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XDR Tuberculosis in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861363/efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-a-24-month-treatment-regimen-including-delamanid-in-a-child-with-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Susanna Esposito, Samantha Bosis, Marina Tadolini, Sonia Bianchini, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Nicola Principi
RATIONAL: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) are emerging problems in several countries. These infections require long and expensive treatment regimens. Recently, 2 new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have been approved in several countries for use in adults with severe, difficult-to-treat MDR-TB, and it has been suggested that they could also be administered to children with MDR-TB and limited treatment options. However, no study has been completed on their efficacy...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756712/clinical-management-of-adults-and-children-with-mdr-and-xdr-tb
#2
REVIEW
Keertan Dheda, Kwok Chiu Chang, Lorenzo Guglielmetti, Jennifer Furin, H Simon Schaaf, Dumitru Chesov, Aliasgar Esmail, Christoph Lange
Globally there is a burgeoning epidemic of drug mono-resistant tuberculosis (TB), multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). Almost 20% of all TB strains worldwide are resistant to at least 1 major TB drug including isoniazid. In several parts of the world there is an increasing incidence of MDR-TB, and alarmingly almost a third of MDR-TB cases globally are resistant to either a fluoroquinolone or aminoglycocide. This trend cannot be ignored because DR-TB is associated with greater morbidity compared to drug-sensitive TB, it accounts for almost 25% of global TB mortality, is extremely costly to treat, consuming substantial portions of budgets allocated to national TB programmes in TB endemic countries, and is a major threat to healthcare workers who are already in short supply in resource-poor settings...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686119/changing-prevalence-and-resistance-patterns-in-children-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-mumbai
#3
Ira Shah, Forum Shah
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) in children is increasing. Although, in India, multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB rates have been relatively stable, the number of children with pre-extensively drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB is increasing. AIM: To determine whether the prevalence of DR TB in children in Mumbai is changing and to study the evolving patterns of resistance. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken in 1311 paediatric patients referred between April 2007 and March 2013 to the Paediatric TB clinic at B...
August 9, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342768/global-burden-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#4
Peter J Dodd, Charalambos Sismanidis, James A Seddon
BACKGROUND: After infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, children are at an increased risk of progression to tuberculosis disease; a condition that can be challenging to diagnose. New estimation approaches for children have highlighted the gap between incidence and notifications of M tuberculosis, and suggest there are more cases of isoniazid-resistant and multidrug-resistant (MDR) disease than are identified. No work has yet quantified the burden of drug-resistant infection, or accounted for other types of drug resistance or sampling uncertainty...
October 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231277/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-based-optimization-of-levofloxacin-administration-in-the-treatment-of-mdr-tb
#5
REVIEW
Samiksha Ghimire, Natasha Van't Boveneind-Vrubleuskaya, Onno W Akkerman, Wiel C M de Lange, Dick van Soolingen, Jos G W Kosterink, Tjip S van der Werf, Bob Wilffert, Daniel J Touw, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar
The emergence of MDR-TB and XDR-TB has complicated TB treatment success. Among many factors that contribute to the development of resistance, low drug exposure is not the least important. This review summarizes the available information on pharmacokinetic properties of levofloxacin in relation to microbial susceptibilities, in order to optimize the dose and make general treatment recommendations. A total of 37 studies on adult (32 studies) and paediatric (5 studies) MDR-TB patients were included. Among the 32 adult studies, 19 were on susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to levofloxacin by MIC, 1 was on susceptibility of M...
October 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985890/carbapenems-to-treat-multidrug-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Giovanni Sotgiu, Lia D'Ambrosio, Rosella Centis, Simon Tiberi, Susanna Esposito, Simone Dore, Antonio Spanevello, Giovanni Battista Migliori
BACKGROUND: Carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem) are used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), even if the published evidence is limited, particularly when it is otherwise difficult to identify the recommended four active drugs to be included in the regimen. No systematic review to date has ever evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of carbapenems. METHODS: A search of peer-reviewed, scientific evidence was carried out, aimed at evaluating the efficacy/effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of carbapenem-containing regimens in individuals with pulmonary/extra-pulmonary disease which was bacteriologically confirmed as M/XDR-TB...
March 12, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26970156/treating-children-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-tajikistan-with-group-5-medications
#7
A Swaminathan, P du Cros, J A Seddon, S Quinnell, O I Bobokhojaev, Z Dusmatova, J Achar
BACKGROUND: Management of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and pre-XDR-TB is challenging, as effective drugs are lacking. Group 5 anti-tuberculosis drugs have an unclear role in the treatment of drug-resistant TB, and in children the efficacy, safety and effects of long-term use are not well described. We present clinical outcomes and adverse effects of a cohort of children with XDR-TB or pre-XDR-TB treated with Group 5 drugs in Tajikistan. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of eight children treated with one or more of the Group 5 drugs available under the Tajikistan National TB Programme-linezolid, amoxicillin-clavulanate, clofazimine and clarithromycin-given in combination with first- and second-line drugs...
April 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26821118/recommendations-for-treating-children-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#8
REVIEW
Luisa Galli, Laura Lancella, Silvia Garazzino, Marina Tadolini, Alberto Matteelli, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Nicola Principi, Alberto Villani, Susanna Esposito
Tuberculosis (TB) is still one of the most difficult infectious diseases to treat, and the second most frequent cause of death due to infectious disease throughout the world. The number of cases of multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), which are characterised by high mortality rates, is increasing. The therapeutic management of children with MDR- and XDR-TB is complicated by a lack of knowledge, and the fact that many potentially useful drugs are not registered for pediatric use and there are no formulations suitable for children in the first years of life...
March 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26607130/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-a-young-child-after-travel-to-india
#9
REVIEW
Nicole Salazar-Austin, Alvaro A Ordonez, Alice Jenh Hsu, Jane E Benson, Mahadevappa Mahesh, Elizabeth Menachery, Jafar H Razeq, Max Salfinger, Jeffrey R Starke, Aaron M Milstone, Nicole Parrish, Eric L Nuermberger, Sanjay K Jain
Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, but little is known about XDR tuberculosis in young children. In this Grand Round we describe a 2-year-old child from the USA who developed pneumonia after a 3 month visit to India. Symptoms resolved with empirical first-line tuberculosis treatment; however, a XDR strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis grew in culture. In the absence of clinical or microbiological markers, low-radiation exposure pulmonary CT imaging was used to monitor treatment response, and guide an individualised drug regimen...
December 2015: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26519839/evaluation-of-detection-and-drug-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-patients-in-the-%C3%A5-%C3%A3-dzkie-voivodship-in-2009-2013
#10
Karol Majewski, Małgorzata Rybczyńska, Karolina Wódz
STUDY AIM: Evaluation of detection and drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients from the Łódzkie Voivodship in the period 2009 - 2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data presented in the study include information obtained while diagnosing patients from the Łódzkie Voivodship in order to detect infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the period 2009-2013. RESULTS: In 2009-2013 we analyzed clinical specimens for the purpose of detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
2015: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25809773/supporting-clinical-management-of-the-difficult-to-treat-tb-cases-the-ers-who-tb-consilium
#11
Lia D'Ambrosio, Marina Tadolini, Rosella Centis, Raquel Duarte, Giovanni Sotgiu, Stefano Aliberti, Masoud Dara, Giovanni Battista Migliori
Multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) are considered a serious threat for TB control and elimination. The outcome of these patients is still largely unsatisfactory as of today, with treatment success rates being consistently below 50% at global level. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that management of MDR-TB cases is supported by a specialized team, including complementary medical professionals able to cover several perspectives (clinical, both for adults and children; surgical; radiological; public health; psychological; nursing, among others)...
March 2015: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25333696/alarming-levels-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-metropolitan-mumbai-india
#12
Petros Isaakidis, Mrinalini Das, Ajay M V Kumar, Christopher Peskett, Minni Khetarpal, Arun Bamne, Balkrishna Adsul, Mamta Manglani, Kuldeep Singh Sachdeva, Malik Parmar, Avinash Kanchar, B B Rewari, Alaka Deshpande, Camilla Rodrigues, Anjali Shetty, Lorraine Rebello, Peter Saranchuk
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a looming threat to tuberculosis control in India. However, no countrywide prevalence data are available. The burden of DR-TB in HIV-co-infected patients is likewise unknown. Undiagnosed and untreated DR-TB among HIV-infected patients is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess the prevalence of DR-TB (defined as resistance to any anti-TB drug) in patients attending public antiretroviral treatment (ART) centers in greater metropolitan Mumbai, India...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25189555/malnutrition-associated-with-unfavorable-outcome-and-death-among-south-african-mdr-tb-and-hiv-co-infected-children
#13
R M Hicks, N Padayatchi, N S Shah, A Wolf, L Werner, V B Sunkari, M R O'Donnell
SETTING: Pediatric multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is complicated by difficult diagnosis, complex treatment, and high mortality. In South Africa, these challenges are amplified by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection; however, evidence on treatment outcomes among co-infected children is limited. OBJECTIVE: Using conventional and new pediatric definitions, to describe treatment outcomes and identify risk factors for unfavorable outcome and mortality in children aged <15 years with MDR-TB or extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
September 2014: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24800590/-aspects-of-tb-endemia-in-romania-and-the-response-of-the-national-programme-for-prevention-surveillance-and-control-of-tuberculosis
#14
Georgeta Gilda Popescu, Victor Spînu, Domnica Ioana Chiotan
In Romania, tuberculosis is a major public health problem. Consistent with the remarkable improvement of success rate in bacteriological confirmed cases from 51% in 1995 to 85.8% in 2011, the global incidence of the disease fell from a maximum of 142.2 per hundred thousand in 2002 to 73.3 per hundred thousand in 2013. The endemia attenuation (so far from historically low in 1985) is highlighted also by the incidence in children and mortality rates. In MDR/XDR TB disease, the situation is significantly different...
January 2014: Pneumologia: Revista Societății Române de Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24659544/management-of-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-europe-a-tbnet-consensus-statement
#15
EDITORIAL
Christoph Lange, Ibrahim Abubakar, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar, Graham Bothamley, Jose A Caminero, Anna Cristina C Carvalho, Kwok-Chiu Chang, Luigi Codecasa, Ana Correia, Valeriu Crudu, Peter Davies, Martin Dedicoat, Francis Drobniewski, Raquel Duarte, Cordula Ehlers, Connie Erkens, Delia Goletti, Gunar Günther, Elmira Ibraim, Beate Kampmann, Liga Kuksa, Wiel de Lange, Frank van Leth, Jan van Lunzen, Alberto Matteelli, Dick Menzies, Ignacio Monedero, Elvira Richter, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes, Andreas Sandgren, Anna Scardigli, Alena Skrahina, Enrico Tortoli, Grigory Volchenkov, Dirk Wagner, Marieke J van der Werf, Bhanu Williams, Wing-Wai Yew, Jean-Pierre Zellweger, Daniela Maria Cirillo
The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) substantially challenges TB control, especially in the European Region of the World Health Organization, where the highest prevalence of MDR/XDR cases is reported. The current management of patients with MDR/XDR-TB is extremely complex for medical, social and public health systems. The treatment with currently available anti-TB therapies to achieve relapse-free cure is long and undermined by a high frequency of adverse drug events, suboptimal treatment adherence, high costs and low treatment success rates...
July 2014: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24400822/intensified-specimen-collection-to-improve-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-children-from-rural-south-africa-an-observational-study
#16
Tania A Thomas, Scott K Heysell, Prashini Moodley, Romualde Montreuil, Xia Ha, Gerald Friedland, Sheila A Bamber, Anthony P Moll, Neel Gandhi, William E Brant, Willem Sturm, Sarita Shah
BACKGROUND: In drug-resistant TB settings, specimen collection is critical for drug-susceptibility testing (DST). This observational study included multiple specimen types collected from pediatric TB suspects with the aim to determine diagnostic yield and inform clinical practice in children with drug-resistant and drug-susceptible TB. METHODS: From 03/2009-07/2010, TB suspects aged ≥6 months and ≤12 years were recruited among outpatient and inpatient settings...
January 9, 2014: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24388605/linezolid-for-the-treatment-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children-a-review-and-recommendations
#17
REVIEW
Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Penelope C Rose, Anneke C Hesseling, H Simon Schaaf
Options for the treatment of children with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) are limited. Emerging evidence in adults from systematic reviews and a randomized trial has shown good efficacy of linezolid in difficult cases of DR-TB but with frequent serious adverse effects. Published data in children are limited and we are unaware of formal guidelines for linezolid in treatment of paediatric DR-TB, though it will likely be an important component of DR-TB treatment for a growing number of children. We performed a structured review of existing literature on the efficacy, adverse effects, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of linezolid in DR-TB, highlighting the key evidence from the adult literature and systematically evaluating published paediatric data...
March 2014: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24265908/tbnet-collaborative-research-on-tuberculosis-in-europe
#18
C Giehl, C Lange, R Duarte, G Bothamley, C Gerlach, D M Cirillo, D Wagner, B Kampmann, D Goletti, T Juers, M Sester
Networking is a key feature of scientific success. The Tuberculosis Network European Trialsgroup (TBNET) was founded in 2006 as a non-profit, non-governmental peer-initiated scientific organization to collaboratively address research priorities in the area of tuberculosis in Europe. Today, TBNET is the largest tuberculosis research organization in Europe with nearly 500 members from 22 EU countries and 49 countries worldwide (www.tb-net.org). Apart from small multicenter basic research studies, a particular strength of TBNET is the performance of large collaborative projects, pan-European multicenter studies and database projects...
December 2012: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24157696/provisional-cdc-guidelines-for-the-use-and-safety-monitoring-of-bedaquiline-fumarate-sirturo-for-the-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#19
(no author information available yet)
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, the two most effective of the four first-line TB drugs (the other two drugs being ethambutol and pyrazinamide). MDR TB includes the subcategory of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR TB), which is MDR TB with additional resistance to any fluoroquinolone and to at least one of three injectable anti-TB drugs (i.e., kanamycin, capreomycin, or amikacin). MDR TB is difficult to cure, requiring 18-24 months of treatment after sputum culture conversion with a regimen that consists of four to six medications with toxic side effects, and carries a mortality risk greater than that of drug-susceptible TB...
October 25, 2013: MMWR. Recommendations and Reports: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations and Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22907397/drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-two-children-in-greece-report-of-the-first-extensively-drug-resistant-case
#20
Aspasia Katragkou, Charalampos Antachopoulos, Elpis Hatziagorou, Maria Sdougka, Emmanuel Roilides, John Tsanakas
Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) represents a serious and growing problem in both endemic and non-endemic countries. We describe a 2.5-year-old girl with XDR-pulmonary TB and an 18-month-old boy with pre-XDR-central nervous system TB. Patients received individualized treatment with second-line anti-TB agents based on genotypic and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing results. Both children achieved culture conversion 3 months and 1 month after treatment initiation, respectively. The child with XDR-pulmonary TB showed evidence of cure while treatment adverse events were managed without treatment interruption...
April 2013: European Journal of Pediatrics
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