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Chul-Yong Park, Jin Jea Sung, Sang-Hwi Choi, Dongjin R Lee, In-Hyun Park, Dong-Wook Kim
Genome engineering technology using engineered nucleases has been rapidly developing, enabling the efficient correction of simple mutations. However, the precise correction of structural variations (SVs) such as large inversions remains limited. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the modeling or correction of large chromosomal rearrangements and short nucleotide repeat expansions using engineered nucleases in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from a healthy donor and patients with SVs. This protocol includes the delivery of engineered nucleases with no donor template to hiPSCs, and genotyping and derivation/characterization of gene-manipulated hiPSC clones...
November 2016: Nature Protocols
Rubens Paulo A Salomão, Maria Thereza Drumond Gama, Flávio Moura Rezende Filho, Fernanda Maggi, José Luiz Pedroso, Orlando G P Barsottini
Herein, we report a patient that presented with late-onset progressive steppage gait, neuropathy and pes cavus, suggesting Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Subsequent genetic investigation confirmed Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). We demonstrate that late-onset Friedreich's ataxia (LOFA) may be a CMT mimicker. This case reinforces that other genetic conditions may clinically resemble CMT. The clinical similarities between CMT and FRDA include a symmetrical neuropathy (axonal in FRDA), steppage gait, and eventually scoliosis...
September 29, 2016: Cerebellum
G Tai, L A Corben, E M Yiu, M B Delatycki
OBJECTIVES: The Medical Outcomes Study 36 item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) is one of the most commonly used patient reported outcome measure. This study aimed to examine the relationship between SF-36 version 2 (SF-36V2) summary scores and Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) clinical characteristics, and to investigate the responsiveness of the scale, in comparison with the Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale (FARS), over 1, 2 and 3 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Descriptive statistics were used to examine the characteristics of the cohort at baseline and years 1, 2 and 3...
September 28, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Semiha Kurt, Betul Cevik, Durdane Aksoy, E Irmak Sahbaz, Aslı Gundogdu Eken, A Nazli Basak
Here, we describe the clinical features of several members of the same family diagnosed with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and cerebral lesions, demyelinating neuropathy, and late-age onset without a significant cardiac involvement and presenting with similar symptoms, although genetic testing was negative for the GAA repeat expansion in one patient of the family. The GAA repeat expansion in the frataxin gene was shown in all of the family members except in a young female patient. MRI revealed arachnoid cysts in two patients; MRI was consistent with both cavum septum pellucidum-cavum vergae and nodular signal intensity increase in one patient...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Maya Patel, Charles J Isaacs, Lauren Seyer, Karlla Brigatti, Sarah Gelbard, Cassandra Strawser, Debbie Foerster, Julianna Shinnick, Kimberly Schadt, Eppie M Yiu, Martin B Delatycki, Susan Perlman, George R Wilmot, Theresa Zesiewicz, Katherine Mathews, Christopher M Gomez, Grace Yoon, Sub H Subramony, Alicia Brocht, Jennifer Farmer, David R Lynch
OBJECTIVE: Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of adults and children. This study analyzed neurological outcomes and changes to identify predictors of progression and generate power calculations for clinical trials. METHODS: Eight hundred and twelve subjects in a natural history study were evaluated annually across 12 sites using the Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale (FARS), 9-Hole Peg Test, Timed 25-Foot Walk, visual acuity tests, self-reported surveys and disability scales...
September 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Cong Lu, Yi-Cen Zheng, Yi Dong, Hong-Fu Li
BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCA) are a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by early onset of gait impairment, disturbed limb coordination, dysarthria, and eye movement abnormalities, most likely due to the degeneration of cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. Despite of the rarity, ARCA are both clinically and genetically heterogeneous. To date, more than 30 culprit genes have been identified in ARCA. Unraveling the specific causative mutation in cases with ARCA remains challenging so far...
2016: BMC Neurology
Amanda Tabib, Sailaja Vishwanathan, Andrei Seleznev, Peter C McKeown, Tim Downing, Craig Dent, Eduardo Sanchez-Bermejo, Luana Colling, Charles Spillane, Sureshkumar Balasubramanian
Triplet repeat expansions underlie several human genetic diseases such as Huntington's disease and Friedreich's ataxia. Although such mutations are primarily known from humans, a triplet expansion associated genetic defect has also been reported at the IIL1 locus in the Bur-0 accession of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The IIL1 triplet expansion is an example of cryptic genetic variation as its phenotypic effects are seen only under genetic or environmental perturbation, with high temperatures resulting in a growth defect...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Volkan Coskun, Dawn M Lombardo
The cardiovascular and nervous systems are deeply connected during development, health, and disease. Both systems affect and regulate the development of each other during embryogenesis and the early postnatal period. Specialized neural crest cells contribute to cardiac structures, and a number of growth factors released from the cardiac tissue (e.g., glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin, nerve growth factor, Neurotrophin-3) ensure proper maturation of the incoming parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Michela Guaraldo, Paolo Santambrogio, Elisabetta Rovelli, Augusta Di Savino, Giuseppe Saglio, Davide Cittaro, Antonella Roetto, Sonia Levi
Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) is an iron storage protein belonging to the ferritin family but, unlike the cytosolic ferritin, it has an iron-unrelated restricted tissue expression. FtMt appears to be preferentially expressed in cell types characterized by high metabolic activity and oxygen consumption, suggesting a role in protecting mitochondria from iron-dependent oxidative damage. The human gene (FTMT) is intronless and its promoter region has not been described yet. To analyze the regulatory mechanisms controlling FTMT expression, we characterized the 5' flanking region upstream the transcriptional starting site of FTMT by in silico enquiry of sequences conservation, DNA deletion analysis, and ChIP assay...
2016: Scientific Reports
Urszula Polak, Yanjie Li, Jill Sergesketter Butler, Marek Napierala
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most common autosomal recessive ataxia. This severe neurodegenerative disease is caused by an expansion of guanine-adenine-adenine (GAA) repeats located in the first intron of the frataxin (FXN) gene, which represses its transcription. Although transcriptional silencing is associated with heterochromatin-like changes in the vicinity of the expanded GAAs, the exact mechanism and pathways involved in transcriptional inhibition are largely unknown. As major remodeling of the epigenome is associated with somatic cell reprogramming, modulating chromatin modification pathways during the cellular transition from a somatic to a pluripotent state is likely to generate permanent changes to the epigenetic landscape...
October 17, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Imis Dogan, Eugenie Tinnemann, Sandro Romanzetti, Shahram Mirzazade, Ana S Costa, Cornelius J Werner, Stefan Heim, Kathrin Fedosov, Stefanie Schulz, Dagmar Timmann, Ilaria A Giordano, Thomas Klockgether, Jörg B Schulz, Kathrin Reetz
OBJECTIVE: Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a spinocerebellar degenerative disorder, in which cognitive deficits are sparsely explored. In this behavioral and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, we investigated the neurocognitive profile and cortico-cerebellar dysfunctions underlying executive functioning in individuals with FRDA. METHODS: 22 FRDA patients and 22 controls were clinically and neuropsychologically examined. Fifteen of each underwent structural and functional MRI using a verbal-fluency task with phonemic and semantic conditions...
August 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Gessica Vasco, Simone Gazzellini, Maurizio Petrarca, Maria Luisa Lispi, Alessandra Pisano, Marco Zazza, Gessica Della Bella, Enrico Castelli, Enrico Bertini
Friedreich's ataxia is the most common autosomal recessive form of neurodegenerative ataxia. We present a longitudinal study on the gait pattern of children and adolescents affected by Friedreich's ataxia using Gait Analysis and the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). We assessed the spectrum of changes over 12 months of the gait characteristics and the relationship between clinical and instrumental evaluations. We enrolled 11 genetically confirmed patients affected by Friedreich's ataxia in this study together with 13 normally developing age-matched subjects...
2016: PloS One
Franca Codazzi, Amelié Hu, Myriam Rai, Floramarida Salerno Scarzella, Elisabeth Mangiameli, Ilaria Pelizzoni, Fabio Grohovaz, Massimo Pandolfo
We employed induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons obtained from Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) patients and healthy subjects, FRDA neurons and CT neurons, respectively, to unveil phenotypic alterations related to frataxin (FXN) deficiency and investigate if they can be reversed by treatments that upregulate FXN. FRDA and control iPSCs were equally capable of differentiating into a neuronal or astrocytic phenotype. FRDA neurons showed lower levels of iron-sulfur and lipoic acid-containing proteins, higher labile iron pool (LIP), higher expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lower reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and enhanced sensitivity to oxidants compared to CT neurons, indicating deficient iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, altered iron metabolism, and oxidative stress...
September 4, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Marissa Z McMackin, Chelsea K Henderson, Gino A Cortopassi
Friedreich's Ataxia (FA) is a pediatric neurodegenerative disease whose clinical presentation includes ataxia, muscle weakness, and peripheral sensory neuropathy. The KIKO mouse is an animal model of FA with frataxin deficiency first described in 2002, but neurobehavioral deficits have never been described in this model. The identification of robust neurobehavioral deficits in KIKO mice could support the testing of drugs for FA, which currently has no approved therapy. We tested 13 neurobehavioral tasks to identify a robust KIKO phenotype: Open Field, Grip Strength Test(s), Cylinder, Skilled Forelimb Grasp Task(s), Treadmill Endurance, Locotronic Motor Coordination, Inverted Screen, Treadscan, and Von Frey...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Mary Kearney, Richard W Orrell, Michael Fahey, Ruth Brassington, Massimo Pandolfo
BACKGROUND: Friedreich ataxia is a rare inherited autosomal recessive neurological disorder, characterised initially by unsteadiness in standing and walking, slowly progressing to wheelchair dependency usually in the late teens or early twenties. It is associated with slurred speech, scoliosis, and pes cavus. Heart abnormalities cause premature death in 60% of people with the disorder. There is no easily defined clinical or biochemical marker and no known treatment. This is the second update of a review first published in 2009 and previously updated in 2012...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nishaki Mehta, Paul Chacko, James Jin, Tam Tran, Thomas W Prior, Xin He, Gunjan Agarwal, Subha V Raman
Patients with Friedreich ataxia typically die of cardiomyopathy, marked by myocardial fibrosis and abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry. We measured procollagen I carboxyterminal propeptide (PICP), a serum biomarker of collagen production, and characterized genotypes, phenotypes, and outcomes in these patients. Twenty-nine patients with Friedreich ataxia (mean age, 34.2 ± 2.2 yr) and 29 healthy subjects (mean age, 32.5 ± 1.1 yr) underwent serum PICP measurements. Patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and outcome evaluations at baseline and 12 months...
August 2016: Texas Heart Institute Journal
Toni S Pearson
BACKGROUND: The autosomal recessive ataxias are a heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by complex neurological features in addition to progressive ataxia. Hyperkinetic movement disorders occur in a significant proportion of patients, and may sometimes be the presenting motor symptom. Presentations with involuntary movements rather than ataxia are diagnostically challenging, and are likely under-recognized. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was performed in October 2015 utilizing pairwise combinations of disease-related terms (autosomal recessive ataxia, ataxia-telangiectasia, ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1), ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2), Friedreich ataxia, ataxia with vitamin E deficiency), and symptom-related terms (movement disorder, dystonia, chorea, choreoathetosis, myoclonus)...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Louisa P Selvadurai, Ian H Harding, Louise A Corben, Monique R Stagnitti, Elsdon Storey, Gary F Egan, Martin B Delatycki, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is traditionally associated with neuropathology in the cerebellar dentate nucleus and spinal cord. Growing evidence also suggests involvement of the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, although reports of structural abnormalities remain mixed. This study assessed the structural integrity of cortical grey matter in FRDA, focussing on regions in which pathology may underlie the motor deficits characteristic of this disorder. T1-weighted anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 31 individuals with FRDA and 37 healthy controls...
November 2016: Journal of Neurology
H Khonsari, M Schneider, S Al-Mahdawi, Y G Chianea, M Themis, C Parris, M A Pook, M Themis
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by deficiency of frataxin protein, with the primary sites of pathology being the large sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the cerebellum. FRDA is also often accompanied by severe cardiomyopathy and diabetes mellitus. Frataxin is important in mitochondrial iron-sulphur cluster (ISC) biogenesis and low frataxin expression is due to a GAA repeat expansion in intron 1 of the FXN gene. FRDA cells are genomically unstable, with increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sensitivity to oxidative stress...
August 12, 2016: Gene Therapy
Emanuela Piermarini, Daniele Cartelli, Anna Pastore, Giulia Tozzi, Claudia Compagnucci, Ezio Giorda, Jessica D'Amico, Stefania Petrini, Enrico Bertini E, Graziella Cappelletti, Fiorella Piemonte
To elucidate the pathogenesis of axonopathy in Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by axonal retraction, we analyzed the microtubule (MT) dynamics in an in vitro frataxin-silenced neuronal model (shFxn). A typical feature of MTs is their "dynamic instability", in which they undergo phases of growth (polymerization) and shrinkage (depolymerization). MTs play a fundamental role in the physiology of neurons and every perturbation of their dynamicity is highly detrimental for neuronal functions...
August 11, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
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