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Resistent pneumococci in childrens

Chrispin Chaguza, Jennifer E Cornick, Simon R Harris, Cheryl P Andam, Laura Bricio-Moreno, Marie Yang, Feyruz Yalcin, Sani Ousmane, Shanil Govindpersad, Madikay Senghore, Chinelo Ebruke, Mignon Du Plessis, Anmol M Kiran, Gerd Pluschke, Betuel Sigauque, Lesley McGee, Keith P Klugman, Paul Turner, Jukka Corander, Julian Parkhill, Jean-Marc Collard, Martin Antonio, Anne von Gottberg, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French, Aras Kadioglu, William P Hanage, Dean B Everett, Stephen D Bentley
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcus kills over one million children annually and over 90 % of these deaths occur in low-income countries especially in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where HIV exacerbates the disease burden. In SSA, serotype 1 pneumococci particularly the endemic ST217 clone, causes majority of the pneumococcal disease burden. To understand the evolution of the virulent ST217 clone, we analysed ST217 whole genomes from isolates sampled from African and Asian countries. METHODS: We analysed 226 whole genome sequences from the ST217 lineage sampled from 9 African and 4 Asian countries...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
P Tantivitayakul, J Lapirattanakul, T Vichayanrat, T Muadchiengka
Transmission of antibiotic resistance genes among Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-hemolytic streptococcus (BHS) was generally associated with transmissible genetic elements. The objectives of this study were to investigate carriage rate, antibiotic resistance and related mobile genetic elements of pneumococci and BHS from school-children. The pneumococci and BHS were recovered from 220 Thai school-children, and then tested for antibiotic susceptibility pattern by disc diffusion. Antibiotic resistance genes and related genetic elements were detected by PCR with specific primers...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Brenda Anna Kwambana-Adams, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Badu Sarkodie, Osei Kuffour Afreh, George Khumalo Kuma, Godfred Owusu-Okyere, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Sally-Ann Ohene, Charles Okot, Archibald Kwame Worwui, Catherine Okoi, Madikay Senghore, Jacob Kweku Otu, Chinelo Ebruke, Richard Bannerman, Kwame Amponsa-Achiano, David Opare, Gemma Kay, Timothy Letsa, Owen Kaluwa, Ebenezer Appiah-Denkyira, Victor Bampoe, Syed M A Zaman, Mark J Pallen, Umberto D'Alessandro, Jason M Mwenda, Martin Antonio
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of pneumococcal meningitis among non-infant children and adults occurred in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana between December 2015 and April 2016 despite the recent nationwide implementation of a vaccination programme for infants with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from patients with suspected meningitis in the Brong-Ahafo region. CSF specimens were subjected to Gram staining, culture and rapid antigen testing...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Chrispin Chaguza, Cheryl P Andam, Simon R Harris, Jennifer E Cornick, Marie Yang, Laura Bricio-Moreno, Arox W Kamng'ona, Julian Parkhill, Neil French, Robert S Heyderman, Aras Kadioglu, Dean B Everett, Stephen D Bentley, William P Hanage
: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence...
September 27, 2016: MBio
María E Toledo, Maria F Casanova, Nivaldo Linares-Pérez, Dagmar García-Rivera, Gilda Toraño Peraza, Indira Barcos Pina, Martha Montes de Oca, Laura M Rodriguez-Noda, Mayelín Mirabal, Beatriz Paredes, Dunia M Chávez Amaro, Darielys Santana Mederos, Yury Valdés-Balbín, Vicente Verez-Bencomo
BACKGROUND: A new vaccine candidate against pneumococcus is being developed in Cuba, and it is a priority of the national health system. There is limited information on nasopharyngeal colonization burden, though it is essential for monitoring the impact of the vaccine. The study aims to estimate the prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization in 2-18 month old toddlers, identify circulating serotypes, antimicrobial resistance, and its association with selected risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2013 in Cienfuegos municipality...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Young June Choe, Hoan Jong Lee, Hyunju Lee, Chi Eun Oh, Eun Young Cho, Jae Hong Choi, Hyun Mi Kang, In Ae Yoon, Hyun Joo Jung, Eun Hwa Choi
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to assess the serotype distribution and antibiotic nonsusceptibility of pneumococcal carriage isolates from children in Korea following the introduction of extended-valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). METHODS: From April to June 2014, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from children who were attending daycare centers in Korea. The collection was conducted in accordance with the World Health Organization Pneumococcal Carriage Working Group standards...
September 14, 2016: Vaccine
Joseph A Lewnard, Amit Huppert, Noga Givon-Lavi, Melinda M Pettigrew, Gili Regev-Yochay, Ron Dagan, Daniel M Weinberger
BACKGROUND:  Coinfections by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are frequently implicated in complex otitis media. Whereas upper respiratory tract carriage precedes disease for both pathogens, interactions between species in cocolonized hosts are poorly understood. We compared colonization densities and the diversity and fitness of pneumococcal serotypes in single-species and mixed-species colonization. METHODS:  We analyzed nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage and nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal NTHi carriage in 13 541 samples collected over 6909 study visits from 769 children 2-30 months old in a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing trial...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Noriko Urushibara, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Since the implementation of routine PCV13 immunization in Japan, nonvaccine serotypes (NVTs) have been increasing among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, susceptibility to 18 antibiotics was tested for all the 231 isolates with NVTs, which were collected from children <16 years of age in northern Japan in 2014 (July-November). High resistance rates were observed for macrolides (>90.9%), tetracycline (91.3%), and clindamycin (75.3%), while penicillin (PEN) nonsusceptibility (PNSP; MIC ≥0...
June 3, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Indrė Stacevičienė, Sigita Petraitienė, Daiva Vaičiūnienė, Tomas Alasevičius, Jūratė Kirslienė, Vytautas Usonis
BACKGROUND: Increasing pneumococcal resistance to commonly used antibiotics and multidrug resistance is a serious public health concern. Data on distribution of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPn) strains among children in Lithuania are limited. We evaluated the circulation of SPn serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility among preschool children in Lithuania before the introduction of universal infant pneumococcal vaccination. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out from February 2012 to March 2013 in five cities of Lithuania...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Li-Hua Kang, Meng-Juan Liu, Wen-Chun Xu, Jing-Jing Cui, Xue-Mei Zhang, Kai-Feng Wu, Qun Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the molecular epidemiology of pneumococcal isolates in Chongqing, China. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 51 invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) strains were from children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and 32 carriage strains from healthy children from January 2010 to December 2013 at the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Multilocus sequence typing was used to identify the sequence types (STs)...
April 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Claire Janoir, Agnès Lepoutre, Laurent Gutmann, Emmanuelle Varon
Background.  In 2010, the pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing 6 additional serotypes including the multidrug-resistant 19A, replaced the PCV7 in France. This study aimed at analyzing trends in antibiotic resistance in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) isolates in France after PCV13 introduction. Methods.  A total of 5243 pneumococci isolated from IPD in 2008-2009 (late PCV7 era) and 2011-2012 (PCV13 era) were studied according to their serotype and antibiotic resistance profile...
January 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Sónia Nunes, Sofia Félix, Carina Valente, Alexandra S Simões, Débora A Tavares, Sónia T Almeida, Ana C Paulo, António Brito-Avô, Hermínia de Lencastre, Raquel Sá-Leão
In Portugal, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was not introduced in the national immunization plan but was commercially available between 2001 and 2010. We studied serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by children in 2009 and 2010. Vaccination with PCV7 was extracted from children's immunization bulletins and information on recent antimicrobial consumption was obtained through a questionnaire. For comparison, we included data from previous studies conducted since 1996: 1996-1999, 2001-2003, 2006-2007...
March 29, 2016: Vaccine
Robert Cohen, Sandra Biscardi, Corinne Levy
In 2003, France was the first European country to recommend 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) for a large proportion of healthy children. With complicated recommendations, the vaccine coverage during the first 4 y of implementation was low, then progressively increased to reach 90% in 2008. The aim of this review was to describe the particular impact of PCVs in a country where the vaccine coverage was initially suboptimal. After PCV7 implementation, the PCV7 serotypes nearly disappeared among pneumococci isolated from meningitis (-73%), other invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD; -90%) and pneumococcal carriage (-97%)...
2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Shuang Lyu, Kai-Hu Yao, Fang Dong, Bao-Ping Xu, Gang Liu, Quan Wang, Wei Shi, Jing-Jing Tong, Kun-Ling Shen, Yong-Hong Yang
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was made available in China in the private sector in September 2008. METHODS: This study investigated the serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characteristics of S. pneumoniae in hospitalized pediatric patients. Pneumococcal isolates were collected from hospitalized children younger than 14 years. Their serotypes were determined using Quellung reactions with antisera; antibiotic resistance against 13 antimicrobials was tested using the E-test method or disc diffusion...
March 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Fen Pan, Lizhong Han, Weichun Huang, Jin Tang, Shuzhen Xiao, Chun Wang, Huihong Qin, Hong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common pathogenic cause of pediatric infections. This study investigated the serotype distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular epidemiology of pneumococci before the introduction of conjugate vaccines in Shanghai, China. METHODS: A total of 284 clinical pneumococcal isolates (270, 5, 4,3, and 2 of which were isolated from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood, cerebral spinal fluid, and ear secretions, respectively) from children less than 14 years of age who had not been vaccinated with a conjugate vaccine, were collected between January and December in 2013...
2015: PloS One
Andrew R Greenhill, Suparat Phuanukoonnon, Audrey Michael, Mition Yoannes, Tilda Orami, Helen Smith, Denise Murphy, Christopher Blyth, John Reeder, Peter Siba, William Pomat, Deborah Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis remains an important infection globally, with the greatest burden in children in low-income settings, including Papua New Guinea (PNG). We present serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility and outcome data from paediatric meningitis patients prior to introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in PNG, providing a baseline for evaluation of immunisation programs. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected from children admitted to Goroka General Hospital with suspected meningitis between 1996 and 2005...
October 27, 2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Paul Turner, Claudia Turner, Kuong Suy, Sona Soeng, Sokeng Ly, Thyl Miliya, David Goldblatt, Nicholas P J Day
Vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was initiated in Cambodia in 2015. To determine baseline data, we collected samples from children in 2013 and 2014. PCV13 serotypes accounted for 62.7% of colonizing organisms in outpatients and 88.4% of invasive pneumococci overall; multidrug resistance was common. Thus, effectiveness of vaccination should be high.
November 2015: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Emmanuelle Varon, Robert Cohen, Stéphane Béchet, Catherine Doit, Corinne Levy
BACKGROUND: Changes in serotype distribution have been induced after pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) implementation, and non-vaccine serotypes are now circulating. Among these latter serotypes, we aimed to distinguish those with high invasive disease potential before (2008-2009) and after PCV13 implementation (2012-2013). METHODS: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) serotypes isolated from children 6 to 24 months were compared with nasopharyngeal-colonizing serotypes in healthy children...
November 17, 2015: Vaccine
B J Metcalf, R E Gertz, R A Gladstone, H Walker, L K Sherwood, D Jackson, Z Li, C Law, P A Hawkins, S Chochua, M Sheth, N Rayamajhi, S D Bentley, L Kim, C G Whitney, L McGee, B Beall
The effect of second-generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) strain distributions have not yet been well described. We analysed IPD isolates recovered from children aged <5 years through Active Bacterial Core surveillance before (2008-2009; n = 828) and after (2011-2013; n = 600) 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) implementation. We employed conventional testing, PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis to identify serotypes, resistance features, genotypes, and pilus types...
January 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Matthias Imöhl, Ralf René Reinert, Mark van der Linden
Continuous nationwide surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was conducted in Germany. A total of 22,208 isolates from invasive pneumococcal disease were collected between July 1, 1992 and June 30, 2013. The present study was conducted to analyze changes in antimicrobial susceptibility and pneumococcal vaccine coverage after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Germany. Most of the isolates originated from adults ≥16 years (82.5%), while 17.5% were obtained from children <16 years...
October 2015: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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