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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351935/an-adult-case-with-shigellosis-associated-encephalopathy
#1
Heleen Joséphine Schuster, Michelle Gompelman, Wim Ang, Albertus Jozef Kooter
A 45-year-old man was presented at the emergency department with altered neurological status and a 1-day history of diarrhoea and fever. The patient's sexual history revealed multiple male partners. As bacterial meningitis or viral encephalitis was suspected, treatment was started accordingly. Cerebrospinal fluid investigations only showed a slight increase of leucocytes, and microbiological studies remained negative. Stool culture revealed Shigella flexneri, after which Shigella-associated encephalopathy was suspected...
January 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349940/etiology-of-invasive-bacterial-infections-in-immunocompetent-children-in-korea-2006-2010-a-retrospective-multicenter-study
#2
Kyuyol Rhie, Eun Hwa Choi, Eun Young Cho, Jina Lee, Jin Han Kang, Dong Soo Kim, Yae Jean Kim, Youngmin Ahn, Byung Wook Eun, Sung Hee Oh, Sung Ho Cha, Young Jin Hong, Kwang Nam Kim, Nam Hee Kim, Yun Kyung Kim, Jong Hyun Kim, Taekjin Lee, Hwang Min Kim, Kun Song Lee, Chun Soo Kim, Su Eun Park, Young Mi Kim, Chi Eun Oh, Sang Hyuk Ma, Dae Sun Jo, Young Youn Choi, Hoan Jong Lee
BACKGROUND: Invasive bacterial infections in apparently immunocompetent children were retrospectively analyzed to figure causative bacterial organisms in Korea. METHODS: A total of 947 cases from 25 university hospitals were identified from 2006 to 2010 as a continuance of a previous 10-year period study from 1996 to 2005. RESULTS: Escherichia coli (41.3%), Streptococcus agalactiae (27.7%), and Staphylococcus aureus (27.1%) were the most common pathogens in infants < 3 months of age...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341430/tuberculosis-vaccines-opportunities-and-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Bingdong Zhu, Hazel M Dockrell, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Thomas G Evans, Ying Zhang
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious disease around the world. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only TB vaccine licensed for use in human beings, and is effective in protecting infants and children against severe miliary and meningeal TB. However, BCG's protective efficacy is variable in adults. Novel TB vaccine candidates being developed include whole-cell vaccines (recombinant BCG (rBCG), attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis, killed M. tuberculosis or Mycobacterium vaccae), adjuvanted protein subunit vaccines, viral vector-delivered subunit vaccines, plasmid DNA vaccines, RNA-based vaccines etc...
January 17, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339179/primary-diffuse-leptomeningeal-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-diagnosed-by-cerebrospinal-fluid-cytology-case-report-with-molecular-genetic-analysis
#4
Ran Tomomasa, Satoshi Nakata, Sumihito Nobusawa, Keishi Horiguchi, Nozomi Matsumura, Hayato Ikota, Junko Hirato, Yuhei Yoshimoto, Hideaki Yokoo
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are rare malignant neoplasms that mainly affect infants and young children, and are typically located in the cerebellar hemispheres. These tumors are histologically characterized by varying proportions of rhabdoid cells, and nuclear INI1 immunonegativity. Here, we report a case of a 15-year-old male with primary diffuse leptomeningeal AT/RT. The patient had symptoms similar to those of meningitis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed leptomeningeal thickening. Cytological examination using cerebrospinal fluid was repeatedly performed and revealed rhabdoid cells with loss of INI1 reactivity, and shortly after, the diagnosis of AT/RT was confirmed by tissue biopsy...
January 12, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326000/epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-spain-results-obtained-by-the-national-epidemiological-surveillance-network-in-2015
#5
Rosa Cano-Portero, Rocío Amillategui-Dos Santos, Raquel Boix-Martínez, Amparo Larrauri-Cámara
The epidemiological surveillance data for tuberculosis in Spain in 2015 is analysed in this report. This information was gathered through cases reported to the Red Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica [National Epidemiological Surveillance Network]. In addition, the update of the treatment of the cases reported in 2014 is included. The incidence rate of tuberculosis in 2015 was 10.59 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, 10% less than in 2014. This decrease was mainly due to the sustained decreased trend of pulmonary tuberculosis rates, from other locations and in adults, while for cases of tuberculous meningitis and in children the decrease is less marked, with a tendency to stabilization...
January 8, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323107/serological-survey-of-neutralizing-antibodies-to-eight-major-enteroviruses-among-healthy-population
#6
Rui Zhu, Tong Cheng, Zhichao Yin, Dongxiao Liu, Longfa Xu, Yongchao Li, Wei Wang, Jian Liu, Yuqiong Que, Xiangzhong Ye, Qiyi Tang, Qinjian Zhao, Shengxiang Ge, Shuizhen He, Ningshao Xia
Human enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common causative agents infecting human, causing many harmful diseases, such as hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina (HA), myocarditis, encephalitis, and aseptic meningitis. EV-related diseases pose a serious worldwide threat to public health. To gain comprehensive insight into the seroepidemiology of major prevalent EVs in humans, we firstly performed a serological survey for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16), Coxsackie virus A6 (CV-A6), Coxsackie virus A10 (CV-A10), Coxsackie virus B3 (CV-B3), Coxsackie virus B5 (CV-B5), Echovirus 25 (ECHO25), and Echovirus 30 (ECHO30) among the healthy population in Xiamen City in 2016, using micro-neutralization assay...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322336/correction-to-meta-analysis-of-adjunctive-dexamethasone-to-improve-clinical-outcome-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-children
#7
Ying Wang, Xinjie Liu, Yuzhen Wang, Qi Liu, Cuicui Kong, Guixia Xu
The original version of this article unfortunately contained an error.
January 10, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302563/hemiplegia-as-a-presentation-of-hiv-infection-in-children-a-report-of-3-cases
#8
Ira Shah, Sneha Nandy, Renu Kumari
Strokes are a rare neurological manifestation of HIV infection in children with multifactorial etiologies. We present three HIV-infected children who presented to us with stroke out of which two had cerebral infarcts and who responded to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Third patient had tuberculous meningitis who was lost to follow-up before ART could be initiated.
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297142/bacterial-infections-of-the-central%C3%A2-nervous-system
#9
REVIEW
Renu Suthar, Naveen Sankhyan
Bacterial infections of the central nervous system (CNS) continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The spectrum of bacterial infection of CNS includes; focal or multifocal infections like brain abscesses or subdural empyema; or more generalized or diffuse infections like pyogenic meningitis or ventriculitis. Focal and generalized infections may co-exist in an individual patient. Prompt and adequate antibiotic therapy and occasionally neurosurgical interventions are the cornerstone of effective management...
January 3, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289561/haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-hib-seroprevalence-and-current-epidemiology-in-england-and-wales
#10
Sarah Collins, David Litt, Rachael Almond, Jamie Findlow, Ezra Linley, Mary Ramsay, Ray Borrow, Shamez Ladhani
Introduction The introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine in the United Kingdom resulted in a rapid decline in invasive Hib disease across all age groups. However, a resurgence in 2000-2002 prompted the introduction of additional control measures, including a routine 12-month booster in 2006. Here we describe results from a national serosurvey in children eligible for the 12-month booster and recent H. influenzae epidemiology in England and Wales. Methods A national serosurvey was performed to determine the prevalence of anti-polyribosyl-phosphate (anti-PRP) IgG antibodies in 1,000 residual samples from children up to 8 years of age in 2013-14...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288471/chemokines-cxcl10-cxcl11-and-cxcl13-in-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-non-polio-enterovirus-aseptic-meningitis-and-neuroborreliosis-cxcl10-as-initial-discriminator-in-diagnostic-algorithm
#11
Lorna Stemberger Maric, Snjezana Zidovec Lepej, Lana Gorenec, Ivana Grgic, Vladimir Trkulja, Oktavija Dakovic Rode, Srdan Roglic, Tonci Grmoja, Nina Barisic, Goran Tesovic
We investigated potential diagnostic usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of chemokines CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL13 in pediatric patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (n = 23), non-polio enterovirus aseptic meningitis (NPEV AM) (n = 20), and neuroborreliosis (NB) (n = 21) and children with acute infectious diseases with neurological symptoms but with excluded neuroinfection/neuroinflammation (controls, n = 20). CSF levels of CXCL10 and CXCL11 were higher in patients with NPEV AM than those in other children, and CXCL10 levels showed a high discriminative potential (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, ROC, 0...
December 29, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285148/correlation-between-cd64-and-pct-levels-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-degree-of-hearing-impairment-sequelae-in-neonates-with-purulent-meningitis
#12
Cui Liu, Dongchi Zhao
This study investigated the possible correlation between the degree of hearing impairment caused by neonatal purulent meningitis and the levels of CD64 and PCT in cerebrospinal fluid of patients, and assessed the prognostic value of such levels. We recorded data from 156 cases of neonatal purulent meningitis retrospectively. All the patients received brainstem response audiometry, and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected within the first day after admission through lumbar puncture. Flow cytometry was used to detect CD64 levels and enzyme-linked fluorescent assay was used to detect PCT levels...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277475/subtractive-genome-analysis-for-in-silico-identification-and-characterization-of-novel-drug-targets-in-streptococcus-pneumonia-strain-jja
#13
Abdul Wadood, Alam Jamal, Muhammad Riaz, Ajmal Khan, Reaz Uddin, Musharraf Jelani, Syed Sikander Azam
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium. Humans are the major target for the pneumococcus. The pneumococcus is a common etiological agent of many different diseases such as bacterial meningitis, pneumonia, otitis media (OM), sinusitis, and conjunctivitis. According to the WHO, the pneumococcus is responsible for causing 1 million deaths each year. In 2000, over 14 million children worldwide under the age of 5 years were diagnosed with a pneumococcal disease, with the highest incidence seen in Africa...
December 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260780/-the-results-of-bilateral-cochlear-implantation-in-the-children-who-survived-meningitis
#14
N A Daikhes, Kh M Diab, A R Siraeva, N V Tarasova, D S Kondratchikov, A S Machalov, O A Pashchinina, A O Kuznetsov, K D Yusifov
The objective of the present study was the prospective analysis of the results of bilateral cochlear implantation (CI) in the children presenting with bilateral ossification of the cochlea after they had survived meningitis. A total of 15 patients underwent the surgical intervention. In those exhibiting bilateral ossification of the basal cochlear helix over the 5 mm segment (up to first bend of the cochlear turn) and partial ossification of the second helix (in 6 children), the affected portions were removed with the placement of two choleostomies, the lower one (from the ossified membrane of the cochlear window) and the upper one (toward the second helix)...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258705/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-under-16%C3%A2-years-of-age-incomplete-rebound-in-incidence-after-the-maximum-effect-of-pcv13-in-2012-13-in-germany
#15
Raphael Weinberger, Rüdiger von Kries, Mark van der Linden, Thorsten Rieck, Anette Siedler, Gerhard Falkenhorst
OBJECTIVE: To identify a potential nadir of the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) in infancy on invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children under 16 in Germany. METHODS: Active surveillance on IPD based on two independent data sources with capture-recapture correction for underreporting. Annual incidence rates by age group, serotypes, site of infection, and relative incidence reduction compared to pre-vaccination period (1997-2001) at nadir and for the most recent season are reported...
December 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248907/is-bacterial-meningitis-a-risk-factor-for-developing-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#16
Eldira Hadzic, Osman Sinanovic, Haris Memisevic
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial meningitis is a severe disease with high morbidity. Many medical conditions are known to be associated with meningitis including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The goal of the present study was to examine the frequency of ADHD in children who had had bacterial meningitis. An additional goal was to assess the odds ratio for ADHD in children who had had meningitis and children who had not had it. METHODS: The sample comprised 60 children who had had meningitis in the first year of their lives and 60 control children who had not had the disease...
2017: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248780/correlation-of-lactate-concentration-in-peripheral-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-with-glasgow-outcome-scale-for-tuberculous-meningitis-patients-complicated-by-acute-hydrocephalus-treated-with-fluid-diversions
#17
Ahmad Faried, Gusman Arief, Muhammad Z Arifin, Heda M Nataprawira
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is an endemic infectious disease in developing countries, and it can become a serious illness in children. TBM treatment is more difficult and prone to failure than lung TB. TBM causes hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, global ischemia and neurological deficits, which disturb cellular metabolism and increase lactate levels. Therefore, a reliable and widely available clinical indicator of TBM severity is needed. Successful treatment of TBM is assessed using the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS)...
December 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236737/comparison-of-sequential-multiplex-pcr-sequetyping-and-whole-genome-sequencing-for-serotyping-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#18
Florian Mauffrey, Éric Fournier, Walter Demczuk, Irene Martin, Michael Mulvey, Christine Martineau, Simon Lévesque, Sadjia Bekal, Marc-Christian Domingo, Florence Doualla-Bell, Jean Longtin, Brigitte Lefebvre
Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the major causes of pneumonia, meningitis and other pneumococcal infections in young children and elders. Determination of circulating S. pneumoniae serotypes is an essential service by public health laboratories for the monitoring of putative serotype replacement following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) and of the efficacy of the immunization program. The Quellung method remains the gold standard for typing S. pneumoniae. Although this method is very effective, it is also costly, time consuming and not totally reliable due to its subjective nature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233576/changing-epidemiology-of-haemophilus-influenzae-in-children
#19
REVIEW
David F Butler, Angela L Myers
Haemophilus influenzae remains a common cause of illness in children throughout the world. Before the introduction of vaccination, H influenzae type b (Hib) disease was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in young children and a frequent cause of pneumonia, epiglottitis, and septic arthritis. Clinicians should remain diligent in counseling parents on the dangers of Hib and provide vaccination starting at 2 months of age. The epidemiology of invasive H influenzae disease is shifting. It is imperative that clinicians recognize the changing epidemiology and antibiotic resistance patterns for H influenzae to optimize care in hospital and ambulatory settings...
December 9, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231065/serum-interleukin-6-levels-as-an-indicator-of-aseptic-meningitis-among-children-with-enterovirus-71-induced-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#20
Joo Young Lee, Minji Son, Jin Han Kang, Ui Yoon Choi
OBJECTIVES: The enterovirus EV71 is a major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Aseptic meningitis is the most common neurologic complication of EV71-induced HFMD. Lumbar puncture is a crucial procedure in the diagnosis of aseptic meningitis. It is often performed based on physicians' clinical suspicion. A diagnostic method that can aid in deciding whether this procedure should be performed is necessary. Cytokines are speculated to be associated with neurologic complications...
December 14, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
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