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Antiretrovirals in hiv positives childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719610/a-decade-of-hiv-care-in-rural-tanzania-trends-in-clinical-outcomes-and-impact-of-clinic-optimisation-in-an-open-prospective-cohort
#1
Fiona Vanobberghen, Emilio Letang, Anna Gamell, Dorcas K Mnzava, Diana Faini, Lameck B Luwanda, Herry Mapesi, Kim Mwamelo, George Sikalengo, Marcel Tanner, Christoph Hatz, Hansjakob Furrer, Manuel Battegay, Tracy R Glass
OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to describe trends in enrolment and clinical outcomes in the open, prospective Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO) in the Morogoro region of southern Tanzania, and identify strengths and areas for improvement in the care of HIV-positive individuals in rural Tanzania. METHODS: We included adults (≥15 years) and children (<15 years) enrolled in the cohort in 2005-2014. The cohort underwent significant changes from autumn 2012 to optimise care...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694558/impact-of-vaccination-on-distribution-of-t-cell-subsets-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-infected-children
#2
Premrutai Thitilertdecha, Ladawan Khowawisetsut, Palanee Ammaranond, Poonsin Poungpairoj, Varangkana Tantithavorn, Nattawat Onlamoon
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is generally prescribed to patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with vaccination introduced to prevent disease complications. However, little is known about the influence of immunization on T cell subsets' distribution during the course of infection. This study aims to identify the impact of viral replication and immunization on naïve, effector, effector memory, and central memory T cell subpopulations in ART-treated HIV-infected children. Fifty patients were recruited and injected intramuscularly with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine on the day of enrollment (day 0) and day 28...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660181/psychosocial-challenges-associated-with-caregiving-in-the-context-of-pediatric-hiv-in-rural-eastern-cape
#3
Antonio G Lentoor
BACKGROUND: While survival among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children has increased due to combination antiretroviral therapy, many children remain vulnerable to the adverse effects of poverty and family disruptions as a result of the loss of one or both biological parents to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The aim of this qualitative study was to develop an understanding of the psychosocial challenges experienced by caregivers caring for a child with perinatally acquired HIV...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655683/integration-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-into-maternal-health-services-in-senegal
#4
C Cisse
The objective of this study was to assess the level of integration of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in facilities providing services for maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and reproductive health (RH) in Senegal. The survey, conducted from August through November, 2014, comprised five parts : a literature review to assess the place of this integration in the health policies, standards, and protocols in effect in Senegal; an analysis by direct observation of attitudes and practices of 25 healthcare providers at 5 randomly-selected obstetrics and gynecology departments representative of different levels of the health pyramid; a questionnaire evaluating knowledge and attitudes of 10 providers about the integration of PMTCT services into MNCH/RH facilities; interviews to collect the opinions of 70 clients, including 16 HIV-positive, about the quality of PMTCT services they received; and a questionnaire evaluating knowledge and opinions of 14 policy-makers/managers of health programs focusing on mothers and children about this integration...
June 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617810/population-level-impact-of-an-accelerated-hiv-response-plan-to-reach-the-unaids-90-90-90-target-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-insights-from-mathematical-modeling
#5
Mathieu Maheu-Giroux, Juan F Vesga, Souleymane Diabaté, Michel Alary, Stefan Baral, Daouda Diouf, Kouamé Abo, Marie-Claude Boily
BACKGROUND: National responses will need to be markedly accelerated to achieve the ambitious target of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). This target aims for 90% of HIV-positive individuals to be aware of their status, for 90% of those aware to receive antiretroviral therapy (ART), and for 90% of those on treatment to have a suppressed viral load by 2020, with each individual target reaching 95% by 2030. We aimed to estimate the impact of various treatment-as-prevention scenarios in Côte d'Ivoire, one of the countries with the highest HIV incidence in West Africa, with unmet HIV prevention and treatment needs, and where key populations are important to the broader HIV epidemic...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605170/pharmacokinetics-based-adherence-measures-for-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-kenyan-children
#6
Wanzhu Tu, Winstone M Nyandiko, Hai Liu, James E Slaven, Michael L Scanlon, Samuel O Ayaya, Rachel C Vreeman
BACKGROUND: Traditional medication adherence measures do not account for the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of the drugs, potentially misrepresenting true therapeutic exposure. METHODS: In a population of HIV-infected Kenyan children on antiretroviral therapy including nevirapine (NVP), we used a one-compartment model with previously established PK parameters and Medication Event Monitoring Systems (MEMS®)-recorded dosing times to estimate the mean plasma concentration of NVP (Cp) in individual patients during 1 month of follow-up...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591025/neurocognitive-development-in-hiv-positive-children-is-correlated-with-plasma-viral-loads-in-early-childhood
#7
Valentin Weber, Daniel Radeloff, Bianca Reimers, Emilia Salzmann-Manrique, Peter Bader, Dirk Schwabe, Christoph Königs
Because of neurocognitive impairments in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and adolescents, this study aimed to demonstrate the effect of plasma viral loads and early initiation of sufficient combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on neurocognitive development.In total, 14 perinatally infected HIV-positive children (median age 8.24 years [range: 6.0-16.74]) receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based ART underwent neurocognitive testing using the Wechsler Intelligence Score for Children, 4th Edition (WISC-IV)...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590332/hiv-positive-youth-who-are-perinatally-infected-have-impaired-endothelial-function
#8
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Abdus Sattar, Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A Mccomsey
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating cardiovascular (CVD) risk in children and youth 13-24 years old who are facing a life time exposure to both HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a research priority. This study compares endothelial function measured by Peripheral Arterial Tonometry in HIV+ youth infected perinatally and behaviorally as well as HIV- controls. METHODS: Three groups of participants aged 8-30 yo were enrolled; HIV+ perinatally-infected, HIV+ behaviorally-infected on ART with HIV-1 RNA <1,000 copies/mL, and HIV- controls...
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578686/challenges-and-opportunities-of-optimal-breastfeeding-in-the-context-of-hiv-option-b-guidelines
#9
Pamela Marinda, Nkandu Chibwe, Ernest Tambo, Sidney Lulanga, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa
BACKGROUND: In 2013, the World Health Organization released a new set of guidelines widely known as Option B+. Prior to that there were guidelines released in 2010. Option B+ recommends lifelong antiretroviral treatment for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The study aimed at investigating challenges and opportunities in implementing Infant and Young Child Feeding in the context of Prevention of Mother To Child Transmission (PMTCT) guidelines among HIV positive mothers of children aged 0-24 months...
June 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574964/does-antiretroviral-therapy-change-partnership-dynamics-and-hiv-risk-behaviours-among-hiv-infected-adults
#10
Nuala McGrath, Erofili Grapsa
OBJECTIVE: We explore the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on partnership acquisition and dissolution rates and changes in sexual behaviours among HIV-infected adults. DESIGN: Using detailed longitudinal data from a prospective cohort of HIV-infected adults with CD4 cell count below 200 cells/μl (ART-eligible) or CD4 cell count above 500 cells/μl (pre-ART) conducted in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, from 2009 to 2012. METHODS: Partnership acquisition and dissolution are explored through survival analysis methods, whereas generalized linear models were fitted for the sexual behaviour outcomes with interaction terms to allow the association with ART to vary over time...
June 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562743/reproductive-aspects-and-knowledge-of-family-planning-among-women-with-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#11
Ivana Cristina Vieira de Lima, Maria da Conceição Dos Santos Oliveira Cunha, Gilmara Holanda da Cunha, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz Galvão
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the reproductive aspects and knowledge of family planning among women with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). METHOD: Cross-sectional and descriptive study carried out from January to December, 2015, in the outpatient care of infectious disease unit in a hospital located in Fortaleza, Ceará. Data were collected through a form applied by interview in a private setting. RESULTS: 102 women participated in the study...
May 25, 2017: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540847/risk-factors-for-transmission-of-hiv-from-mother-to-child-in-bangui
#12
S C H Diemer, R N Ngbale, J D D Longo, O Bami Dienhot, C E Gaunefet
the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in pregnant women in Central Africa is 4.5%. Although a program to prevent mother-child transmission of HIV has been implemented throughout the country, the number of infected infants continues to increase. In this context, our study sought to determine the rate of mother-child transmission of HIV and to identify the main risk factors. this prospective cross-sectional study took place from November 1, 2014, to November 1, 2015, in all 16 maternal and child health centers in Bangui...
May 24, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523628/burkitt-lymphoma-as-a-lead-point-for-jejunojejunal-intussusception-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patient
#13
Prabin Sharma, Shivashanker Balasingham, Kristin Stawiarski, Mahboubeh Rahmani, Antonio Costantino, Pranav Sharma, Mina Xu, Amir Masoud
Intussusception is commonly seen in children but is rare in adults and represents only 5% of all intussusceptions causing 1% of intestinal obstructions. More than 50% of these intussusceptions in adults are due to intestinal neoplasms, including malignant lymphoma, e.g., Burkitt lymphoma. These lymphomas are more common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients than in the general population. We present a case of a young male who was diagnosed with HIV when he developed intestinal obstruction and intussusception secondary to Burkitt lymphoma...
August 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513417/carriage-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-hiv-infected-children-in-zimbabwe
#14
S M S Wilmore, K Kranzer, A Williams, B Makamure, A F Nhidza, J Mayini, T Bandason, J Metcalfe, M P Nicol, I Balakrishnan, M J Ellington, N Woodford, S Hopkins, T D McHugh, R A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging global health issue. Data on the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant organisms are scarce for Africa, especially in HIV-infected individuals who often have frequent contact with healthcare. We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage in stool among HIV-infected children attending an HIV outpatient department in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: We recruited children who were stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) attending a HIV clinic from August 2014 to June 2015...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486060/aerobic-fitness-and-moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-in-children-and-adolescents-living-with-hiv
#15
Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Kelly Samara da Silva, Andreia Pelegrini, Isabela de Carlos Back, Edio Luiz Petroski
AIMS: To examine aerobic fitness, total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and also patterns in terms of MVPA between children and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and controls, and to determine whether differences, if any, are associated with HIV, sex and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out with 130 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 15 years, divided into two groups (HIV group= 65 patients, control group= 65 healthy participants)...
May 9, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473182/quality-of-life-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-rural-india
#16
Adeline M Nyamathi, Maria Ekstrand, Kartik Yadav, Padma Ramakrishna, Elsa Heylen, Catherine Carpenter, Sarah Wall, Tanya Oleskowicz, Lenore Arab, Sanjeev Sinha
A cross-sectional examination was conducted on quality of life (QOL) among women living with HIV (WLWH) in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Baseline data were collected from 400 WLWH and their children. QOL was measured with 10 items from the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. Findings revealed low QOL scores; on a scale from 0 to 3, the mean QOL score was 0.38 (SD = 0.30). Depression symptoms were reported by 25.5%, internalized stigma was high, and most reported little to no social support...
July 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468608/factors-associated-with-virological-non-suppression-among-hiv-positive-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-uganda-august-2014-july-2015
#17
Lilian Bulage, Isaac Ssewanyana, Victoria Nankabirwa, Fred Nsubuga, Christine Kihembo, Gerald Pande, Alex R Ario, Joseph Kb Matovu, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Charles Kiyaga
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is limited information about virological non-suppression and its determinants among HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals enrolled in HIV care in many resource-limited settings. We estimated the proportion of virologically non-suppressed patients, and identified the factors associated with virological non-suppression. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study using routinely collected program data from viral load (VL) samples collected across the country for testing at the Central Public Health Laboratories (CPHL) in Uganda...
May 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410374/factors-influencing-postnatal-option-b-participation-and-breastfeeding-duration-among-hiv-positive-women-in-lilongwe-district-malawi-a-qualitative-study
#18
Valerie L Flax, Gloria Hamela, Innocent Mofolo, Mina C Hosseinipour, Irving F Hoffman, Suzanne Maman
To ensure the health of mothers and children, prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs test women for HIV, engage HIV-positive women in care, and promote recommended breastfeeding practices. Under Malawi's Option B+ PMTCT program, ~20% of women are lost-to-follow-up (LTFU) and little is known about their breastfeeding practices. The purpose of this study is to describe facilitators and barriers to Option B+ participation and how participation influences breastfeeding duration. We conducted in-depth interviews with HIV-positive women in Option B+ (n = 32) or LTFU from Option B+ (n = 32)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398955/does-art-change-partnership-dynamics-and-hiv-risk-behaviours-among-plwh-a-cohort-study-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#19
Nuala McGrath, Erofili Grapsa
OBJECTIVE: We explore the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on partnership acquisition and dissolution rates and changes in sexual behaviours among HIV-infected adults. DESIGN: Using detailed longitudinal data from a prospective cohort of HIV-infected adults with CD4<200 cell/ml (ART-eligible) or CD4>500 cell/ml (pre-ART) conducted in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2009-2012. METHODS: Partnership acquisition and dissolution are explored through survival analysis methods, while generalized linear models were fitted for the sexual behaviour outcomes with interaction terms to allow the association with ART to vary over time...
April 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397527/it-helps-me-live-sends-my-children-to-school-and-feeds-me-a-qualitative-study-of-how-food-and-cash-incentives-may-improve-adherence-to-treatment-and-care-among-adults-living-with-hiv-in-tanzania
#20
Nancy L Czaicki, Agatha Mnyippembe, Madeline Blodgett, Prosper Njau, Sandra I McCoy
Financial and in-kind incentives have been shown to improve outcomes along the HIV care cascade, however the potential mechanismsthrough which they work remain unclear. To identify the pathways through which incentives improve retention in care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), we conducted a qualitative study with participants in a trial evaluating conditional food and cash incentives for HIV-positive food insecure adults in Shinyanga, Tanzania. We found that the incentives acted through three pathways to potentially increase retention in care and adherence to ART: (1) addressing competing needs and offsetting opportunity costs associated with clinic attendance, (2) alleviating stress associated with attending clinic and meeting basic needs, and (3) by potentially increasing motivation...
April 11, 2017: AIDS Care
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