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Antiretrovirals in hiv positives childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523628/burkitt-lymphoma-as-a-lead-point-for-jejunojejunal-intussusception-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patient
#1
Prabin Sharma, Shivashanker Balasingham, Kristin Stawiarski, Mahboubeh Rahmani, Antonio Costantino, Pranav Sharma, Mina Xu, Amir Masoud
Intussusception is commonly seen in children but is rare in adults and represents only 5% of all intussusceptions causing 1% of intestinal obstructions. More than 50% of these intussusceptions in adults are due to intestinal neoplasms, including malignant lymphoma, e.g., Burkitt lymphoma. These lymphomas are more common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients than in the general population. We present a case of a young male who was diagnosed with HIV when he developed intestinal obstruction and intussusception secondary to Burkitt lymphoma...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513417/carriage-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-hiv-infected-children-in-zimbabwe
#2
S M S Wilmore, K Kranzer, A Williams, B Makamure, A F Nhidza, J Mayini, T Bandason, J Metcalfe, M P Nicol, I Balakrishnan, M J Ellington, N Woodford, S Hopkins, T D McHugh, R A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging global health issue. Data on the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant organisms are scarce for Africa, especially in HIV-infected individuals who often have frequent contact with healthcare. We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage in stool among HIV-infected children attending an HIV outpatient department in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: We recruited children who were stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) attending a HIV clinic from August 2014 to June 2015...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486060/aerobic-fitness-and-moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-in-children-and-adolescents-living-with-hiv
#3
Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Kelly Samara da Silva, Andreia Pelegrini, Isabela de Carlos Back, Edio Luiz Petroski
AIMS: To examine aerobic fitness, total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and also patterns in terms of MVPA between children and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and controls, and to determine whether differences, if any, are associated with HIV, sex and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out with 130 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 15 years, divided into two groups (HIV group= 65 patients, control group= 65 healthy participants)...
May 9, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473182/quality-of-life-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-rural-india
#4
Adeline M Nyamathi, Maria Ekstrand, Kartik Yadav, Padma Ramakrishna, Elsa Heylen, Catherine Carpenter, Sarah Wall, Tanya Oleskowicz, Lenore Arab, Sanjeev Sinha
A cross-sectional examination was conducted on quality of life (QOL) among women living with HIV (WLWH) in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Baseline data were collected from 400 WLWH and their children. QOL was measured with 10 items from the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. Findings revealed low QOL scores; on a scale from 0 to 3, the mean QOL score was 0.38 (SD = 0.30). Depression symptoms were reported by 25.5%, internalized stigma was high, and most reported little to no social support...
March 24, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468608/factors-associated-with-virological-non-suppression-among-hiv-positive-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-uganda-august-2014-july-2015
#5
Lilian Bulage, Isaac Ssewanyana, Victoria Nankabirwa, Fred Nsubuga, Christine Kihembo, Gerald Pande, Alex R Ario, Joseph Kb Matovu, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Charles Kiyaga
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is limited information about virological non-suppression and its determinants among HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals enrolled in HIV care in many resource-limited settings. We estimated the proportion of virologically non-suppressed patients, and identified the factors associated with virological non-suppression. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study using routinely collected program data from viral load (VL) samples collected across the country for testing at the Central Public Health Laboratories (CPHL) in Uganda...
May 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410374/factors-influencing-postnatal-option-b-participation-and-breastfeeding-duration-among-hiv-positive-women-in-lilongwe-district-malawi-a-qualitative-study
#6
Valerie L Flax, Gloria Hamela, Innocent Mofolo, Mina C Hosseinipour, Irving F Hoffman, Suzanne Maman
To ensure the health of mothers and children, prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs test women for HIV, engage HIV-positive women in care, and promote recommended breastfeeding practices. Under Malawi's Option B+ PMTCT program, ~20% of women are lost-to-follow-up (LTFU) and little is known about their breastfeeding practices. The purpose of this study is to describe facilitators and barriers to Option B+ participation and how participation influences breastfeeding duration. We conducted in-depth interviews with HIV-positive women in Option B+ (n = 32) or LTFU from Option B+ (n = 32)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398955/does-art-change-partnership-dynamics-and-hiv-risk-behaviours-among-plwh-a-cohort-study-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#7
Nuala McGrath, Erofili Grapsa
OBJECTIVE: We explore the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on partnership acquisition and dissolution rates and changes in sexual behaviours among HIV-infected adults. DESIGN: Using detailed longitudinal data from a prospective cohort of HIV-infected adults with CD4<200 cell/ml (ART-eligible) or CD4>500 cell/ml (pre-ART) conducted in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2009-2012. METHODS: Partnership acquisition and dissolution are explored through survival analysis methods, while generalized linear models were fitted for the sexual behaviour outcomes with interaction terms to allow the association with ART to vary over time...
April 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397527/it-helps-me-live-sends-my-children-to-school-and-feeds-me-a-qualitative-study-of-how-food-and-cash-incentives-may-improve-adherence-to-treatment-and-care-among-adults-living-with-hiv-in-tanzania
#8
Nancy L Czaicki, Agatha Mnyippembe, Madeline Blodgett, Prosper Njau, Sandra I McCoy
Financial and in-kind incentives have been shown to improve outcomes along the HIV care cascade, however the potential mechanismsthrough which they work remain unclear. To identify the pathways through which incentives improve retention in care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), we conducted a qualitative study with participants in a trial evaluating conditional food and cash incentives for HIV-positive food insecure adults in Shinyanga, Tanzania. We found that the incentives acted through three pathways to potentially increase retention in care and adherence to ART: (1) addressing competing needs and offsetting opportunity costs associated with clinic attendance, (2) alleviating stress associated with attending clinic and meeting basic needs, and (3) by potentially increasing motivation...
April 11, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359213/caring-for-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-call-for-mental-care-for-the-children-and-the-caregivers
#9
Kimiyo Kikuchi, Krishna C Poudel, John Muganda Rwibasira, Adolphe Majyambere, Vincent Mutabazi, Simon Pierre Nyonsenga, Ribakare Muhayimpundu, Masamine Jimba
Antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved the survival rate of perinatally HIV-infected children. For them to thrive, it is necessary to understand better their mental health issues. Caregivers play an important role in children's daily care and caregiver mental health may relate to children's mental health. However, this association has rarely been studied. Accordingly, the present study examined the associations between depression of caregivers and that of perinatally HIV-infected children in Kigali, Rwanda...
March 30, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358624/understanding-antiretroviral-treatment-adherence-among-hiv-positive-women-at-four-postpartum-time-intervals-qualitative-results-from-the-kabeho-study-in-rwanda
#10
Michelle M Gill, Aline Umutoni, Heather J Hoffman, Dieudonne Ndatimana, Gilles F Ndayisaba, Solange Kibitenga, Placidie Mugwaneza, Anita Asiimwe, Emily A Bobrow
As lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant women is implemented, it is important to understand the attitudes and norms affecting women's postpartum ART adherence. This is a qualitative cross-sectional study of HIV-positive postpartum women (n = 112) enrolled in a 2-year observational prospective cohort in Rwanda. Informed by the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), we conducted in-depth interviews with women whose children were 0-6, 7-12, 13-18, or 21-24 months of age to describe factors contributing to adherence and changes over time...
April 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343351/health-related-quality-of-life-hrqol-and-its-correlates-among-community-recruited-children-living-with-hiv-and-uninfected-children-born-to-hiv-infected-parents-in-west-bengal-india
#11
Aritra Das, Roger Detels, Abdelmonem A Afifi, Marjan Javanbakht, Frank J Sorvillo, Samiran Panda
PURPOSE: Helping children living with HIV (CLH) to attain an optimum quality of life is an important goal for HIV programs around the world. Our principal objectives were to determine the association of HIV infection with different domains of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among 8- to 15-year-old CLH in India and to compare the HRQoL parameters between CLH and HIV-negative children born to HIV-infected parents ("HIV-affected"). We also assessed whether antiretroviral therapy (ART) and CD4 lymphocyte counts were associated with HRQoL among CLH...
March 25, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324675/arterial-stiffness-in-hiv-infected-youth-and-associations-with-hiv-related-variables
#12
Allison Ross Eckard, Paolo Raggi, Joshua H Ruff, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julia C Rosebush, Danielle Labbato, Julie E Daniels, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Christopher T Longenecker, Grace A McComsey
Children and young adults infected with HIV are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, scarce data exist on the utility of non-invasive methods to diagnose subclinical CVD, such as pulse wave velocity (PWV), a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship of carotid-femoral PWV with subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), compare measurements to healthy controls, and evaluate variables associated with PWV in HIV-infected youth...
March 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296240/hiv-positive-malawian-women-with-young-children-prefer-overweight-body-sizes-and-link-underweight-body-size-with-inability-to-exclusively-breastfeed
#13
Samantha E Croffut, Gloria Hamela, Innocent Mofolo, Suzanne Maman, Mina C Hosseinipour, Irving F Hoffman, Margaret E Bentley, Valerie L Flax
Before the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program was widely implemented in Malawi, HIV-positive women associated exclusive breastfeeding with accelerated disease progression and felt that an HIV-positive woman could more successfully breastfeed if she had a larger body size. The relationship between breastfeeding practices and body image perceptions has not been explored in the context of the Option B+ PMTCT program, which offers lifelong antiretroviral therapy. We conducted in-depth interviews with 64 HIV-positive women in Lilongwe District, Malawi to investigate body size perceptions, how perceptions of HIV and body size influence infant feeding practices, and differences in perceptions among women in PMTCT and those lost to follow-up...
March 10, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286972/-they-said-be-careful-sexual-health-communication-sources-and-messages-for-adolescent-girls-living-with-perintally-acquired-hiv-infection
#14
Stephanie L Marhefka, Shana M Green, Vinita Sharma, Claude A Mellins
Due to advances in highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), children "who perinatally acquired HIV infection" (PHIV+) in the United States have been reaching adolescence and adulthood in large numbers. As youth PHIV + become sexually active it is important to understand their sources of sexual health information and the messages communicated by those sources to safeguard their sexual health and that of their partners. This paper explores sexual health communication for adolescent girls PHIV + in comparison to adolescent girls who were exposed but did not acquire HIV perinatally (PHIV-) to understand how HIV infection influences the sexual health communication needs of the former...
March 12, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213595/qualitative-study-of-the-breather-trial-short-cycle-antiretroviral-therapy-is-it-acceptable-to-young-people-living-with-hiv
#15
Sarah Bernays, Sara Paparini, Janet Seeley, Stella Namukwaya Kihika, Diana Gibb, Tim Rhodes
OBJECTIVES: A qualitative study of the BREATHER (PENTA 16) randomised clinical trial, which compared virological control of Short Cycle Therapy (SCT) (5 days on: 2 days off) with continuous efavirenz (EFV)-based antiretroviral therapy (CT) in children and young people (aged 8-24) living with HIV with viral load <50 c/mL to examine adaptation, acceptability and experience of SCT to inform intervention development. SETTING: Paediatric HIV clinics in the UK (2), Ireland (1), the USA (1) and Uganda (1)...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212643/vertical-hiv-transmission-in-perinatally-exposed-infants-in-south-rift-region-of-kenya-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#16
Everline Ashiono, Dunstan Achwoka, Jamlick Mutugi, Joel Rakwar, Andrew Wafula, Otto Nzapfurundi Chabikuli
BACKGROUND: Despite proven efficacy of the prevention mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategy, its adoption in Africa has remained slow. In Kenya, its effectiveness remain unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission program in Kenya. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study analyzed 2,642 records of HIV-exposed infants who had a deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase chain reaction test done...
February 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212307/antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-1-positive-mothers-neurological-implications-in-virus-free-children
#17
REVIEW
Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Paola Maura Tricarico, Fulvio Celsi, Sergio Crovella
Since the worldwide introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1-positive mothers, together with HIV-1 testing prior to pregnancy, caesarian birth and breastfeeding cessation with replacement feeding, a reduction of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has been observed in the last few years. As such, an increasing number of children are being exposed in utero to ART. Several questions have arisen concerning the neurological effects of ART exposure in utero, considering the potential effect of antiretroviral drugs on the central nervous system, a structure which is in continuous development in the fetus and characterized by great plasticity...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209492/reproductive-considerations-in-the-setting-of%C3%A2-chronic-viral-illness
#18
REVIEW
Brent M Hanson, Jessie A Dorais
Special considerations must be taken when patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B, or hepatitis C desire to become pregnant. Patients with chronic viral illnesses desire to have children at rates similar to the general population, and options are available to decrease both vertical transmission and viral transmission between partners. Preconception counseling or consultation with fertility specialists is imperative in patients with HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C so that reproductive goals can be addressed and optimized...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169874/impact-of-hiv-and-atiretroviral-therapy-on-neurocognitive-outcomes-among-school-aged-children
#19
Heena Brahmbhatt, Michael Boivin, Victor Ssempijja, Joseph Kagaayi, Godfrey Kigozi, David Serwadda, Avy Violari, Ronald H Gray
INTRODUCTION: The impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on neurocognitive outcomes among children aged 7-14 years was assessed. We hypothesized that ART would ameliorate neurocognitive sequelae of HIV infection. METHODS: HIV-positive and HIV-negative mother-child pairs from the Rakai Community Cohort Study and ART clinics in Rakai, Uganda, were followed prospectively for 4 years. Exposures were stratified as: perinatally HIV infected, perinatally HIV exposed but uninfected, and HIV unexposed and uninfected...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151893/reproductive-history-before-and-after-hiv-diagnosis-a-cross-sectional-study-in-hiv-positive-women-in-spain
#20
Victoria Hernando, Belen Alejos, Marta Montero, MJesús Pérez-Elias, José Ramón Blanco, Livia Giner, Juan Luis Gómez-Sirvent, Jose Antonio Iribarren, Enrique Bernal, Francisco Bolumar
The aim of this study is to examine the reproductive history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women, before and after HIV diagnosis, to describe the characteristics of women with pregnancies after HIV diagnosis, and to assess the prevalence of mother-to-child transmission.A cross-sectional study was performed among women within reproductive ages (18-49) selected from the cohort in the Spanish AIDS Research Network (CoRIS). A descriptive analysis of the pregnancy outcomes was made according to women's serostatus at the moment of pregnancy and association of women's characteristics with having pregnancy after HIV diagnosis was evaluated using logistic regression models...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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