axel-munthe-s-syndrome
#15
Ralph M Trüeb
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) represents a peculiar condition with a quasi-symmetrical, marginal alopecia along the frontal and temporal hairline with scarring. Steven Kossard is credited with the original description of the condition in 1994. Since its first description, FFA has become increasingly common while its etiology has remained obscure. While FFA has been related to lichen planopilaris, in fact, the pattern of clinical disease presentation might be more specific for the condition than the underlying inflammatory autoimmune reaction...
October 2016: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442882/comparative-analysis-of-immunopathological-features-of-lichen-planopilaris-and-female-patients-with-frontal-fibrosing-alopecia
#16
Emanuella Rd Cerqueira, Neusa Valente, Mírian Nacagami Sotto, Ricardo Romiti
BACKGROUND: Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a disorder characterized by progressive cicatricial alopecia (CA). Its classification as a clinical variant of lichen planopilaris (LPP) or as a unique disorder is controversial. The presence of Langerhans cells within the bulge area and the sebaceous epithelium and the presence of lymphocytic infiltrate in this area in CA have led to a series of hypotheses, although limited, about their development. To our knowledge, scarce is the literature demonstrating immunoanalytical studies comparing both disorders...
October 2016: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442874/graham-little-piccardi-syndrome-a-lens-through-beyond-what-is-known
#17
Abhijit Saha, Joly Seth, Anupam Das, Sandipan Dhar
Graham-Little-Piccardi syndrome (GLPS) is a rare form of follicular lichen planus and comprises cicatricial alopecia of the scalp, noncicatricial alopecia of the axillae, and/or pubis and spinous follicular papules involving the trunk and extremities. We herein report a classic case of GLPS in a 49-year-old female. Uniqueness of our case is due to its additional features of frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA). Although overlap between GLPS and FFA has been mentioned in literature, such numbers are scanty. Therapeutic response with oral steroid and retinoid is also far better in contrast to what is described in the existing literature...
October 2016: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442422/effects-of-low-frequency-rtms-treatment-on-brain-networks-for-inner-speech-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#18
Leonie Bais, Edith Liemburg, Ans Vercammen, Richard Bruggeman, Rikus Knegtering, André Aleman
INTRODUCTION: Efficacy of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) targeting the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) remains under debate. We assessed the influence of a 1Hz rTMS treatment on neural networks involved in a cognitive mechanism proposed to subserve AVH. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia (N=24) experiencing medication-resistant AVH completed a 10-day 1Hz rTMS treatment. Participants were randomized to active stimulation of the left or bilateral TPJ, or sham stimulation...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442339/neural-evidence-for-the-subliminal-processing-of-facial-trustworthiness-in-infancy
#19
Sarah Jessen, Tobias Grossmann
Face evaluation is thought to play a vital role in human social interactions. One prominent aspect is the evaluation of facial signs of trustworthiness, which has been shown to occur reliably, rapidly, and without conscious awareness in adults. Recent developmental work indicates that the sensitivity to facial trustworthiness has early ontogenetic origins as it can already be observed in infancy. However, it is unclear whether infants' sensitivity to facial signs of trustworthiness relies upon conscious processing of a face or, similar to adults, occurs also in response to subliminal faces...
April 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442333/effects-of-auditory-stimuli-on-electrical-activity-in-the-brain-during-cycle-ergometry
#20
Marcelo Bigliassi, Costas I Karageorghis, Michael J Wright, Guido Orgs, Alexander V Nowicky
The present study sought to further understanding of the brain mechanisms that underlie the effects of music on perceptual, affective, and visceral responses during whole-body modes of exercise. Eighteen participants were administered light-to-moderate intensity bouts of cycle ergometer exercise. Each exercise bout was of 12-min duration (warm-up [3min], exercise [6min], and warm-down [3min]). Portable techniques were used to monitor the electrical activity in the brain, heart, and muscle during the administration of three conditions: music, audiobook, and control...
April 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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