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Antiretrovirals in hiv positives childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227424/effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-growth-parameters-of-children-with-hiv-infection
#1
Anju Seth, Rajeev Kumar Malhotra, Rohini Gupta, Jagdish Chandra, Praveen Kumar, Sarita Singh, Garima Sharma
BACKGROUND: Children living with HIV (CLHIV) commonly experience growth failure. We report growth parameters in CLHIV at baseline and during 3 years of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Records of CLHIV who had completed at least 3 years on ART were reviewed after excluding subjects who died, were lost to follow-up or developed treatment failure to assess impact of sustained administration of ART. Height-for-age (HFA) and body mass index for age (BFA) Z scores were calculated, and proportion of CLHIV with wasting and stunting estimated at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after starting ART using the linear mixed model...
January 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220598/hope-for-the-future-but-fear-the-risk-of-stigma-ethiopian-family-caregivers-lived-experience-of-caring-for-their-hiv-positive-child-two-years-after-starting-antiretroviral-treatment
#2
Mulatu Biru, Pia Lunqvist, Mitikie Molla, Degu Jerene, Inger Hallström
Family caregivers are believed to be the primary source of support for HIV-affected children. There is limited evidence about practices of support for caregivers, to strengthen them and to enhance the welfare of HIV positive children, especially in African settings. Our aim was therefore to illuminate caregivers' lived experiences of caring for a child in Ethiopia 2 years after the child was enrolled in antiretroviral therapy. Qualitative interviews with 18 family caregivers of 18 children were performed and analyzed using an inductive design with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach...
December 8, 2017: Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209538/disclosure-of-parental-hiv-status-to-children-experiences-of-adults-receiving-antiretroviral-treatment-at-an-urban-clinic-in-kampala-uganda
#3
Charles Peter Osingada, Monica Okuga, Rose Chalo Nabirye, Nelson Kaulukusi Sewankambo, Damalie Nakanjako
Limited data are available on the experiences of parental HIV disclosure to children in Uganda. We conducted a qualitative study comprising sixteen in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with parents receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Analysis was done using Atlas.ti qualitative research software. Back-and-forth triangulation was done between transcripts of the in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, and themes and subthemes were developed. Barriers to parents' disclosure included perceptions that children are too young to understand what HIV infection means and fears of secondary disclosure by the children...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201656/age-stratified-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-zimbabwe-are-we-paying-attention-to-the-most-vulnerable
#4
R T Ncube, K C Takarinda, C Zishiri, W van den Boogaard, N Mlilo, C Chiteve, N Siziba, F Trinchán, C Sandy
Setting: A high tuberculosis (TB) incidence, resource-limited urban setting in Zimbabwe. Objectives: To compare treatment outcomes among people initiated on first-line anti-tuberculosis treatment in relation to age and other explanatory factors. Design: This was a retrospective record review of routine programme data. Results: Of 2209 patients included in the study, 133 (6%) were children (aged <10 years), 132 (6%) adolescents (10-19 years), 1782 (81%) adults (20-59 years) and 162 (7%) were aged ⩾60 years, defined as elderly...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141709/rapid-diagnostic-testing-of-hospitalized-malawian-children-reveals-opportunities-for-improved-hiv-diagnosis-and-treatment
#5
Theresa F Madaline, Sarah E Hochman, Karl B Seydel, Alice Liomba, Alex Saidi, Grace Matebule, Wenzhu B Mowrey, Bernadette O'Hare, Danny A Milner, Kami Kim
Recent World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-infected people; previously CD4+ T lymphocyte quantification (CD4 count) or clinical staging determined eligibility for children ≥ 5 years old in low- and middle-income countries. We examined positive predictive value (PPV) of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) algorithm and ART eligibility for hospitalized children with newly diagnosed HIV infection. We enrolled 363 hospitalized Malawian children age 2 months to 16 years with two serial positive HIV RDT from 2013 to 2015...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140946/comparison-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-assay-with-tuberculin-skin-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-children
#6
Walter Dehority, Rolando M Viani, Maria Rosario G Araneta, Graciano Lopez, Stephen A Spector
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is facilitated by tuberculin skin testing (TST) or interferon-gamma release assays such as the QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube (QTF-GIT) assays. Limited data exist on the utility of interferon-gamma release assays in HIV-infected children, which may be falsely negative due to immunosuppression. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comparing TST to QTF-GIT for the diagnosis of suspected LTBI was performed in children in Tijuana, Mexico, and in San Diego, California...
December 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132287/a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-barriers-to-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-among-children-2-to-18-months-of-age-in-swaziland
#7
Charisse V Ahmed, Pauline Jolly, Luz Padilla, Musa Malinga, Chantal Harris, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Inessa Ba, Amy Styles, Sarah Perry, Raina Brooks, Florence Naluyinda-Kitabire, Makhosini Mamba, Peter Preko
HIV/AIDS remains one of the leading causes of death among children under 5 years old in Swaziland. Although studies have shown that early initiation of infants and children diagnosed with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) significantly reduces mortality, many children do not initiate ART until the later stages of disease. This study was designed to collect qualitative data from mothers and caregivers of HIV-positive children to identify the barriers to ART initiation. Focus group discussion (FGD) sessions were conducted in siSwati between July and September 2014 among caregivers of aged children 2-18 months in Swaziland who did or did not initiate ART between January 2011 and December 2012 after HIV DNA PCR-positive diagnosis of the infants...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132283/predictors-of-survival-among-hiv-positive-children-on-art-in-swaziland
#8
Patrick Shabangu, Andy Beke, Samuel Manda, Nobuhle Mthethwa
The objective of the study was to determine predictors of survival among HIV-positive children (<15 years) in Swaziland. A retrospective cohort analysis of medical records for 4 167 children living with HIV who were initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2004 and 2008, and followed up until 2014 was conducted in clinical settings at 36 health facilities. The Kaplan Meier Estimator, signed-ranks test, and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were applied to determine survival probabilities, significant difference among stratified survival functions and adjusted hazard ratios respectively...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110721/prevalence-of-markers-of-hiv-infection-among-febrile-adults-and-children-in-bo-sierra-leone-2012-2013
#9
Rashid Ansumana, Donald F Dariano, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Tomasz A Leski, Chris R Taitt, Joseph M Lamin, Joseph Lahai, Umaru Bangura, Alfred S Bockarie, Chadwick Yasuda, Moses J Bockarie, David A Stenger
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence of HIV among febrile patients seeking care in Mercy Hospital, Bo, Sierra Leone, in 2012-2013. RESULTS: A total of 1207 febrile persons were tested for HIV with Determine™ and SD Bioline rapid diagnostic tests kits that detect the presence of HIV antibodies and HIV p24 antigens. The overall prevalence of HIV among the tested patients was 8.9%, which is considerably higher than the < 2% prevalence of HIV reported previously in the general population...
November 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104904/the-effect-of-community-based-support-for-caregivers-on-the-risk-of-virological-failure-in-children-and-adolescents-with-hiv-in-harare-zimbabwe-zenith-an-open-label-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Rashida A Ferrand, Victoria Simms, Ethel Dauya, Tsitsi Bandason, Grace Mchugh, Hilda Mujuru, Prosper Chonzi, Joanna Busza, Katharina Kranzer, Shungu Munyati, Helen A Weiss, Richard J Hayes
Background: Children and adolescents have poorer HIV treatment outcomes than adults. We aimed to assess the effect of community-based support for caregivers of HIV-infected children and adolescents, who are key mediators to children engaging with care, on treatment outcomes. Methods: In this open-label, randomised contolled trial, we recruited children aged 6-15 years with newly-diagnosed HIV attending primary health-care clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe. Children were randomly assigned to receive decentralised primary health-care clinic-based HIV care (control group), according to national guidelines for 18 months, or decentralised care plus structured support visits by trained community health workers (intervention group) according to national guidelines for 18 months...
November 2017: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073951/cardiac-effects-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-the-chaart-2-study
#11
MULTICENTER STUDY
Steven E Lipshultz, James D Wilkinson, Bruce Thompson, Irene Cheng, David A Briston, William T Shearer, E John Orav, Joslyn A Westphal, Tracie L Miller, Steven D Colan
BACKGROUND: Before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), cardiac mortality and morbidity were common in HIV-infected children. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify long-term cardiovascular effects of HAART in HIV-infected children. METHODS: The CHAART-2 (HAART-Associated Cardiotoxicity in HIV-Infected Children) study prospectively compared 148 echocardiograms from 74 HAART-exposed children to 860 echocardiograms from 140 HAART-unexposed but HIV-infected children from the Pulmonary and Cardiac Complications of Vertically Transmitted HIV Infection (P(2)C(2) HIV) study...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065172/concomitant-nevirapine-impacts-pharmacokinetic-exposure-to-the-antimalarial-artemether-lumefantrine-in-african-children
#12
Liusheng Huang, Vincent Carey, Jane C Lindsey, Florence Marzan, David Gingrich, Bobbie Graham, Linda Barlow-Mosha, Phionah K Ssemambo, Portia Kamthunzi, Sharon Nachman, Sunil Parikh, Francesca T Aweeka
BACKGROUND: The antiretroviral drug nevirapine and the antimalarial artemisinin-based combination therapy artemether-lumefantrine are commonly co-administered to treat malaria in the context of HIV. Nevirapine is a known inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4, which metabolizes artemether and lumefantrine. To address the concern that the antiretroviral nevirapine impacts the antimalarial artemether-lumefantrine pharmacokinetics, a prospective non-randomized controlled study in children presenting with uncomplicated malaria and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa was carried out...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064357/retention-throughout-the-hiv-care-and-treatment-cascade-from-diagnosis-to-antiretroviral-treatment-of-adults-and-children-living-with-hiv-haiti-1985-2015
#13
Andrew F Auld, Valerie Pelletier, Ermane G Robin, Ray W Shiraishi, Jacob Dee, Mayer Antoine, Yrvel Desir, Gracia Desforges, Chris Delcher, Nirva Duval, Nadjy Joseph, Kesner Francois, Mark Griswold, Jean Wysler Domercant, Yves Anthony Patrice Joseph, Joelle Deas Van Onacker, Varough Deyde, David W Lowrance, And The Groupe d'Analyses Salvh
Monitoring retention of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the HIV care and treatment cascade is essential to guide program strategy and evaluate progress toward globally-endorsed 90-90-90 targets (i.e., 90% of PLHIV diagnosed, 81% on sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 73% virally suppressed). We describe national retention from diagnosis throughout the cascade for patients receiving HIV services in Haiti during 1985-2015, with a focus on those receiving HIV services during 2008-2015. Among the 266,256 newly diagnosed PLHIV during 1985-2015, 49% were linked-to-care, 30% started ART, and 18% were retained on ART by the time of database closure...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057084/changes-in-the-haematological-parameters-of-hiv-1-infected-children-at-6-and-12-months-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-large-clinic-cohort-north-central-nigeria
#14
EDITORIAL
Augustine O Ebonyi, Stephen Oguche, Martha O Ochoga, Oche O Agbaji, Joseph A Anejo-Okopi, Isaac O Abah, Prosper I Okonkwo, John A Idoko
BACKGROUND: Prior to commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART), haematological abnormalities are a common occurrence in individuals diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In the course of receiving ART, these abnormalities usually improve. We determined the prevalence of haematological abnormalities in children diagnosed with HIV-1 and the changes in haematological parameters that occur after 6 and 12 months of being on ART. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of HIV-1 infected children aged 2 months to 15 years, between July 2005 and March 2013, at the paediatric HIV clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022533/distribution-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-namibia
#15
P Mhata, T W Rennie, L F Small, P M Nyarang'o, Z Chagla, C J Hunter
BACKGROUND: Namibia regards hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as a public health problem and introduced hepatitis B vaccinations for infants during 2009. However, information on HBV infection in the country remains limited, and effective public health interventions may be compromised in the absence of adequate evidence-based data. Available data from the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that 15 - 60% of the normal population in many African countries may be positive for one or more of the HBV serological markers...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991913/diagnosis-disclosure-to-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-rural-kenya-improves-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-and-immunologic-outcomes-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Gregg Joseph Montalto, Fredrick K Sawe, Argwings Miruka, Jonah Maswai, Ignatius Kiptoo, Appolonia Aoko, Chrispine Oreyo, Eunice Obiero, Sheila Korir, Stephen K Bii, Katherine X Song, Anjali N Kunz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Emphasis on adolescent HIV has increased worldwide as antiretroviral treatment has greatly extended life expectancies of HIV-positive children. Few evidence-based guidelines exist on the optimal time to disclose to an adolescent living with HIV (ALHIV); little is known about the medical effects of disclosure. This study looked to determine whether disclosure is associated with improved medical outcomes in ALHIV. Prior work has tended to be qualitative, cross-sectional, and with an emphasis on psychosocial outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988435/triple-therapy-of-vincristine-bleomycin-and-etoposide-for-children-with-kaposi-sarcoma-results-of-a-study-in-malawian-children
#17
Marita Macken, Helen Dale, Dominic Moyo, Eunice Chakmata, Sarita Depani, Trijn Israels, Dalida Niyrenda, Simon Bailey, George Chagaluka, Elizabeth M Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common paediatric cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemic countries of sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little research on management and outcomes. METHODS: Children with KS at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi treated between August 2012 and March 2015 with six courses of vincristine, bleomycin and etoposide combination chemotherapy, including antiretroviral therapy (ART) if HIV infected, were studied and outcomes compared with previously reported results...
October 8, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982364/utilization-of-dual-contraception-method-among-reproductive-age-women-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-selected-public-hospitals-of-northern-ethiopia
#18
Solomon Weldemariam Gebrehiwot, Gedion Asnake Azeze, Carmen C Robles, Yohannes Mehretie Adinew
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections are highly prevalent among pregnant women in Africa. Among the incidence of HIV infection in children, 90% of the infection is attributable to their mothers. Ethiopia is one of the countries with an increasing risky sexual behavior and the most affected by the HIV epidemic. If prevention of mother to child transmission focuses on increasing contraception, it will prevent more than 29% of HIV infection at birth. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess utilization of dual contraceptive  method and associated factors among reproductive age women on antiretroviral therapy in selected public hospitals of Mekelle town, Northern Ethiopia...
October 5, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964291/hiv-status-and-hearing-loss-among-children-between-6-and-12-years-of-age-at-a-large-urban-health-facility-in-south-western-uganda
#19
Doreen Nakku, Victoria Nyaiteera, Evelyn Llowet, Dennis Nanseera, Gladys Nakalema, Brian Westerberg, Francis Bajunirwe
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric HIV infection and treatment may increase the risk for hearing loss (HL), both sensorineural (SNHL) and conductive hearing loss (CHL). There is limited data on this subject, especially from sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the prevalence of hearing loss among HIV positive and negative children, to determine the types of hearing loss and whether Nevirapine (NVP) based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with HL. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study at two tertiary health facilities in south western Uganda...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951598/prevalence-and-predictors-of-liver-disease-in-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents
#20
Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak, Aleksandra Stańska-Perka, Jolanta Popielska, Agnieszka Ołdakowska, Urszula Coupland, Konrad Zawadka, Małgorzata Szczepańska-Putz, Magdalena Marczyńska
Liver disease in HIV-infected patients may result from the infection itself, antiretroviral treatment or comorbidities. In this study, we analysed liver disease in 79 HIV-infected children and adolescents aged 14.0 ± 5.1 years. All the patients were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), with a mean duration of 11.5 ± 4.7 years. Six patients (8%) had detectable HIV viral load, and 8/79 (10%) of the participants were coinfected with hepatitis B or C virus (HCV, 6/8 or HBV, 2/8). Liver disease was defined as an elevation of any of the following parameters: alanine or aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST), total bilirubin, and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGTP)...
September 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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