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Antiretrovirals in hiv positives childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102939/what-is-the-relationship-between-increased-access-to-haart-relationship-status-and-fertility-decisions-amongst-hiv-positive-women-a-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Abigail Burgess, Edward Purssell
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between fertility decisions, to have already had a child or to desire to have one in the future, and the prognostic factors of; access to antiretrovirals, the time since these became widely available (year of the study) and relationship status. BACKGROUND: There have been significant advances in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) with the advent of antiretroviral therapy which has been used to successfully reduce the rate of mother to child transmission; leading researchers to hypothesise that HIV positive women may desire to have children more so now than in the past...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102610/outcomes-of-hiv-positive-patients-lost-to-follow-up-in-african-treatment-programs
#2
REVIEW
Kathrin Zürcher, Anne Mooser, Nanina Anderegg, Olga Tymejczyk, Margaret J Couvillon, Denis Nash, Matthias Egger
OBJECTIVE: The retention of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key to achieving global targets in response to the HIV epidemic. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) can be substantial, with unknown outcomes for patients lost to ART programs. We examined changes in outcomes of patients LTFU over calendar time, assessed associations with other studies and program characteristics, and investigated the relative success of different tracing methods. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and logistic random-effects meta-regression analysis of studies that traced adults or children who started ART and were LTFU in sub-Saharan African treatment programs...
January 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076637/a-five-year-review-of-vertical-hiv-transmission-in-a-specialized-service-cross-sectional-study
#3
Izabel Cristina Hoffmann, Wendel Mombaque Dos Santos, Stela Maris de Mello Padoin, Sonia Maria Oliveira de Barros
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Healthcare professionals need to instill the process of prevention, control and treatment of people infected with HIV into care practice. Through maintaining preventive treatment among HIV-infected pregnant women, it has been demonstrated that prophylactic antiretroviral therapy, scheduled cesarean section and the prohibition of breastfeeding significantly reduce vertical HIV transmission. This study aimed to assess the rates of vertical HIV transmission in a specialized service and identify the factors associated with it...
November 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067719/insulin-resistance-and-markers-of-inflammation-in-hiv-infected-ugandan-children-in-the-chapas-3-trial
#4
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Victor Musiime, Adrian Cook, Grace Mirembe, Julia Kenny, Ying Jiang, Sara Debanne, Nigel Klein, Grace A Mccomsey
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated metabolic complications in HIV-infected African children and their relation with inflammation. METHODS: We compared baseline and changes in insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and in markers of inflammation over 48 weeks, in a subset of antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve Ugandan children from the CHAPAS-3 trial randomized to zidovudine (AZT), stavudine (D4T) or abacavir (ABC) based regimens. Non-parametric methods were used to explore between and within group differences and multivariable analyses to assess associations of HOMA-IR...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059955/diagnosis-of-opportunistic-infections-hiv-co-infections-tuberculosis
#5
Lesley Scott, Pedro da Silva, Catharina C Boehme, Wendy Stevens, Chris Gilpin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056275/-unprotected-sexual-intercourse-and-its-correlates-within-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-in-dehong-prefecture-of-yunnan-province-china-in-2014
#6
Y C Zhang, Y F Cao, Y C Yang, R H Tang, S J Yang, L Li, S T Yao, R H Ye, J B Wang, S Duan, N He
Objective: To study the prevalence and correlates of unprotected sexual intercourse within HIV serodiscordant couples in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan Province, China, in 2014. Methods: This study was based on the follow-up investigation of "the AIDS cohort of seronegative spouses of HIV-infected individuals in Dehong prefecture" in 2014. The 1 520 participants were HIV seronegative spouses from all five counties/cities of Dehong prefecture who voluntarily participated in the cohort. Inclusion criteria included: having a HIV-positive spouse; ≥16 years of age; having had sexual intercourse with spouse in the past year; and being a resident of Dehong prefecture...
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050213/auditory-alterations-in-children-infected-by-human-immunodeficiency-virus-verified-through-auditory-processing-test
#7
Ana Carla Leite Romero, Lívia Marangoni Alfaya, Alina Sanches Gonçales, Ana Claudia Figueiredo Frizzo, Myriam de Lima Isaac
Introduction The auditory system of HIV-positive children may have deficits at various levels, such as the high incidence of problems in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss. Objective The objective of this study is to characterize the development of children infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Simplified Auditory Processing Test (SAPT) and the Staggered Spondaic Word Test. Methods We performed behavioral tests composed of the Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW)...
January 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032523/hiv-status-fertility-intentions-and-contraception-in-the-era-of-expanded-access-to-antiretroviral-therapy-a-case-study-of-rural-mozambique
#8
Victor Agadjanian, Sarah R Hayford
Provision of effective contraception to HIV-positive women of reproductive age is critical to effective management of HIV infection and prevention of both vertical and horizontal HIV transmission in developing countries. This exploratory retrospective study examines contraceptive use during the prolonged post-partum period in a sample of 285 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women who gave birth at four rural maternity clinics in a high HIV-prevalence region in Mozambique. Multivariate analyses show no significant variations by HIV status in contraceptive timing (mean time to first contraceptive use of 7...
December 29, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030557/anthropometric-improvement-among-hiv-infected-pre-school-children-following-initiation-of-first-line-anti-retroviral-therapy-implications-for-follow-up
#9
Atnafu Mekonnen Tekleab, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Ababi Zergaw Giref, Damte Shimelis, Meseret Gebre
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifesaving intervention for HIV infected children. There is a scarcity of data on immunological recovery and its relation with growth indicators among HIV infected young children. The current study aims to assess the pattern of anthropometric Z-score improvement following initiation of first-line ART among under-five children and the relationship between anthropometric Z-score improvement and immunologic recovery. METHODS: We included under-five children who were on first-line ART at five major hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027284/antiretroviral-treatment-initiated-in-the-first-month-of-life
#10
Lisa Frigati, Elke Wynberg, Jean Maritz, Sandi Holgate, Mark F Cotton, Helena Rabie
BACKGROUND: Earlier diagnosis of HIV-infected infants facilitates earlier access to therapy and improved clinical outcomes. AIM: The aim of this study was describe the management of infants who started antiretroviral therapy in the first month of life. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on HIV-infected neonates who started ART within the first month of life between January 2013 and March 2015. RESULTS: 997 neonates had one HIV PCR test...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005690/low-bone-mineral-density-in-vertically-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents-risk-factors-and-the-role-of-t-cell-activation-and-senescence
#11
Beatriz Jiménez, Talía Sainz, Laura Díaz, María José Mellado, María Luisa Navarro, Pablo Rojo, María Isabel González-Tomé, Luis Prieto, Jorge Martínez, María Isabel de José, José Tomás Ramos, María Ángeles Muñoz-Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in vertically HIV-infected patients; and to investigate whether low BMD is related to immune activation and senescence induced by HIV infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 98 vertically HIV-infected patients. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine. Height adjustment of BMD Z-score was performed using height-for-age Z-score...
December 21, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940963/lipid-peroxidation-and-altered-antioxidant-profiles-with-pediatric-hiv-infection-and-antiretroviral-therapy-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#12
Yiglet Mebrat, Wondwossen Amogne, Amha Mekasha, Rudolph L Gleason, Daniel Seifu
HIV- and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated elevations in oxidative stress likely play a role in incomplete immune reconstitution, opportunistic infections and non-AIDS co-morbidities. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children living with HIV exhibit elevated markers of oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant profiles and that HAART-therapy will exacerbate these differences. HIV-positive HAART-naïve (n = 50) and HAART-treated (n = 50) and HIV-negative control (n = 50) participants, 3-15 years of age, were recruited from Black Lion Hospital in Ethiopia...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939465/antiretrovirals-causing-severe-pre-eclampsia
#13
Lloyd Tooke, Linda Riemer, Mushi Matjila, Michael Harrison
BACKGROUND: Extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW) (⩽1000g) at our tertiary hospital have a much higher HIV exposure rate than bigger babies and are mainly delivered due to complications of pre-eclampsia. Studies investigating the effect of HIV or antiretroviral therapy on pre-eclampsia, a partially immune-mediated disease have produced contradictory results. OBJECTIVE: To determine if there was an association between pre-eclampsia and HIV and/or antiretrovirals in the mothers of ELBW infants...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936233/malaria-in-hiv-infected-children-receiving-hiv-protease-inhibitor-compared-with-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-based-antiretroviral-therapy-impaact-p1068s-substudy-to-p1060
#14
Charlotte V Hobbs, Erin E Gabriel, Portia Kamthunzi, Gerald Tegha, Jean Tauzie, Elizabeth Petzold, Linda Barlow-Mosha, Benjamin H Chi, Yonghua Li, Tiina Ilmet, Brian Kirmse, Jillian Neal, Sunil Parikh, Nagamah Deygoo, Patrick Jean Philippe, Lynne Mofenson, William Prescott, Jingyang Chen, Philippa Musoke, Paul Palumbo, Patrick E Duffy, William Borkowsky
BACKGROUND: HIV and malaria geographically overlap. HIV protease inhibitors kill malaria parasites in vitro and in vivo, but further evaluation in clinical studies is needed. METHODS: Thirty-one children from Malawi aged 4-62 months were followed every 3 months and at intercurrent illness visits for ≤47 months (September 2009-December 2011). We compared malaria parasite carriage by blood smear microscopy (BS) and confirmed clinical malaria incidence (CCM, or positive BS with malaria symptoms) in children initiated on HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) with zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine (NVP), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV-rtv), a protease inhibitor...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927183/art-access-related-barriers-faced-by-hiv-positive-persons-linked-to-care-in-southern-ghana-a-mixed-method-study
#15
Augustine Ankomah, John Kuumuori Ganle, Margaret Yaa Lartey, Awewura Kwara, Priscilla Awo Nortey, Michael Perry Kweku Okyerefo, Amos Kankponang Laar
BACKGROUND: Timely and enduring access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) by HIV-infected individuals has been shown to substantially reduce HIV transmission risk, HIV-related morbidity and mortality. However, there is evidence that in addition to limited supply of antiretrovirals (ARVs) and linkage to ART in many low-income countries, HIV+ persons often encounter barriers in accessing ART-related services even in contexts where these services are freely available. In Ghana, limited research evidence exists regarding the barriers HIV+ persons already linked to ART face...
December 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882759/-management-of-care-of-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-in-the-period-1996-2014
#16
M Mojhová, I Mikysková, M Halaška, M Staňková, H Rozsypal, J Šrámek, J Záhumenský, M Malý
OBJECTIVE: The evaluation of multidisplinary care about HIV positive pregnant women in the Czech Republic. DESIGN: Review. SETTINGS: Gynekologicko-porodnická klinika 1. LF UK a Nemocnice na Bulovce, Praha. METHODS: The vertical transmission of HIV infection from mother to fetus occurs most often during birth, still 1-2% of HIV-positive pregnant women will transfer the virus transplacenta. Due to careful screening for HIV during pregnancy, counselling, combination antiretroviral (cART) therapy, childbirth planning and its performance by C-section there appears a significant decrease of the virus transmission to the fetus, its occurrence is around 2%...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880749/early-diagnosis-of-hiv-infection-in-infants-one-caribbean-and-six-sub-saharan-african-countries-2011-2015
#17
Karidia Diallo, Andrea A Kim, Shirley Lecher, Dennis Ellenberger, R Suzanne Beard, Helen Dale, Mackenzie Hurlston, Molly Rivadeneira, Peter N Fonjungo, Laura N Broyles, Guoqing Zhang, Katrina Sleeman, Shon Nguyen, Steve Jadczak, Nadine Abiola, Raimi Ewetola, Jérémie Muwonga, Franck Fwamba, Christina Mwangi, Mary Naluguza, Charles Kiyaga, Isaac Ssewanyana, Deyde Varough, Domercant Wysler, David Lowrance, Frantz Jean Louis, Olbeg Desinor, Josiane Buteau, Francois Kesner, Vanessa Rouzier, Nat Segaren, Tessa Lewis, Abdoulaye Sarr, Geoffrey Chipungu, Sundeep Gupta, Daniel Singer, Reuben Mwenda, Hilary Kapoteza, Zawadi Chipeta, Nancy Knight, Sergio Carmona, William MacLeod, Gayle Sherman, Yogan Pillay, Clement B Ndongmo, Bridget Mugisa, Annie Mwila, James McAuley, Peter J Chipimo, Wezi Kaonga, Dailess Nsofwa, Davy Nsama, Fales Zulu Mwamba, Crispin Moyo, Clement Phiri, Marie-Yolande Borget, Leonard Ya-Kouadio, Abo Kouame, Christiane A Adje-Toure, John Nkengasong
Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains an important public health issue in resource-limited settings. In 2015, 1.4 million children aged <15 years were estimated to be living with HIV (including 170,000 infants born in 2015), with the vast majority living in sub-Saharan Africa (1). In 2014, 150,000 children died from HIV-related causes worldwide (2). Access to timely HIV diagnosis and treatment for HIV-infected infants reduces HIV-associated mortality, which is approximately 50% by age 2 years without treatment (3)...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837268/effect-of-high-dose-cholecalciferol-vitamin-d3-on-bone-and-body-composition-in-children-and-young-adults-with-hiv-infection-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
A J Rovner, V A Stallings, R Rutstein, J I Schall, M B Leonard, B S Zemel
: It is unknown whether vitamin D supplementation positively impacts body composition and bone outcomes in children and young adults with HIV. This RCT found that despite increasing 25(OH)D concentrations, high dose vitamin D3 supplementation did not impact bone or body composition in children and young adults with HIV infection. INTRODUCTION: The objective of this paper was to determine the impact of high-dose daily cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation on body composition and bone density, structure, and strength in children and young adults with perinatally acquired (PHIV) or behaviorally acquired (BHIV) HIV infection...
January 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809738/sexual-transmission-of-hiv-and-the-law-an-australian-medical-consensus-statement
#19
Mark Boyd, David Cooper, Elizabeth A Crock, Levinia Crooks, Michelle L Giles, Andrew Grulich, Sharon R Lewin, David Nolan, Trent Yarwood
Criminal cases involving human immunodeficiency virus transmission or exposure require that courts correctly comprehend the rapidly evolving science of HIV transmission and the impact of an HIV diagnosis. This consensus statement, written by leading HIV clinicians and scientists, provides current scientific evidence to facilitate just outcomes in Australian criminal cases involving HIV.Main recommendations: Caution should be exercised when considering charges or prosecutions regarding HIV transmission or exposure because:Scientific evidence shows that the risk of HIV transmission during sex between partners of different HIV serostatus can be low, negligible or too low to quantify, even when the HIV-positive partner is not taking effective antiretroviral therapy, depending on the nature of the sexual act, the viral load of the partner with HIV, and whether a condom or pre-exposure prophylaxis is employed to reduce risk...
November 7, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800100/acceptance-of-provider-initiated-testing-and-counseling-for-hiv-infection-by-caregivers-in-a-tertiary-health-institution-in-abuja-nigeria-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Adaora Adeline Okechukwu, Eno Ekop, Chinwendu Daniel Ndukwe, Kudirat Eyinade Olateju
INTRODUCTION: Less than 10% of HIV positive children are enrolled into antiretroviral treatment program in the country. Provider-initiated testing and counseling was introduced to increasing uptake of HIV testing. The aim of this study is to determine the acceptability and factors undermining the acceptance of this laudable initiative by parents/caregivers of children attending paediatric out patient clinical services in our health institution. METHODS: A cross sectional study of children aged 18 months to 18 years and their parents/caregivers attending paediatric outpatient clinic of the hospital was undertaken for the above objectives...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
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