keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Antiretrovirals in hiv positives childrens

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882759/-management-of-care-of-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-in-the-period-1996-2014
#1
M Mojhová, I Mikysková, M Halaška, M Staňková, H Rozsypal, J Šrámek, J Záhumenský, M Malý
OBJECTIVE: The evaluation of multidisplinary care about HIV positive pregnant women in the Czech Republic. DESIGN: Review. SETTINGS: Gynekologicko-porodnická klinika 1. LF UK a Nemocnice na Bulovce, Praha. METHODS: The vertical transmission of HIV infection from mother to fetus occurs most often during birth, still 1-2% of HIV-positive pregnant women will transfer the virus transplacenta. Due to careful screening for HIV during pregnancy, counselling, combination antiretroviral (cART) therapy, childbirth planning and its performance by C-section there appears a significant decrease of the virus transmission to the fetus, its occurrence is around 2%...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880749/early-diagnosis-of-hiv-infection-in-infants-one-caribbean-and-six-sub-saharan-african-countries-2011-2015
#2
Karidia Diallo, Andrea A Kim, Shirley Lecher, Dennis Ellenberger, R Suzanne Beard, Helen Dale, Mackenzie Hurlston, Molly Rivadeneira, Peter N Fonjungo, Laura N Broyles, Guoqing Zhang, Katrina Sleeman, Shon Nguyen, Steve Jadczak, Nadine Abiola, Raimi Ewetola, Jérémie Muwonga, Franck Fwamba, Christina Mwangi, Mary Naluguza, Charles Kiyaga, Isaac Ssewanyana, Deyde Varough, Domercant Wysler, David Lowrance, Frantz Jean Louis, Olbeg Desinor, Josiane Buteau, Francois Kesner, Vanessa Rouzier, Nat Segaren, Tessa Lewis, Abdoulaye Sarr, Geoffrey Chipungu, Sundeep Gupta, Daniel Singer, Reuben Mwenda, Hilary Kapoteza, Zawadi Chipeta, Nancy Knight, Sergio Carmona, William MacLeod, Gayle Sherman, Yogan Pillay, Clement B Ndongmo, Bridget Mugisa, Annie Mwila, James McAuley, Peter J Chipimo, Wezi Kaonga, Dailess Nsofwa, Davy Nsama, Fales Zulu Mwamba, Crispin Moyo, Clement Phiri, Marie-Yolande Borget, Leonard Ya-Kouadio, Abo Kouame, Christiane A Adje-Toure, John Nkengasong
Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains an important public health issue in resource-limited settings. In 2015, 1.4 million children aged <15 years were estimated to be living with HIV (including 170,000 infants born in 2015), with the vast majority living in sub-Saharan Africa (1). In 2014, 150,000 children died from HIV-related causes worldwide (2). Access to timely HIV diagnosis and treatment for HIV-infected infants reduces HIV-associated mortality, which is approximately 50% by age 2 years without treatment (3)...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837268/effect-of-high-dose-cholecalciferol-vitamin-d3-on-bone-and-body-composition-in-children-and-young-adults-with-hiv-infection-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#3
A J Rovner, V A Stallings, R Rutstein, J I Schall, M B Leonard, B S Zemel
: It is unknown whether vitamin D supplementation positively impacts body composition and bone outcomes in children and young adults with HIV. This RCT found that despite increasing 25(OH)D concentrations, high dose vitamin D3 supplementation did not impact bone or body composition in children and young adults with HIV infection. INTRODUCTION: The objective of this paper was to determine the impact of high-dose daily cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation on body composition and bone density, structure, and strength in children and young adults with perinatally acquired (PHIV) or behaviorally acquired (BHIV) HIV infection...
November 11, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809738/sexual-transmission-of-hiv-and-the-law-an-australian-medical-consensus-statement
#4
Mark Boyd, David Cooper, Elizabeth A Crock, Levinia Crooks, Michelle L Giles, Andrew Grulich, Sharon R Lewin, David Nolan, Trent Yarwood
Criminal cases involving human immunodeficiency virus transmission or exposure require that courts correctly comprehend the rapidly evolving science of HIV transmission and the impact of an HIV diagnosis. This consensus statement, written by leading HIV clinicians and scientists, provides current scientific evidence to facilitate just outcomes in Australian criminal cases involving HIV.Main recommendations: Caution should be exercised when considering charges or prosecutions regarding HIV transmission or exposure because:Scientific evidence shows that the risk of HIV transmission during sex between partners of different HIV serostatus can be low, negligible or too low to quantify, even when the HIV-positive partner is not taking effective antiretroviral therapy, depending on the nature of the sexual act, the viral load of the partner with HIV, and whether a condom or pre-exposure prophylaxis is employed to reduce risk...
November 7, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800100/acceptance-of-provider-initiated-testing-and-counseling-for-hiv-infection-by-caregivers-in-a-tertiary-health-institution-in-abuja-nigeria-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Adaora Adeline Okechukwu, Eno Ekop, Chinwendu Daniel Ndukwe, Kudirat Eyinade Olateju
INTRODUCTION: Less than 10% of HIV positive children are enrolled into antiretroviral treatment program in the country. Provider-initiated testing and counseling was introduced to increasing uptake of HIV testing. The aim of this study is to determine the acceptability and factors undermining the acceptance of this laudable initiative by parents/caregivers of children attending paediatric out patient clinical services in our health institution. METHODS: A cross sectional study of children aged 18 months to 18 years and their parents/caregivers attending paediatric outpatient clinic of the hospital was undertaken for the above objectives...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798549/performance-of-hiv-rapid-tests-among-breastfeeding-malawian-infants
#6
Emily R Smith, Anna D Sheahan, Robert S Heyderman, William C Miller, Stephanie Wheeler, Michael Hudgens, Julie A E Nelson, Queen Dube, Annelies Van Rie
INTRODUCTION: Timely, accurate and affordable testing algorithms at point-of-care are critical for early infant HIV diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy in the postpartum period. We aimed to assess the utility of HIV rapid tests for young, breastfed HIV-exposed infants in resource limited, high HIV burden settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected data on the performance of two commonly used rapid tests (Determine and Unigold) in Malawi between 2008 and 2012 or at the University of North Carolina between 2014 and 2015...
October 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761679/improved-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-observed-among-hiv-infected-children-whose-caregivers-had-positive-beliefs-in-medicine-in-sub-saharan-africa
#7
G Abongomera, A Cook, V Musiime, C Chabala, M Lamorde, J Abach, M Thomason, V Mulenga, A Kekitiinwa, R Colebunders, C Kityo, A S Walker, D M Gibb
A high level of adherence to antiretroviral treatment is essential for optimal clinical outcomes in HIV infection, but measuring adherence is difficult. We investigated whether responses to a questionnaire eliciting caregiver beliefs in medicines were associated with adherence of their child (median age 2.8 years), and whether this in turn was associated with viral suppression. We used the validated beliefs in medicine questionnaire (BMQ) to measure caregiver beliefs, and medication event monitoring system caps to measure adherence...
October 19, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721453/timely-antiretroviral-prophylaxis-during-pregnancy-effectively-reduces-hiv-mother-to-child-transmission-in-eight-counties-in-china-a-prospective-study-during-2004-2011
#8
Qian Wang, Linhong Wang, Liwen Fang, Ailing Wang, Xi Jin, Fang Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Yaping Qiao, Sheena G Sullivan, Shannon Rutherford, Lei Zhang
This study investigates the improvement of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in China during 2004-2011. A clinic-based prospective study was conducted among HIV-positive pregnant women and their children in eight counties across China. Associated factors of mother-to-child transmission were analyzed using regression analysis. A total of 1,387 HIV+ pregnant women and 1,377 HIV-exposed infants were enrolled. The proportion of pregnant women who received HIV testing increased significantly from 45...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662546/chronic-lung-disease-in-hiv-infected-children-established-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Jamie Rylance, Grace Mchugh, John Metcalfe, Hilda Mujuru, Kusum Nathoo, Stephanie Wilmore, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Edith Majonga, Katharina Kranzer, Rashida A Ferrand
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), children suffer chronic symptoms. We investigated symptom prevalence, lung function and exercise capacity among older children established on ART and an age-matched HIV-uninfected group. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study in Zimbabwe of HIV-infected children aged 6-16 years receiving ART for over 6 months and HIV-uninfected children attending primary health clinics from the same area...
November 28, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644708/-a-body-like-a-baby-social-self-care-among-older-people-with-chronic-hiv-in-mombasa
#10
Josien de Klerk, Eileen Moyer
As part of the chronic disease paradigm now widely used for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, antiretroviral treatment programs emphasize self-care. In the informal settlements of Mombasa, Kenya, the management of stress-associated with economic precariousness-plays a significant role in self-care practices and ideologies. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, we examine how local narratives of stress and self-care intertwine with social responsibilities of older HIV-positive people. For older Mombassans, living with 'chronic' HIV means living with an unpredictable body, which affects how they are able to care for their kin...
September 20, 2016: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615375/decreased-pd-1-expression-on-cd8-lymphocyte-subsets-and-increase-in-cd8%C3%A2-tscm-cells-in-children-with-hiv-receiving-raltegravir
#11
Florin Tuluc, Sergei Spitsin, Nancy B Tustin, Jennifer B Murray, Richard Tustin, Laura A Schankel, Andrew Wiznia, Sharon Nachman, Steven D Douglas
We investigated the effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on immune recovery, particularly on the percentages of PD-1-positive cells within the major leukocyte subsets. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma samples collected longitudinally from a subset of 13 children and adolescents (between 9.7 and 18.2 years old) who were enrolled in the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1066 were used for this study. Immunophenotyping by flow cytometry was performed to determine the effect of raltegravir-containing cART regimen on the distribution of leukocyte populations, on the expression of PD-1 on T cell subpopulations, and on the expression of well-established markers of T cell activation (CD38 and HLA-DR) on CD8 T cells...
October 18, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607424/hiv-protease-inhibitors-apoptotic-effect-in-sh-sy5y-neuronal-cell-line
#12
Paola Maura Tricarico, Rafael Freitas de Oliveira Franca, Sabrina Pacor, Valentina Ceglia, Sergio Crovella, Fulvio Celsi
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic treatment regimens to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission include protease inhibitors Lopinavir and Ritonavir. Lopinavir and Ritonavir have been reported to be able to induce intracellular oxidative stress in diverse cellular models, however scarce informations are available about protease inhibitor effects of in the central nervous system (CNS). In our study we evaluated the impact of protease inhibitors on a cell neuronal model. METHODS: We treated a neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) with increasing doses of Lopinavir and Ritonavir (0...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598327/when-the-clinic-becomes-a-home-successful-vct-and-art-services-in-a-stressful-environment
#13
Jonathan Mensah Dapaah, Rachel Spronk
With the upscaling of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor countries, many HIV-positive persons in Ghana have been accessing treatment in hospitals. Prevalence is relatively low compared to other African countries, 1.30%. HIV/AIDS remains heavily stigmatised in Ghana, which influences the provision and use of ART. This article investigates how HIV-positive persons accessing care and treatment go about their everyday lives in the ART clinic and how they have eventually come to see the clinic as a safe place that they call 'home'...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569657/extent-of-disclosure-what-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-have-been-told-about-their-own-hiv-status
#14
Pamela M Murnane, Stacy-Lee Sigamoney, Francoise Pinillos, Stephanie Shiau, Renate Strehlau, Faeezah Patel, Afaaf Liberty, Elaine J Abrams, Stephen Arpadi, Ashraf Coovadia, Avy Violari, Louise Kuhn
How and when to disclose a positive HIV diagnosis to an infected child is a complex challenge for caregivers and healthcare workers. With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, pediatric HIV infection has transitioned from a fatal disease to a lifelong chronic illness, thus increasing the need to address the disclosure process. As HIV-infected children mature, begin to take part in management of their own health care, and potentially initiate HIV-risk behaviors, understanding the nature of their infection becomes essential...
August 29, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560150/hiv-infected-children-have-lower-frequencies-of-cd8-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-mait-cells-that-correlate-with-innate-th17-and-th22-cell-subsets
#15
Alka Khaitan, Max Kilberg, Adam Kravietz, Tiina Ilmet, Cihan Tastan, Mussa Mwamzuka, Fatma Marshed, Mengling Liu, Aabid Ahmed, William Borkowsky, Derya Unutmaz
Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are innate T cells restricted by major histocompatibility related molecule 1 (MR1) presenting riboflavin metabolite ligands derived from microbes. Specificity to riboflavin metabolites confers MAIT cells a broad array of host-protective activity against gram-negative and -positive bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungal pathogens. MAIT cells are present at low levels in the peripheral blood of neonates and gradually expand to relatively abundant levels during childhood...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538904/early-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children-is-associated-with-diffuse-white-matter-structural-abnormality-and-corpus-callosum-sparing
#16
C Ackermann, S Andronikou, M G Saleh, B Laughton, A A Alhamud, A van der Kouwe, M Kidd, M F Cotton, E M Meintjes
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fractional anisotropy in the frontal white matter, corpus callosum, and internal capsule is abnormal in human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) adults. We describe the distribution and nature of white matter abnormalities in a cohort of children who started antiretroviral therapy within the first year of life and the benefit of early treatment by using DTI measures (fractional anisotropy and mean, axial, and radial diffusion). MATERIALS AND METHODS: DTI was performed on children in a neurodevelopmental substudy from the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral trial...
August 18, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535755/stigma-facility-constraints-and-personal-disbelief-why-women-disengage-from-hiv-care-during-and-after-pregnancy-in-morogoro-region-tanzania
#17
Shannon A McMahon, Caitlin E Kennedy, Peter J Winch, Miriam Kombe, Japhet Killewo, Charles Kilewo
Millions of children are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, and the primary mode of these childhood infections is mother-to-child transmission. While existing interventions can virtually eliminate such transmission, in low- and middle-income settings, only 63 % of pregnant women living with HIV accessed medicines necessary to prevent transmission. In Tanzania, HIV prevalence among pregnant women is 3.2 %. Understanding why HIV-positive women disengage from care during and after pregnancy can inform efforts to reduce the impact of HIV on mothers and young children...
August 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504328/fertility-desires-and-intentions-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-plwha-in-southern-india
#18
Hyma Jose, Deepak Madi, Nithyananda Chowta, John Ramapuram, Unnikrishnan Bhaskaran, Basavaprabhu Achappa, Vishnu Chandran
INTRODUCTION: The desire of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to have children can have significant public health implications. Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) has increased the life expectancy of PLWHA as a result of which they may consider child bearing. There are hardly any studies from India addressing the fertility desires among PLWHA. AIM: This study was done to assess the fertility desires of PLWHA in Southern India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study conducted among 230 HIV-positive men and women who presented to Kasturba Medical College (KMC), Mangalore, India...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495148/improving-childhood-nutrition-and-wellness-in-south-africa-involving-mothers-caregivers-of-malnourished-or-hiv-positive-children-and-health-care-workers-as-co-designers-to-enhance-a-local-quality-improvement-intervention
#19
Claire van Deventer, Glenn Robert, Anne Wright
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of children admitted to a hospital in a South African sub-district in 2010 were severely malnourished and - when concurrently HIV positive - were not correctly initiated on antiretroviral therapy. Audit data over a subsequent four year period revealed that 60 % of malnourished children admitted to the hospital were HIV positive. To supplement an ongoing local quality improvement (QI) intervention addressing poor nutritional outcomes in children in this setting, Experience-based Co-design (EBCD) was used to enhance previously low levels of mother, carer and staff engagement...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471126/adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-of-brazilian-hiv-infected-children-and-their-caregivers
#20
Gabriela Ricci, Eduardo Martins Netto, Estela Luz, Cynthia Rodamilans, Carlos Brites
BACKGROUND: Successful treatment of HIV-positive children requires a high level of adherence (at least 95%) to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Adherence is influenced by factors related to the child and caregivers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate children and caregivers characteristics associated to children's adherence. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, from September 2013 to June 2015, comprising a sample of caregivers of perinatally HIV-infected children, in the age group of 1-12 years, under antiretroviral therapy for at least 6 months and on follow-up in two AIDS reference centers in Salvador, Bahia...
September 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
keyword
keyword
68957
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"