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Antibiotic guidelines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926460/peripheral-bacterial-septic-arthritis-review-of-diagnosis-and-management
#1
Ahmed S Hassan, Allison Rao, Augustine M Manadan, Joel A Block
Septic arthritis refers to an infection in a joint due to a bacterial, mycobacterial, or fungal cause. Joint infections are a serious cause of morbidity and mortality and constitute a true musculoskeletal emergency. The estimated incidence of septic arthritis in the general population is between 2 and 6 cases per 100,000 people per year. The most common presentation is an acute monoarthritis. Identification of organisms in the synovial fluid is the criterion standard for diagnosis. Synovial fluid aspiration should be performed prior to initiating antibiotics...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925466/role-of-biclotymol-based-products-in-the-treatment-of-infectious-sore-throat
#2
E Karpova, L Giacomelli, F Tumietto
OBJECTIVE: In clinical practice, physicians often prescribe antibiotics for the treatment of sore throat. However, current guidelines clarify that antibiotics should not be used in patients with less severe presentation of this condition in order to relieve symptoms. With the aim to limit the onset of resistance and reduce the occurrence of adverse events, other remedies can be used instead. For the past forty years, the use of biclotymol-based products has been a common practice for the treatment of sore throat...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923865/an-in-vitro-comparison-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-compared-to-traditional-beta-lactams-as-an-alternative-to-combination-antimicrobial-therapy-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#3
Kellie J Goodlet, David P Nicolau, Michael D Nailor
Background: Guidelines for sepsis, febrile neutropenia, and hospital-acquired pneumonia include empiric regimens incorporating two antibiotics from different classes with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa for select at-risk patients to increase the likelihood of susceptibility to at least one agent.Objectives: The activity and cross-resistance rates of ceftolozane/tazobactam were compared to β-lactam comparators cefepime, ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam, and meropenem alone and cumulatively with ciprofloxacin or tobramycin against P...
September 18, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923757/clinical-practice-and-infrastructure-review-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#4
REVIEW
Brendan J Kelly, Pablo Tebas
A significant proportion of C. difficile infection (CDI) cases recur after completion of antibiotic therapy, and antibiotic cure rates diminish with each recurrence of CDI. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy for recurrent FMT, which otherwise requires prolonged or indefinite antibiotic treatment. FMT is performed by introducing the fecal microbial community obtained from a healthy donor or pool of donors into the stomach, small intestine, or colon of a patient with CDI. Multiple clinical trials support the utility of FMT in treating recurrent CDI, and CDI treatment guidelines now include consideration of FMT at the third CDI recurrence...
September 15, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922813/meta-analyses-and-the-evidence-base-for-microbial-outcomes-in-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-disease
#5
Jotam G Pasipanodya, Deborah Ogbonna, Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the level of funding support and the sputum culture conversion rates in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (P-MAC) disease in adult patients without cystic fibrosis or HIV infection, treated with recommended antibiotic regimens. Methods: We performed a literature search to identify clinical trials, prospective studies and registries that reported outcomes in P-MAC patients. Studies that reported P-MAC diagnosis and treatments based on established guidelines met the inclusion criteria and were examined for bias and quality...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922029/exploratory-study-into-the-microbiological-quality-of-spinach-and-cabbage-purchased-from-street-vendors-and-retailers-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#6
Erika M du Plessis, Sarasha Govender, Bala Pillay, Lise Korsten
Knowledge of the microbiological quality and prevalence of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in bacterial isolates from leafy green vegetables supplied by formal suppliers (retailers) and informal suppliers (street vendors) in South Africa is limited. Because leafy vegetables have been implicated in foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, 180 cabbage and spinach samples were collected from three major retailers and nine street vendors in Johannesburg, South Africa. Escherichia coli and coliforms were enumerated using Petrifilm plates...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921938/prostate-cancer-treatment-in-renal-transplant-recipients-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Giancarlo Marra, Ettore Dalmasso, Marco Angello, Stefania Munegato, Andrea Bosio, Omidreza Sedigh, Luigi Biancone, Paolo Gontero
BACKGROUND: The majority of kidney transplants are performed in recipients (RTR) over 50; simultaneously their life expectancy is improving. The increasing age and number of RTR is likely to be paralleled by an increase of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence. However, little is known on the optimal management of these patients who represent a therapeutic challenge due to medical and anatomical graft-related issues. METHODS: AMED, Medline and Embase were searched until November 17(th) , 2016 adhering to the PRISMA guidelines and the AMSTAR checklist to investigate oncological and functional outcomes of PCa treatment in RTR...
September 18, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921723/effect-of-prophylactic-cefalexin-treatment-on-the-development-of-bacterial-infection-in-acute-radiation-induced-dermatitis-in-dogs-a-blinded-randomized-controlled-prospective-clinical-trial
#8
Michele A Keyerleber, Lluís Ferrer
BACKGROUND: Acute radiation-induced dermatitis (ARID) is a common sequela of radiation therapy and carries the risk of secondary bacterial skin infection. No standard of care exists for managing canine ARID and evidence-based guidelines are lacking; however, prophylactic use of antibiotics is common. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of prophylactic cefalexin on the prevalence and severity of bacterial infection in canine ARID. ANIMALS: Seventeen dogs treated with definitive-intent radiotherapy...
September 18, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919603/current-trends-of-using-antimicrobials-at-obstetrics-and-gynaecology-department-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#9
M M Islam, S K Saha, S Saha, U A Wahid, R R Gomes, K S Ahmed, A N Naushad, S E Suchi, C Saha, D Mondal
This cross-sectional descriptive study was done to analyse the current trends of using antimicrobials in various surgical procedures at Obstetrics and Gynaecology department in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh from July 2014 to June 2015. Among 300 postoperative obstetrics and gynaecological surgery cases, samples were selected as non-random purposive selection method where pattern of using antimicrobials were analysed by SPSS method 20.1 versions. The incidence of antimicrobial resistance is on continued rise with a threat to return to the pre-antibiotic era...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918954/contemporary-management-of-vesicoureteral-reflux
#10
REVIEW
Perviz Hajiyev, Berk Burgu
CONTEXT: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) remains the most interesting topic of pediatric urology due to the dynamic nature of recent controversial publications. Starting from the need for a diagnosis to the necessity and effectiveness of treatment in preventing scars, VUR remains in the mist. Although recent strong evidence helped as fog lights in this blurriness, more data are required for achieving crystal clearance. This article aims to summarize and discuss the current state of the evidence regarding VUR management...
September 11, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918776/-prophylactic-antibiotic-therapy-for-hernia-repair
#11
Siv Fonnes, Barbara Juliane Holzknecht, Magnus Arpi, Jacob Rosenberg
This article aims at outlining and recommending use of prophylactic antibiotic therapy for hernia repair according to literature and newly released guidelines. We do not recommend prophylaxis for elective repair of inguinal and ventral hernias in a low infection risk environment as Denmark except in patients with incisional hernia > 10 cm or presumed increased risk for wound infection, e.g. diabetes or immunosuppression. Antibiotic prophylaxis should always be used in emergent hernia repair. We recommend a prophylactic regimen of second-generation cephalosporin given as a single dose perioperatively...
September 11, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918655/what-not-to-do-in-acute-otitis-media-the-top-five-recommendations-proposed-by-the-italian-society-of-preventive-and-social-pediatrics
#12
Elena Chiappini, Barbara Bortone, Mattia Doria, Massimo Landi, Giuseppe Di Mauro, Paola Marchisio
With the aim to reduce inappropriate procedures and antibiotic therapy in the management of acute otitis media (AOM) in children, the Italian Society of Preventive and Social Pediatrics (SIPPS) proposed a top five list of recommendations for clinical practice. Areas covered: AOM is one of the most frequent reasons for antibiotic prescription in pediatric age. The over-estimation of AOM is associated with inappropriate treatment, increased costs, adverse events and spread of antibiotic resistance. Thus, the most recent guidelines provided stringent diagnostic criteria and considered the 'watchful waiting' approach, limiting the immediate antibiotic therapy to a well-characterized subgroup of children...
September 19, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916120/does-early-and-appropriate-antibiotic-administration-improve-mortality-in-emergency-department-patients-with-severe-sepsis-or-septic-shock
#13
Robert Sherwin, Michael E Winters, Gary M Vilke, Gabriel Wardi
BACKGROUND: Severe sepsis and septic shock remain significant public health concerns. Appropriate emergency department management includes early recognition, hemodynamic resuscitation, source control, and prompt antibiotic administration. Current international guidelines strongly recommend administration of early and appropriate antibiotics for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Interestingly, a recent Cochrane Review found insufficient evidence to provide a similar recommendation on antibiotic administration...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915094/surgical-site-infections-after-tissue-flaps-performed-in-low-and-middle-human-development-index-countries-a-systematic-review
#14
Lawrence Z Cai, James Chang, Thomas G Weiser, Joseph D Forrester
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) affect the safety of surgical care and are particularly problematic and prevalent in low and middle Human Development Index Countries (LMHDICs). METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the existing literature on SSIs after tissue flap procedures in LMHDICs through the PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Science databases. Of the 405 abstracts identified, 79 were selected for full text review, and 30 studies met inclusion criteria for analysis...
September 15, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914210/-sepsis-new-insights-new-definition
#15
W J Wiersinga, A R H van Zanten, K A Kaasjager, T van der Poll
- Incidence of sepsis is increasing, partly due to an ageing population, increased use of immunosuppressants, and antibiotic resistance. Sepsis survival has improved substantially, in part because of continuously improving intensive care and implementation of evidence-based guidelines.- Sepsis is defined as 'life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection'. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score can be used to estimate organ dysfunction severity.- In this article, we discuss the new sepsis definitions - including reactions to these definitions, an overview of current insights in sepsis pathogenesis, and the new treatment guidelines...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911283/australian-and-new-zealand-anaesthetic-allergy-group-perioperative-anaphylaxis-investigation-guidelines
#16
R J Scolaro, H M Crilly, E J Maycock, P T McAleer, K A Nicholls, M A Rose, Rih The
These guidelines are a consensus document developed by a working party of the Australian and New Zealand Anaesthetic Allergy Group (ANZAAG) to provide an approach to the investigation of perioperative anaphylaxis. They focus primarily on the use of skin testing as it is the investigation with the greatest clinical utility for the identification of the likely causative agent and potentially safer alternatives. The practicalities and process of skin testing, its limitations, and the place of other tests are discussed...
September 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904032/antibiotic-therapy-for-children-with-acute-otitis-media
#17
Teeranai Sakulchit, Ran D Goldman
Question Acute otitis media is one of the most common infections in childhood. Routine prescription of antibiotics has led to adverse events and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. I have heard that "watchful waiting" is a good strategy to reduce this potential problem in children older than 6 months of age. Should I apply this strategy in my clinical practice? Answer Watchful waiting can be applied in selected children with nonsevere acute otitis media by withholding antibiotics and observing the child for clinical improvement...
September 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903884/successful-outcome-of-severe-intra-cerebral-bleeding-associated-with-acquired-factor-v-inhibition-utilization-of-multiple-therapeutic-agents
#18
Panagiotis Andreadis, Katerina Kafantari, Aleka Agapidou, Sofia Vakalopoulou, Efthymia Vlachaki
BACKGROUND: Acquired coagulation Factor inhibitors are antibodies that either inhibit the activity or increase the clearance of a clotting factor leading to an increased risk of bleeding. Most of the times, the disorder is attributed to Factor VIII inhibition (Acquired Hemophilia A), however other coagulation factors could also be implicated. CASE REPORT: We herein would like to report an interesting case of a patient who underwent Coronary Artery Bypass Graft and received antibiotic treatment after surgery with a third-generation cephalosporin...
September 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903521/treatment-related-complications-in-children-hospitalized-with-disseminated-lyme-disease
#19
Christine Chang, Kristen A Feemster, Susan Coffin, Lori K Handy
We describe here treatment approaches and treatment-related complications in 138 hospitalized children with disseminated Lyme disease. The patients who received parenteral antibiotics had a higher rate of complications than those who received oral therapy (15.4 vs 4.2 per 1000 days of therapy, respectively; P < .05). Oral therapy should be used preferentially if either route is supported by current guidelines.
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898917/technical-aspects-of-endoscopic-ultrasound-eus-guided-sampling-in-gastroenterology-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-esge-technical-guideline-march-2017
#20
Marcin Polkowski, Christian Jenssen, Philip Kaye, Silvia Carrara, Pierre Deprez, Angels Gines, Gloria Fernández-Esparrach, Pierre Eisendrath, Guruprasad P Aithal, Paolo Arcidiacono, Marc Barthet, Pedro Bastos, Adele Fornelli, Bertrand Napoleon, Julio Iglesias-Garcia, Andrada Seicean, Alberto Larghi, Cesare Hassan, Jeanin E van Hooft, Jean-Marc Dumonceau
For routine EUS-guided sampling of solid masses and lymph nodes (LNs) ESGE recommends 25G or 22G needles (high quality evidence, strong recommendation); fine needle aspiration (FNA) and fine needle biopsy (FNB) needles are equally recommended (high quality evidence, strong recommendation).When the primary aim of sampling is to obtain a core tissue specimen, ESGE suggests using 19G FNA or FNB needles or 22G FNB needles (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).ESGE recommends using 10-mL syringe suction for EUS-guided sampling of solid masses and LNs with 25G or 22G FNA needles (high quality evidence, strong recommendation) and other types of needles (low quality evidence, weak recommendation)...
September 12, 2017: Endoscopy
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