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Resistent pneumococci in childrens

Bernard Louizette Christophe, Mariana Mott, Gabriela da Cunha, Juliana Caierão, Pedro D Azevedo, Cícero Dias
PURPOSE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the elderly is an important public health issue due to the increased proportion of this population in many countries including Brazil. We aimed to characterise pneumococci isolates in adults >50 years with IPD, following the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) as part of the National Childhood Immunisation Program for children ≤2 years in March 2010. METHODOLOGY: Between 2013 and 2015, pneumococcal isolates were collected and serotypes were determined using multiplex PCR and/or Quellung reaction...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Kimiko Ubukata, Miyuki Morozumi, Megumi Sakuma, Misako Takata, Eriko Mokuno, Takeshi Tajima, Satoshi Iwata
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. We examined etiologic changes in AOM after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as routine immunization for Japanese children in 2014. Serotypes, resistance genotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multilocus sequence typing of pneumococcal isolates were also characterized. METHODS: Otolaryngologists prospectively collected middle ear fluid from 582 children by tympanocentesis or sampling through a spontaneously ruptured tympanic membrane between June 2016 and January 2017...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Anshu Shrivastav, Alexander N Dabrowski, Claudia Conrad, Nelli Baal, Holger Hackstein, Stephanie Plog, Kristina Dietert, Achim D Gruber, Philippe D N'Guessan, Sahar Aly, Norbert Suttorp, Janine Zahlten
Pneumococci frequently cause community-acquired pneumonia, a disease with high mortality rates, particularly in young children and in the elderly. Endogenous antimicrobial peptides and proteins such as PGLYRP3 may contribute to the progression and outcome of this disease. Since increasing antibiotic resistant strains occur all over the world, these endogenous antimicrobial molecules are interesting new targets for future therapies. In this study, the expression pattern of PGLYRP3 was analyzed in alveolar epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages and neutrophils...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Beatríz Quintero Moreno, María Araque
We analyzed genetics mechanisms of antibiotics resistance, clonal composition and pili in forty eight MDR-pneumococci isolated from healthy children in Mérida, Venezuela. Intermediate resistance to penicillin was related to variations on pbp2b and pbp2x genes. High-level resistance to penicillin, low susceptibility to cephalosporins and carbapenems were associated with alterations on pbp1a, pbp2b and pbp2x genes. Non-beta-lactam resistance was associated with Tn3872, Tn5253, Tn6002, Tn2010 transposons. Macrolide-resistant strains carried ermB or mefE, but not the mefA gene...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Felipe P G Neves, Nayara T Cardoso, Aline R V Souza, Robert E Snyder, Mariel M Marlow, Tatiana C A Pinto, Lúcia M Teixeira, Lee W Riley
Objectives: To determine the population structure and change in drug resistance of pneumococci colonizing children before and after the introduction of the 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10/13) in Brazil. Methods: We used MLST to analyse 256 pneumococcal isolates obtained from children aged <6 years before (2009-10; n = 125) and after (2014; n = 131) the introduction of the PCV10 and PCV13. Antimicrobial susceptibility and capsular types were previously determined...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Prabhu P Gounder, Dana Bruden, Karen Rudolph, Tammy Zulz, Debby Hurlburt, Gail Thompson, Michael G Bruce, Thomas W Hennessy
BACKGROUND: The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was introduced in 2001. Widespread PCV use nearly eradicated pneumococcal colonization by vaccine serotypes. Since 2008, however, colonization by PCV-serotype 19F has increased in Alaska residents. We describe the epidemiology of re-emerging serotype 19F colonization. METHODS: We conducted annual cross-sectional colonization surveys from 2008 to 2013. We recruited children aged <5 years at 2 urban clinics and participants of all ages from Region-A (2 villages), Region-B (4 villages), and Region-C (2 villages)...
January 29, 2018: Vaccine
Meijing Shen, Run Yao, Huan Yue, Jingzhi Zhang, Min Chen, Weiwei Zhang, Daishun Liu, Kaifeng Wu
OBJECTIVES: To assess the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of pneumococci isolated from inpatients of all ages suspected of having bacterial infections. METHODS: In this retrospective study, pneumococcal isolates were consecutively collected  from the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, in Zunyi city, China, between January 2014 and December 2016. Pneumococci were identified using routine microbiological assays. We performed antimicrobial susceptibility analyses using the bacteria identification/susceptibility system VITEK2 and E-tests...
December 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
Kim M Hare, Amanda J Leach, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Keith Grimwood
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide and has been studied extensively in this context. However, its role in chronic endobronchial infections and accompanying lower airway neutrophilic infiltration has received little attention. Severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis; the latter causes considerable morbidity and, in some populations, premature death in children and adults. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is another chronic endobronchial infection associated with substantial morbidity...
December 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
Mia Tyrstrup, Eva Melander, Katarina Hedin, Anders Beckman, Sigvard Mölstad
BACKGROUND: The majority of antibiotics consumed in developed countries are prescribed in primary care. However, little is known about resistance levels in the primary care population. METHOD: Nasopharyngeal cultures were obtained from children, 0-10 years of age, seeking care at their Primary Health Care Centre with symptoms of respiratory tract infection. Parental questionnaires were used to retrieve information about the child's previous antibiotic consumption...
September 4, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Paulina A Hawkins, Patrick E Akpaka, Michele Nurse-Lucas, Rebecca Gladstone, Stephen D Bentley, Robert F Breiman, Lesley McGee, William H Swanston
OBJECTIVES: In Latin America and the Caribbean, pneumococcal infections are estimated to account for 12000-18000 deaths, 327000 pneumonia cases, 4000 meningitis cases and 1229 sepsis cases each year in children under five years old. Pneumococcal antimicrobial resistance has evolved into a worldwide health problem in the last few decades. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of pneumococcal isolates collected in Trinidad and Tobago and their associated genetic determinants...
December 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Joon Kee Lee, Ki Wook Yun, Eun Hwa Choi, Sun Jung Kim, Seong Yeon Lee, Hoan Jong Lee
This study investigated the serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of 3,820 nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from infants and children who presented with respiratory symptoms at Seoul National University Children's Hospital from July 2010 to June 2015 after the introduction of the extended-valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility were determined using the Quellung reaction and E-test, respectively. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 397 (10...
September 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
M Badawy, A El Kholy, M M Sherif, E A Rahman, E Ashour, H Sherif, H E Mahmoud, M Hamdy
In Egypt, pneumococcal vaccines have not yet been introduced as being compulsory. Identification of the circulating serotypes in Egypt is mandatory to determine whether or not the pneumococcal vaccines will be beneficial. The current study aims to identify the serotypes, vaccine coverage, and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing the nasopharynx of Egyptian children younger than 5 years old. The study was conducted in two successive winter seasons (December 2012-February 2013 and December 2013-February 2014)...
December 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Hao-Yuan Lee, Tsu-Lan Wu, Lin-Hui Su, Hsin-Chieh Li, Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Chyi-Liang Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was associated with mortality, but the risk factors associated with mortality remains controversial. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was designed. All patients with IPD from 2011 to 2013 admitted in a medical center were screened and collected for their clinical presentations and laboratory characteristics. RESULTS: Approximately half of the 134 IPD isolates derived from these patients belonged to three major serotypes (19A, 6A and 3), which are included in 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), but not in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Savitha Nagaraj, Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal, Anand Manoharan, Anita Shet
INTRODUCTION: We performed a study to describe the clinical profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalent serotypes of pneumococcal isolates from children with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) admitted to a tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS: Hospitalized children, ≤ 5 years with fever (>38 °C); increased respiratory rate or neurological symptoms were recruited, (as part of the Alliance for Surveillance of Invasive Pneumococci - ASIP - project) from January 2011 to March 2013...
June 2017: Germs
Anagha Kadam, Rory A Eutsey, Jason Rosch, Xinyu Miao, Mark Longwell, Wenjie Xu, Carol A Woolford, Todd Hillman, Anfal Shakir Motib, Hasan Yesilkaya, Aaron P Mitchell, N Luisa Hiller
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading cause of death and disease in children and elderly. Genetic variability among isolates from this species is high. These differences, often the product of gene loss or gene acquisition via horizontal gene transfer, can endow strains with new molecular pathways, diverse phenotypes, and ecological advantages. PMEN1 is a widespread and multidrug-resistant pneumococcal lineage. Using comparative genomics we have determined that a regulator-peptide signal transduction system, TprA2/PhrA2, was acquired by a PMEN1 ancestor and is encoded by the vast majority of strains in this lineage...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Noriko Urushibara, Meiji Soe Aung, Masaaki Shinagawa, Satoshi Takahashi, Nobumichi Kobayashi
PURPOSE: In Japan, the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in 2010 and, in 2013, the PCV7 was replaced with the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13). This study was conducted to investigate serotypes, antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of pilus islets in pneumococcal isolates from inpatients in a Japanese tertiary hospital. METHODOLOGY: From April 2011 to February 2016, 151 isolates [95 (18 children, 77 adults) and 56 (19 children, 37 adults) in the PCV7 and PCV13 periods, respectively] were collected...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Felipe P G Neves, Nayara T Cardoso, Robert E Snyder, Mariel A Marlow, Claudete A A Cardoso, Lúcia M Teixeira, Lee W Riley
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced free of charge in Brazil as part of the public immunization program. Here we investigated the carriage prevalence, colonization risk factors, capsular types, and antimicrobial resistance among pneumococcal isolates obtained from children in Brazil four years after routine PCV10 use. METHODS: Between September and December 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional study among children<6years old who attended one public and two private clinics in Niterói, RJ, Brazil to evaluate pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage...
April 18, 2017: Vaccine
I Belyaev, A Belyaev
To determine the epidemiological pattern of antibiotic resistance strains of S. Pneumoniae studied the sensitivity of nasopharyngeal isolates of pneumococci isolated from healthy children attending sports clubs Karaganda region. The frequency of allocation of pneumococci was 35.57%. In accordance with the values of the minimum inhibitory concentration resistant pneumococci was: penicillin - 5.41%, erythromycin - 8.1%, clindamycin - 4.05%, amoxicillin-6.76%, tetracycline 28.38%. Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in the studied children is not a significant problem...
January 2017: Georgian Medical News
Md Hasanuzzaman, Roly Malaker, Maksuda Islam, Abdullah H Baqui, Gary L Darmstadt, Cynthia G Whitney, Samir K Saha
OBJECTIVES: In recent years, an increasing prevalence of macrolide resistance among pneumococci in Bangladesh has been observed. However, the scenario remains incomplete, as few isolates (<1%) are available from pneumonia cases and most pneumococcal meningitis cases (>80%) are culture-negative. This study optimised a triplex PCR method to detect macrolide resistance genes (MRGs) (mefA and ermB) and cpsA from culture-negative pneumococcal cases to predict the prevalence and level of macrolide resistance...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Miwako Kobayashi, Laura M Conklin, Godfrey Bigogo, Geofrey Jagero, Lee Hampton, Katherine E Fleming-Dutra, Muthoni Junghae, Maria da Gloria Carvalho, Fabiana Pimenta, Bernard Beall, Thomas Taylor, Kayla F Laserson, John Vulule, Chris Van Beneden, Lindsay Kim, Daniel R Feikin, Cynthia G Whitney, Robert F Breiman
BACKGROUND: Pneumococci are spread by persons with nasopharyngeal colonization, a necessary precursor to invasive disease. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines can prevent colonization with vaccine serotype strains. In 2011, Kenya became one of the first African countries to introduce the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) into its national immunization program. Serial cross-sectional colonization surveys were conducted to assess baseline pneumococcal colonization, antibiotic resistance patterns, and factors associated with resistance...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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