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Antiretrovirals in hiv positives childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912896/comparative-safety-and-effectiveness-of-perinatal-antiretroviral-therapies-for-hiv-infected-women-and-their-children-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-including-different-study-designs
#1
Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Jesmin Antony, Sharon E Straus, Huda M Ashoor, Yaron Finkelstein, Paul A Khan, Marco Ghassemi, Erik Blondal, John D Ivory, Brian Hutton, Kevin Gough, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Erin Lillie, Afshin Vafaei, Andrea C Tricco
BACKGROUND: Nearly all newly infected children acquire Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) during pregnancy, labour or breastfeeding from untreated HIV-positive mothers. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the standard care for pregnant women with HIV. However, evidence of ART effectiveness and harms in infants and children of HIV-positive pregnant women exposed to ART has been largely inconclusive. The aim of our systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) was to evaluate the comparative safety and effectiveness of ART drugs in children exposed to maternal HIV and ART (or no ART/placebo) across different study designs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908018/adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-male-intravenous-drug-users-in-pakistan
#2
Bakht Ali, Nighat Nisar, Faryal Nawab
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is fifth leading cause of mortality and disability among infectious diseases worldwide. HIV burden is increasing annually and compliance with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is low among intravenous drug users, especially in developing countries. Aim: To determine the adherence level to ART among HIV-positive intravenous drug users in Karachi Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897961/factors-associated-with-desired-fertility-among-hiv-positive-women-and-men-attending-two-urban-clinics-in-lilongwe-malawi
#3
Jamie W Krashin, Lisa B Haddad, Hannock Tweya, Jane Chiwoko, Wingston Ng'ambi, Bernadette Samala, Thomas Chaweza, Jennifer H Tang, Mina C Hosseinipour, Sam Phiri
As access to antiretroviral therapy increases, more HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa may desire fertility. We conducted a cross-sectional study of reproductive health knowledge, attitudes and practices to identify factors associated with desired fertility among women and men receiving care at two large public HIV clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. Research assistants administered questionnaires to participants. We performed descriptive, bivariable and multivariable analysis of factors related to desired fertility and of factors related to contraceptive non-use among participants who did not desire fertility...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851501/understanding-predictors-of-early-antenatal-care-initiation-in-relationship-to-timing-of-hiv-diagnosis-in-south-africa
#4
Cornelius Nattey, Nelly Jinga, Constance Mongwenyana, Idah Mokhele, Given Mohomi, Matthew P Fox, Dorina Onoya
Effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission benefits from early presentation to antenatal care (ANC). It is, however, unclear whether a previous HIV diagnosis results in earlier initiation of ANC. We estimated the probability of early ANC initiation among women with a previous HIV-positive diagnosis compared to those who first tested for HIV during ANC and explored determinants of early ANC among HIV-positive women. We conducted an analysis of a cross-sectional survey among 411 HIV-positive adult (>18 years) women who gave birth at midwife obstetrics units in Gauteng between October 2016 and May 2017...
June 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846357/seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-b-among-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-the-treat-asia-pediatric-hiv-observational-database
#5
Linda Aurpibul, Azar Kariminia, Ung Vibol, Moy Siew Fong, Oanh Ngoc Le, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Torsak Bunupuradah, Nia Kurniati, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Dewi Kumara Wati, Nik Khairulddin Nik Yusoff, Kamarul Azahar Mhd Razali, Revathy A Nallusamy, Annette H Sohn, Pagakrong Lumbiganon
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV)-HIV coinfection is associated with liver inflammation, which can progress to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We determined HBV seroprevalence in children and adolescents participating in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database. METHODS: A multi-site cross-sectional study was conducted in HIV-infected patients currently aged <25 years receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) who had HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), and/or HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs), and/or HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) tested during 2012-2013...
January 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796296/prevalence-and-factors-influencing-modern-contraceptive-use-among-hiv-positive-women-in-kilimanjaro-region-northern-tanzania
#6
Damian J Damian, Johnston M George, Erick Martin, Beatrice Temba, Sia E Msuya
Background: Mother-to-Child-Transmission (MTCT) of HIV is still a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The region has a high unmet need for family planning and high unplanned pregnancy rates among HIV-positive women. Most efforts to prevent MTCT of HIV have focused on the third prong, a strategy which offers antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to HIV-infected pregnant women and their exposed infants. However, the effective use of contraceptives to prevent unplanned pregnancies among women living with HIV is more effective in reducing HIV MTCT...
2018: Contraception and Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781680/provision-of-antiretroviral-therapy-for-children-in-nelson-mandela-bay-health-care-professionals-challenges
#7
Margaret Williams, Dalena R M Van Rooyen, Esmeralda J Ricks
BACKGROUND:  The human immunodeficiency virus and/or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic continues to increase in prevalence worldwide, particularly in South Africa, and includes the often overlooked paediatric population. The provision of paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) is as essential for children as for adults, and has numerous obstacles, not least of which is lack of decentralisation of facilities to provide essential treatment. Optimising ART, care and support for HIV-positive children, and their caregivers, at public sector primary health care (PHC) clinics is crucial to improve morbidity and mortality rates in children...
March 12, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759086/comprehensive-nationwide-analysis-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-in-finland-from-1983-to-2013
#8
I Aho, P Kivelä, M Kaijomaa, H-M Surcel, M Ristola, O Heikinheimo, J Sutinen
HIV-positive children are still born in Europe despite low mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates. We aimed to clarify the remaining barriers to the prevention of MTCT. By combining the national registers, we identified all women living with HIV delivering at least one child during 1983-2013. Of the 212 women delivering after HIV diagnosis, 46% were diagnosed during the pregnancy. In multivariate analysis, age >30 years (P = 0.001), sexual transmission (P = 0.012), living outside of the metropolitan area (P = 0...
May 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736073/a-study-of-neuropsychological-profile-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-children-and-adolescents-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Vasantmeghna S Murthy, Ajita S Nayak, Minal K Joshi, Kaneenica Ninawe
Aims: The aim is to study the neuropsychological and functional profile of children and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the association between the neuropsychological status and medical illness variables, treatment variables, and functional status in the cases of the sample and compare with normal controls. Materials and Methods: Forty-two HIV-positive children and adolescents on ART were evaluated and compared with 40 matched controls not known to be HIV-positive...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722482/five-year-neurodevelopment-outcomes-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-on-early-limited-or-deferred-continuous-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Barbara Laughton, Morna Cornell, Martin Kidd, Priscilla Estelle Springer, Els Françoise Marie-Thérèse Dobbels, Anita Janse Van Rensburg, Kennedy Otwombe, Abdel Babiker, Diana M Gibb, Avy Violari, Mariana Kruger, Mark Fredric Cotton
INTRODUCTION: Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-infected (HIV-positive) children; however, little is known about the longer term outcomes in infants commencing early ART or whether temporary ART interruption might have long-term consequences. In the children with HIV early antiretroviral treatment (CHER) trial, HIV-infected infants ≤12 weeks of age with CD4 ≥25% were randomized to deferred ART (ART-Def); immediate time-limited ART for 40 weeks (ART-40W) or 96 weeks (ART-96W)...
May 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718769/effect-of-maternal-hiv-status-on-vaccination-coverage-among-sub-saharan-african-children-a-socio-ecological-analysis
#11
Olatunji O Adetokunboh, Olalekan A Uthman, Charles S Wiysonge
We investigated the relationship between maternal HIV status and uptake of the full series of three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis containing vaccines (DTP3) in sub-Saharan African children. We used data obtained from demographic and health surveys conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted meta-analysis and calculated pooled odds ratios (OR) for the association between maternal HIV status and DTP3 vaccination status for each country. A total of 4,187 out of 5,537 children of women living with HIV received DTP3 (75...
May 2, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717630/knowledge-and-causal-attributions-for-mental-disorders-in-hiv-positive-children-and-adolescents-results-from-rural-and-urban-uganda
#12
W Nalukenge, F Martin, J Seeley, E Kinyanda
Increasing availability of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has led HIV to be considered a chronic disease, shifting attention to focus on quality of life including mental wellbeing. We investigated knowledge and causal attributions for mental disorders in HIV-positive children and adolescents in rural and urban Uganda. This qualitative study was nested in an epidemiological mental health study among HIV-positive children and adolescents aged 5-17 years in rural and urban Uganda. In-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers of HIV-positive children (5-11 years) and adolescents (12-17 years) in HIV care...
May 2, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673395/shorter-treatment-for-minimal-tuberculosis-tb-in-children-shine-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Chishala Chabala, Anna Turkova, Margaret J Thomason, Eric Wobudeya, Syed Hissar, Vidya Mave, Marieke van der Zalm, Megan Palmer, Monica Kapasa, Perumal K Bhavani, Sarath Balaji, Priyanka A Raichur, Anne-Marie Demers, Graeme Hoddinott, Ellen Owen-Powell, Aarti Kinikar, Philippa Musoke, Veronica Mulenga, Rob Aarnoutse, Helen McIlleron, Anneke Hesseling, Angela M Crook, Mark Cotton, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is frequently paucibacillary and non-severe forms of pulmonary TB are common. Evidence for tuberculosis treatment in children is largely extrapolated from adult studies. Trials in adults with smear-negative tuberculosis suggest that treatment can be effectively shortened from 6 to 4 months. New paediatric, fixed-dose combination anti-tuberculosis treatments have recently been introduced in many countries, making the implementation of World Health Organisation (WHO)-revised dosing recommendations feasible...
April 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660296/influence-of-aids-antiretroviral-therapy-on-the-growth-pattern
#14
REVIEW
Ana Paula Brigatto Simões Golucci, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson, Mariana Freitas Fedato Valente, Maira Migliari Branco, Camila Carbone Prado, Roberto José Negrão Nogueira
OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus infection can result in the early impairment of anthropometric indicators in children and adolescents. However, combined antiretroviral therapy has improved, in addition to the immune response and viral infection, the weight and height development in infected individuals. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the effect of combined antiretroviral on the growth development of human immunodeficiency virus infected children and adolescents. SOURCE OF DATA: A systematic review was performed...
April 13, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629663/the-effect-of-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-use-among-hiv-positive-children-on-the-hazard-of-aids-using-calendar-year-as-an-instrumental-variable
#15
Andrew Anglemyer, Amy Sturt, Yvonne Maldonado
BACKGROUND: Instrumental variable (IV) analyses are a common causal inference technique used in the absence of randomized data. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was first introduced in 1996 and calendar periods have been used as a proxy for cART use. However, cART use misclassification can bias IV analyses. OBJECTIVE: We aim to highlight the differences in effects of antiretroviral therapy on clinical outcomes between applications of traditional and adapted IV analysis techniques...
April 9, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625591/neurodevelopmental-assessment-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-early-treated-hiv-infected-children-study-protocol
#16
Renate Strehlau, Tamryn van Aswegen, Joanne Potterton
OBJECTIVE: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of children at risk of not achieving their developmental potential, attributable largely to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic coupled with negative environmental factors. Childhood developmental stimulation programmes can mitigate adverse outcomes. METHODS: Neonates testing HIV positive at birth will be initiated on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and receive an age-appropriate stimulation program, updated at 3 monthly intervals through the first year of life...
April 6, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587791/sexual-and-reproductive-health-behavior-and-unmet-needs-among-a-sample-of-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-zambia-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Sumiyo Okawa, Sylvia Mwanza-Kabaghe, Mwiya Mwiya, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Masamine Jimba, Chipepo Kankasa, Naoko Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV face challenges, such as disclosure of HIV status, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH). These challenges affect their future quality of life. However, little evidence is available on their sexual behaviors and SRH needs in Zambia. This study aimed at assessing their sexual behaviors and SRH needs and identifying factors associated with marriage concerns and a desire to have children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital from April to July 2014...
March 27, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587719/nurse-led-home-based-care-for-people-with-hiv-aids
#18
Elizabeth M Wood, Babalwa Zani, Tonya M Esterhuizen, Taryn Young
BACKGROUND: Home-based care is used in many countries to increase quality of life and limit hospital stay, particularly where public health services are overburdened. Home-based care objectives for HIV/AIDS can include medical care, delivery of antiretroviral treatment and psychosocial support. This review assesses the effects of home-based nursing on morbidity in people infected with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: The trials studied are in HIV positive adults and children, regardless of sex or setting and all randomised controlled...
March 27, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579247/reduced-fecundity-in-hiv-positive-women
#19
A Gemmill, S E K Bradley, S van der Poel
STUDY QUESTION: Is HIV associated with increased time to pregnancy (TTP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: HIV-positive women who discontinue a contraceptive method to become pregnant have increased TTP, particularly among those who likely do not know their status. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: HIV-positive women have fewer children on average than their HIV-negative counterparts due to both behavioral and biological factors. There is a need to better describe and quantify fecundity patterns associated with HIV in the general population...
June 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547438/multitype-violence-exposures-and-adolescent-antiretroviral-nonadherence-in-south-africa
#20
Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck, Elona Toska, F Mark Orkin, Rebecca Hodes, Lorraine Sherr
OBJECTIVES: HIV-positive adolescents have low-ART adherence, with consequent increased risks of mortality, morbidity, and viral resistance. Despite high rates of violence against children in the Africa region, no known studies have tested impacts on HIV-positive adolescents. We examine associations of ART adherence with adolescent violence victimization by caregivers, teachers, peers, community members, and healthcare providers. DESIGN AND METHODS: HIV-positive adolescents were interviewed (n = 1060), and clinic biomarker data collected...
May 15, 2018: AIDS
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