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Neuroinfections in childrens

Lorna Stemberger Maric, Snjezana Zidovec Lepej, Lana Gorenec, Ivana Grgic, Vladimir Trkulja, Oktavija Dakovic Rode, Srdan Roglic, Tonci Grmoja, Nina Barisic, Goran Tesovic
We investigated potential diagnostic usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of chemokines CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL13 in pediatric patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (n = 23), non-polio enterovirus aseptic meningitis (NPEV AM) (n = 20), and neuroborreliosis (NB) (n = 21) and children with acute infectious diseases with neurological symptoms but with excluded neuroinfection/neuroinflammation (controls, n = 20). CSF levels of CXCL10 and CXCL11 were higher in patients with NPEV AM than those in other children, and CXCL10 levels showed a high discriminative potential (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, ROC, 0...
March 2018: Neurological Sciences
Arushi Gahlot Saini, Vinay Rathore, Chirag Kumar Ahuja, Rajesh Chhabra, Pankaj C Vaidya, Pratibha Singhi
Brain abscesses due to Enterobacteriaceae in immune-competent children are rare, and those due to Enterobacter cloacae are even rarer. We report an interesting case of community-acquired E. cloacae neuroinfection resulting in multiple brain abscesses in a young child with no underlying risk-factors. A 10 year-old-boy presented with low-grade fever, headache, neck pain and progressive deterioration of sensorium. On examination, he was conscious but drowsy with photophobia, normal fundii, meningeal signs, mild hypertonia, brisk muscle stretch reflexes and extensor plantar responses...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
J Cymerys, A Słońska, M Chodkowski, M Przybylski, M W Bańbura
Adenoviral infections of the central nervous system are rare, but they are characteristic for their high mortality rate. People with impaired immunity and children are particularly vulnerable. A few reports of neuroinfections caused by adenoviruses are found in literature. In this study the tropism of the human adenoviruses type 4, 5, 7 to primary cultures of murine neurons and the influence of infection on the neuron morphology and actin cytoskeleton was examined. The A549 non-small-cell lung cancer cell line was used as a reference line...
2016: Acta Virologica
Adriana Braunová, Petra Rainetová, Lenka Krbková, Iva Čapovová, Lenka Klapačová, Václav Musil, Martin Musílek, Jana Bednářová
OBJECTIVES: Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common cause of aseptic viral meningitis. In some cases, they can cause severe meningoencephalitis and acute flaccid paralysis - an association with some virulent serotypes. The objectives were to describe the epidemiological situation of EV meningitis in children in South Moravia, to elucidate the etiology including the incidence of virulent serotypes and to evaluate the clinical presentation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 88 children with EV meningitis were prospectively evaluated...
September 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
L Krbková, J Bednářová, Z Čermáková
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to evaluate new 3rd-generation test kits, EIA Borrelia recombinant IgM and IgG (TestLine, Brno, Czech Republic), in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with Lyme neuroborreliosis. METHODS: Comparison of three tests was used: the whole-cell EIA from Borrelia garinii (EIA 1) was compared with the EIA using recombinant antigens (EIA 2) and immunoblot. In total, 364 samples of serum and CSF were examined. Eighty-six paired sera and CSF samples were evaluated in the first group of children with Lyme neuroborreliosis...
December 0: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Angel S Galabov, Ivanka Nikolova, Ralitsa Vassileva-Pencheva, Adelina Stoyanova
Human enteroviruses distributed worldwide are causative agents of a broad spectrum of diseases with extremely high morbidity, including a series of severe illnesses of the central nervous system, heart, endocrine pancreas, skeleton muscles, etc., as well as the common cold contributing to the development of chronic respiratory diseases, including the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The above mentioned diseases along with the significantly high morbidity and mortality in children, as well as in the high-risk populations (immunodeficiencies, neonates) definitely formulate the chemotherapy as the main tool for the control of enterovirus infections...
2015: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Katarzyna Mazur-Melewska, Iwona Breńska, Katarzyna Jończyk-Potoczna, Paweł Kemnitz, Ilona Pieczonka-Ruszkowska, Anna Mania, Wojciech Służewski, Magdalena Figlerowicz
We retrospectively analyzed the medical documentation of 194 children infected with Epstein-Barr virus. The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and the presence of the viral capsid antigen IgM antibody. Patients with severe neurologic complications also underwent neurologic examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electroencephalography (EEG). There were 2 peaks in incidence of infection; the first one in young children aged 1 to 5 years represented 62.0% of cases. The second peak (24.6% of patients) occurred in teenagers...
May 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
E A Dzięciołowska-Baran, A Gawlikowska-Sroka
Sudden balance disorders with violent vegetative symptoms (nausea and vomiting) pose a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. In children vertigo/dizziness with symptoms of vestibular dysfunction is rare, but as vascular etiology is unlikely in children such symptoms arouse concern. This article presents two cases of this type of vertigo. The patients were two boys (6 and 9 years old). They came down with similar symptoms: sudden dizziness, disabled walking, nausea and vomiting, spontaneous nystagmus, and a positive Romberg test...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jo M Wilmshurst, Kirsten A Donald, Brian Eley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent research findings of neurologic complications in HIV-infected children, specifically addressing neuroinfections, cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy and neurocognitive complications. The range of neurologic childhood onset complications is diverse and often overlaps diseases previously considered only to manifest in adults. In the pediatric population, these complications frequently have their own unique disease identity, which may be related to maturational patterns evident in the developing brain...
November 2014: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
L A Alekseeva, N V Skripchenko, T V Bessonova, G P Ivanova, N E Monakhova
OBJECTIVE: To study cerebrospinal fluid and protein indices characterizing the permeability of the hematoencephalitic barrier and intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in children with different course and outcome of demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined 72 children with demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system and 16 children of a control group (without neuroinfections). RESULTS: Differences in the concentration of myelin basic protein, immunoglobulin G, albumin and immunoglobulin indices in the cerebrospinal fluid were determined depending on acute, prolonged, chronic course of disseminated encephalitis and multiple sclerosis in children...
2014: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Galina A Koroleva, Valentina Ya Karmysheva, Alexander N Lukashev
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurovirulent non-polio enterovirus that can cause severe central nervous system (CNS) infection in infants. Vervet monkeys infected intracerebrally or intramuscularly with EV71 isolates from the Bulgarian outbreak of 1975 developed clinical manifestations and pathological signs of encephalomyelitis and spinal poliomyelitis that were similar to EV71 neuroinfection in children. In addition, vervet monkeys with encephalomyelitis had severe alterations in the choroid plexus. EV71 neuroinfection could also be reproduced in young (3- to 4-week old) cotton rats with clinical and pathological signs comparable with those observed in vervet monkeys...
May 2014: Archives of Virology
Silvia Dobrodenkova
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe the incidence of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness in the last functioning treatment centre in Buikwe South HSD in Southeast Uganda, in Mukono District, for a 19-year period (1989-2008). This is a report on the treatment outcome, structure of population affected, comparison with the published data on general incidence of T. b rhodesiensae in Uganda and functioning of sleeping sickness control program. METHODS: Cross-sectional sleeping sickness data from 1989 to 2008 were collected retrospectively in 2009 at Buikwe Sleeping Sickness Center to identify case counts and measures of disease magnitude per sub-county per year...
September 2013: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Ernest Kuchar, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Marta Rorat, Sadia Namani, Dorota Pabianek, Agnieszka Topczewska-Cabanek, Katarzyna Zycinska, Kazimierz Wardyn, Leszek Szenborn
Central nervous system infections are significant causes of mortality and long-term neurologic complications in children. Survivors often require an extended period of rehabilitation. The authors carried out a retrospective analysis of 1158 children (aged 1 month to 16 years; 31 boys) treated in one pediatric intensive care unit in Warsaw between 2002 and 2010. Forty-three of 1158 (3.7%) children presented with neuroinfections. Nearly two-thirds of the children were younger than age 5 years. The majority of cases (62...
April 2014: Journal of Child Neurology
Anca Georgescu, Carmen Chiriac, Brînduşa Tilea, Iringo Kezdi
Enteroviral encephalitis is a rare neuroinfection more often diagnosed in children within the context of enteroviral epidemic outbreaks. It has pleomorphic clinical features, variable severity and a definite potential to cause neuropsychological sequelae especially in infants. Some subtypes are extremely severe with a mortality rate of up to 25% by affecting the brain stem. These subtypes usually come with highly specific findings on neuroimaging. We present a paediatric case of diffuse encephalitis most likely enteroviral in nature, with some particular features concerning the severe clinical form, the neuroimaging aspects and the neuropsychological sequelae due to the rarely described evolution towards encephalomalacia...
July 2012: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
Natalia Parda, Aleksandra Polkowska
INTRODUCTION: Annually 2 000-3 000 cases of meningitis and encephalitis are notified to the Polish surveillance system. The leading etiologic agents of the bacterial infections are: N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type B and L. monocytogenes. The most common causes of bacterial infections in children are: E. coli, S. agalactiae and H. influenzae type B. The viral infections are mainly caused by the following pathogens: Echovirus, Coxsackie virus group A and B. The agents responsible for the viral infections are also: arboviruses, Herpes simplex virus and mumps virus...
2012: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
N V Skripchenko, E S Egorova
The results of using cytoflavin in the complex treatment of bacterial purulent meningitis and viral encephalitis in 60 children, aged from 1 month to 18 years, are presented. Clinical efficacy of the drug revealed by the decrease in the frequency of residual presentations and reduction of recovery time was demonstrated. The drug had an effect on the endothelial dysfunction, rheologic blood properties, coagulation blood system as a whole and vascular tone as well. Cytoflavin can be recommended in complex pathogenetic treatment of neuroinfections in children...
2011: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
O I Maslova
The main principles of long-term rehabilitation of children and adolescents with cerebral paralysis, related neurologic disorders, aftereffects of a neuroinfection, and some rare genetically determined diseases are the earliest possible initiation of remedial measures and the regular combined use of different forms of rehabilitative treatment. The proposed approach allowed to reduce severity of motor and speech disturbances and improve social and cognitive functions in 50.5% of the patients. Quality of life of the patients and their families also improved; healthy infants were born in 98 (19%) families...
2011: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
Aleksandra Gergont, Sławomir Kroczka, Małgorzata Steczkowska, Anna Zajac
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy can be one of symptoms of the damage to CNS in children, therefore neuroradiological examinations are necessary to complete diagnostics. The guidelines for imaging children with recent-onset epilepsy were published by experts of International League Against Epilepsy. AIM: The aim of this retrospective research was to analyze results of MRI in children aged 2 to 18 years, hospitalized between years 2008 and 2010 in the Department of Pediatric Neurology of the Chair of Neurology of Children and Adolescents of Jagiellonian University after the first epileptic attack, with recent-onset epilepsy or chronic epilepsy...
2010: Przegla̧d Lekarski
T V Poponnikova, T Iu Bedareva, T N Vakhrameeva, G Iu Galieva
Clinical peculiarities and blood levels of several cytokines were studied in 199 children, aged from 1 to 15 years, in the acute period of different tick-borne infections. The mixed infection manifested itself by the more severe progression of general clinical presentations compared to monoinfections. Etiologically unspecific changes of blood concentrations of cytokines in the acute period of the disease were found. These data were associated with different clinical forms of tick-borne infections. The decrease in the interferon gamma production was associated with the most severe disease progression with focal nervous system disorders...
2010: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Emilia Chudzik, Karolina Karabin, Tomasz Dzieciątkowski, Anna Majewska, Maciej Przybylski, Anna Midak-Siewirska, Mirosław Łuczak, Grazyna Młynarczyk
Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 are members of the Alphaherpesviridae subfamily, as they can infect both skin and nerves and develop latent infection within the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. Infections with these viruses are common worldwide and cause wide range of clinical syndromes. Although HSV-1/2 infect healthy children and adults, disease is more severe and extensive in the immunocompromised individuals and/or during neuroinfections. The aim of the study was development of real-time PCR assay for detection and differentiation of herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2...
2010: Medycyna Doświadczalna i Mikrobiologia
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