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Antiretrovirals in hiv positives childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789674/hiv-status-and-treatment-influence-on-fertility-desires-among-women-newly-becoming-eligible-for-antiretroviral-therapy-in-western-kenya-insights-from-a-qualitative-study
#1
James Ayieko, Angeline Ti, Jill Hagey, Eliud Akama, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Rena C Patel
BACKGROUND: Factors influencing fertility desires among HIV-infected individuals remain poorly understood. With new recommendations for universal HIV treatment and increasing antiretroviral therapy (ART) access, we sought to evaluate how access to early ART influences fertility desires among HIV-infected ART-naïve women. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with a select subgroup of 20 HIV-infected ART-naïve women attending one of 13 HIV facilities in western Kenya between July and August 2014 who would soon newly become eligible to initiate ART based on the latest national policy recommendations...
August 8, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770596/high-rates-of-viral-suppression-in-adults-and-children-with-high-cd4-counts-using-a-streamlined-art-delivery-model-in-the-search-trial-in-rural-uganda-and-kenya
#2
Dalsone Kwarisiima, Moses R Kamya, Asiphas Owaraganise, Florence Mwangwa, Dathan M Byonanebye, James Ayieko, Albert Plenty, Doug Black, Tamara D Clark, Bridget Nzarubara, Katherine Snyman, Lillian Brown, Elizabeth Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Elvin H Geng, Edwin D Charlebois, Theodore D Ruel, Maya L Petersen, Diane Havlir, Vivek Jain
INTRODUCTION: The 2015 WHO recommendation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive persons calls for treatment initiation in millions of persons newly eligible with high CD4+ counts. Efficient and effective care models are urgently needed for this population. We evaluated clinical outcomes of asymptomatic HIV-positive adults and children starting ART with high CD4+ counts using a novel streamlined care model in rural Uganda and Kenya. METHODS: In the 16 intervention communities of the HIV test-and-treat Sustainable East Africa Research for Community Health Study (NCT01864603), all HIV-positive individuals irrespective of CD4 were offered ART (efavirenz [EFV]/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine (FTC) or lamivudine (3TC)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758024/serum-lipid-and-glucose-profiles-in-hiv-positive-nigerian-children
#3
EDITORIAL
Olukemi O Ige, Christopher S Yilgwan, Augustine O Ebonyi, Ruth Adah, Idris Adedeji, Esther S Yiltok, Stephen Oguche, Fidelia Bode-Thomas
OBJECTIVES: To describe the fasting serum lipid and glucose profiles of HIV-positive Nigerian children and determine the prevalence and risk factors for dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia, which are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This was a comparative cross-sectional study carried out at the Paediatric Infectious Disease Clinic (PIDC) of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) for HIV-positive children and at two primary schools in Jos for HIV-negative children as controls...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742829/community-burden-of-undiagnosed-hiv-infection-among-adolescents-in-zimbabwe-following-primary-healthcare-based-provider-initiated-hiv-testing-and-counselling-a-cross-sectional-survey
#4
Victoria Simms, Ethel Dauya, Subathira Dakshina, Tsitsi Bandason, Grace McHugh, Shungu Munyati, Prosper Chonzi, Katharina Kranzer, Getrude Ncube, Collen Masimirembwa, Roslyn Thelingwani, Tsitsi Apollo, Richard Hayes, Helen A Weiss, Rashida A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Children living with HIV who are not diagnosed in infancy often remain undiagnosed until they present with advanced disease. Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) in health facilities is recommended for high-HIV-prevalence settings, but it is unclear whether this approach is sufficient to achieve universal coverage of HIV testing. We aimed to investigate the change in community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among older children and adolescents following implementation of PITC in Harare, Zimbabwe...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734516/pediatric-human-immunodeficiency-virus-continuum-of-care-a-concise-review-of-evidence-based-practice
#5
REVIEW
Megan E Gray, Phillip Nieburg, Rebecca Dillingham
Children and adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent a population that requires a unique approach to HIV care. Prevention, testing, initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and retention and engagement in care are critical steps. Each step requires providers to address age-specific barriers, so that successful and prolonged viral suppression can occur. Adherence to ART, disclosure of HIV-positive status, and stigma are examples of struggles faced by youth, their families, and health care providers...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728348/effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-art-on-change-in-fertility-intentions-of-hiv-positive-women-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-prospective-follow-up-study
#6
Hussen Mekonnen
Objectives: The study aimed to assess change in fertility intentions 12 months after ART initiation among HIV positive women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: Institution based follow up study was conducted, among 360 HIV positive women in Addis Ababa; from June 2012 to October 2013. Logistic regression model was used to assess the influence socio-demographic, reproductive health and clinical characteristics on the change in fertility intention of women. Results: Overall, 41...
July 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719610/a-decade-of-hiv-care-in-rural-tanzania-trends-in-clinical-outcomes-and-impact-of-clinic-optimisation-in-an-open-prospective-cohort
#7
Fiona Vanobberghen, Emilio Letang, Anna Gamell, Dorcas K Mnzava, Diana Faini, Lameck B Luwanda, Herry Mapesi, Kim Mwamelo, George Sikalengo, Marcel Tanner, Christoph Hatz, Hansjakob Furrer, Manuel Battegay, Tracy R Glass
OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to describe trends in enrolment and clinical outcomes in the open, prospective Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO) in the Morogoro region of southern Tanzania, and identify strengths and areas for improvement in the care of HIV-positive individuals in rural Tanzania. METHODS: We included adults (≥15 years) and children (<15 years) enrolled in the cohort in 2005-2014. The cohort underwent significant changes from autumn 2012 to optimise care...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694558/impact-of-vaccination-on-distribution-of-t-cell-subsets-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-infected-children
#8
Premrutai Thitilertdecha, Ladawan Khowawisetsut, Palanee Ammaranond, Poonsin Poungpairoj, Varangkana Tantithavorn, Nattawat Onlamoon
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is generally prescribed to patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with vaccination introduced to prevent disease complications. However, little is known about the influence of immunization on T cell subsets' distribution during the course of infection. This study aims to identify the impact of viral replication and immunization on naïve, effector, effector memory, and central memory T cell subpopulations in ART-treated HIV-infected children. Fifty patients were recruited and injected intramuscularly with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine on the day of enrollment (day 0) and day 28...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660181/psychosocial-challenges-associated-with-caregiving-in-the-context-of-pediatric-hiv-in-rural-eastern-cape
#9
Antonio G Lentoor
BACKGROUND: While survival among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children has increased due to combination antiretroviral therapy, many children remain vulnerable to the adverse effects of poverty and family disruptions as a result of the loss of one or both biological parents to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The aim of this qualitative study was to develop an understanding of the psychosocial challenges experienced by caregivers caring for a child with perinatally acquired HIV...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655683/integration-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-into-maternal-health-services-in-senegal
#10
C Cisse
The objective of this study was to assess the level of integration of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in facilities providing services for maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and reproductive health (RH) in Senegal. The survey, conducted from August through November, 2014, comprised five parts : a literature review to assess the place of this integration in the health policies, standards, and protocols in effect in Senegal; an analysis by direct observation of attitudes and practices of 25 healthcare providers at 5 randomly-selected obstetrics and gynecology departments representative of different levels of the health pyramid; a questionnaire evaluating knowledge and attitudes of 10 providers about the integration of PMTCT services into MNCH/RH facilities; interviews to collect the opinions of 70 clients, including 16 HIV-positive, about the quality of PMTCT services they received; and a questionnaire evaluating knowledge and opinions of 14 policy-makers/managers of health programs focusing on mothers and children about this integration...
June 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617810/population-level-impact-of-an-accelerated-hiv-response-plan-to-reach-the-unaids-90-90-90-target-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-insights-from-mathematical-modeling
#11
Mathieu Maheu-Giroux, Juan F Vesga, Souleymane Diabaté, Michel Alary, Stefan Baral, Daouda Diouf, Kouamé Abo, Marie-Claude Boily
BACKGROUND: National responses will need to be markedly accelerated to achieve the ambitious target of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). This target aims for 90% of HIV-positive individuals to be aware of their status, for 90% of those aware to receive antiretroviral therapy (ART), and for 90% of those on treatment to have a suppressed viral load by 2020, with each individual target reaching 95% by 2030. We aimed to estimate the impact of various treatment-as-prevention scenarios in Côte d'Ivoire, one of the countries with the highest HIV incidence in West Africa, with unmet HIV prevention and treatment needs, and where key populations are important to the broader HIV epidemic...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605170/pharmacokinetics-based-adherence-measures-for-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-kenyan-children
#12
Wanzhu Tu, Winstone M Nyandiko, Hai Liu, James E Slaven, Michael L Scanlon, Samuel O Ayaya, Rachel C Vreeman
BACKGROUND: Traditional medication adherence measures do not account for the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of the drugs, potentially misrepresenting true therapeutic exposure. METHODS: In a population of HIV-infected Kenyan children on antiretroviral therapy including nevirapine (NVP), we used a one-compartment model with previously established PK parameters and Medication Event Monitoring Systems (MEMS®)-recorded dosing times to estimate the mean plasma concentration of NVP (Cp) in individual patients during 1 month of follow-up...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591025/neurocognitive-development-in-hiv-positive-children-is-correlated-with-plasma-viral-loads-in-early-childhood
#13
Valentin Weber, Daniel Radeloff, Bianca Reimers, Emilia Salzmann-Manrique, Peter Bader, Dirk Schwabe, Christoph Königs
Because of neurocognitive impairments in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and adolescents, this study aimed to demonstrate the effect of plasma viral loads and early initiation of sufficient combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on neurocognitive development.In total, 14 perinatally infected HIV-positive children (median age 8.24 years [range: 6.0-16.74]) receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based ART underwent neurocognitive testing using the Wechsler Intelligence Score for Children, 4th Edition (WISC-IV)...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590332/hiv-positive-youth-who-are-perinatally-infected-have-impaired-endothelial-function
#14
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Abdus Sattar, Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A Mccomsey
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating cardiovascular (CVD) risk in children and youth 13-24 years old who are facing a life time exposure to both HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a research priority. This study compares endothelial function measured by Peripheral Arterial Tonometry in HIV+ youth infected perinatally and behaviorally as well as HIV- controls. METHODS: Three groups of participants aged 8-30 yo were enrolled; HIV+ perinatally-infected, HIV+ behaviorally-infected on ART with HIV-1 RNA <1,000 copies/mL, and HIV- controls...
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578686/challenges-and-opportunities-of-optimal-breastfeeding-in-the-context-of-hiv-option-b-guidelines
#15
Pamela Marinda, Nkandu Chibwe, Ernest Tambo, Sidney Lulanga, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa
BACKGROUND: In 2013, the World Health Organization released a new set of guidelines widely known as Option B+. Prior to that there were guidelines released in 2010. Option B+ recommends lifelong antiretroviral treatment for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The study aimed at investigating challenges and opportunities in implementing Infant and Young Child Feeding in the context of Prevention of Mother To Child Transmission (PMTCT) guidelines among HIV positive mothers of children aged 0-24 months...
June 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574964/does-antiretroviral-therapy-change-partnership-dynamics-and-hiv-risk-behaviours-among-hiv-infected-adults
#16
Nuala McGrath, Erofili Grapsa
OBJECTIVE: We explore the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on partnership acquisition and dissolution rates and changes in sexual behaviours among HIV-infected adults. DESIGN: Using detailed longitudinal data from a prospective cohort of HIV-infected adults with CD4 cell count below 200 cells/μl (ART-eligible) or CD4 cell count above 500 cells/μl (pre-ART) conducted in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, from 2009 to 2012. METHODS: Partnership acquisition and dissolution are explored through survival analysis methods, whereas generalized linear models were fitted for the sexual behaviour outcomes with interaction terms to allow the association with ART to vary over time...
June 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562743/reproductive-aspects-and-knowledge-of-family-planning-among-women-with-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#17
Ivana Cristina Vieira de Lima, Maria da Conceição Dos Santos Oliveira Cunha, Gilmara Holanda da Cunha, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz Galvão
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the reproductive aspects and knowledge of family planning among women with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). METHOD: Cross-sectional and descriptive study carried out from January to December, 2015, in the outpatient care of infectious disease unit in a hospital located in Fortaleza, Ceará. Data were collected through a form applied by interview in a private setting. RESULTS: 102 women participated in the study...
May 25, 2017: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540847/risk-factors-for-transmission-of-hiv-from-mother-to-child-in-bangui
#18
S C H Diemer, R N Ngbale, J D D Longo, O Bami Dienhot, C E Gaunefet
the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in pregnant women in Central Africa is 4.5%. Although a program to prevent mother-child transmission of HIV has been implemented throughout the country, the number of infected infants continues to increase. In this context, our study sought to determine the rate of mother-child transmission of HIV and to identify the main risk factors. this prospective cross-sectional study took place from November 1, 2014, to November 1, 2015, in all 16 maternal and child health centers in Bangui...
May 24, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523628/burkitt-lymphoma-as-a-lead-point-for-jejunojejunal-intussusception-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patient
#19
Prabin Sharma, Shivashanker Balasingham, Kristin Stawiarski, Mahboubeh Rahmani, Antonio Costantino, Pranav Sharma, Mina Xu, Amir Masoud
Intussusception is commonly seen in children but is rare in adults and represents only 5% of all intussusceptions causing 1% of intestinal obstructions. More than 50% of these intussusceptions in adults are due to intestinal neoplasms, including malignant lymphoma, e.g., Burkitt lymphoma. These lymphomas are more common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients than in the general population. We present a case of a young male who was diagnosed with HIV when he developed intestinal obstruction and intussusception secondary to Burkitt lymphoma...
August 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513417/carriage-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-hiv-infected-children-in-zimbabwe
#20
S M S Wilmore, K Kranzer, A Williams, B Makamure, A F Nhidza, J Mayini, T Bandason, J Metcalfe, M P Nicol, I Balakrishnan, M J Ellington, N Woodford, S Hopkins, T D McHugh, R A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging global health issue. Data on the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant organisms are scarce for Africa, especially in HIV-infected individuals who often have frequent contact with healthcare. We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage in stool among HIV-infected children attending an HIV outpatient department in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: We recruited children who were stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) attending a HIV clinic from August 2014 to June 2015...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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