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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150897/determining-best-outcomes-from-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-how-to-achieve-them
#1
REVIEW
Jane Hadfield, Lesley Bennett
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common acute medical illness with a standard, effective treatment that was introduced before the evidenced-based medicine era. Mortality rates have improved in recent decades but improvements have been minimal when compared to other conditions such as acute coronary syndromes. The standardized approach to treatment makes CAP a target for comparative performance and outcome measures. While easy to collect, simplistic outcomes such as mortality, readmission and length of stay are difficult to interpret as they can be affected by subjective choices and health care resources...
November 17, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150218/keratitis-secondary-to-fusarium-spp-in-spain-2012-2014
#2
M A Mosquera Gordillo, N Barón Cano, A Garralda Luquin, C López Gutiérrez, E Mengual Verdú, G Trujillo Cabrera, J M Garrido Fierro, J Lamarca Mateu, J C Sánchez España, P Marticorena Álvarez, R Feijoó Lera, S Martín Nalda, T Marti Huguet, V Gacía Conca
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of a case series of fungal keratitis associated with Fusarium spp.., in Spain during the years 2012 to 2014. METHODS: A retrospective study of a case series was conducted on a systematic random sample of 10% of patients identified in Health Centres of provincial capitals (n=250). The centres were asked whether they had been presented with cases of Fusarium spp. keratitis characterised by microbiological methods...
November 14, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148198/ear-nose-and-throat-surgery-all-you-need-to-know-about-the-surgical-approach-to-the-management-of-middle-ear-effusions-in-australian-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-children
#3
REVIEW
Kelvin Kong, Francis J Lannigan, Peter S Morris, Amanda J Leach, Stephen J O'Leary
Otitis media (OM) is a common condition in Australia. It represents a spectrum of diseases from otitis media with effusion (OME) to chronic suppurative otitis media. For all the OM diagnoses, Australian Indigenous children have higher rates of early onset, severe and persistent disease. OME is the most common form of OM and often occurs after an upper respiratory tract infection. It can be difficult to diagnose (and often goes unrecognised). Hearing loss is the most important complication. The middle-ear effusion impedes the movement of the tympanic membrane and causes a conductive hearing loss of around 25 dB...
November 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146662/comparative-effectiveness-of-injectable-penicillin-versus-a-combination-of-penicillin-and-gentamicin-in-children-with-pneumonia-characterised-by-indrawing-in-kenya-a-retrospective-observational-study
#4
Lucas Malla, Rafael Perera-Salazar, Emily McFadden, Mike English
OBJECTIVES: Kenyan guidelines for antibiotic treatment of pneumonia recommended treatment of pneumonia characterised by indrawing with injectable penicillin alone in inpatient settings until early 2016. At this point, they were revised becoming consistent with WHO guidance after results of a Kenyan trial provided further evidence of equivalence of oral amoxicillin and injectable penicillin. This change also made possible use of oral amoxicillin for outpatient treatment in this patient group...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145711/timing-of-antibiotics-in-the-management-of-community-acquired-sepsis-can-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-prehospital-therapy-provide-answers
#5
Andrew A Udy, Karen Smith, Stephen Bernard
Significant tension surrounds the application of antibiotics in suspected infection. Guidelines stress the importance of early empirical broad-spectrum therapy, with select observational data suggesting inferior outcomes when this is delayed. In contrast, microbiological resistance is an ever increasing global problem, with many advocating for a more restricted, culture-driven approach to antibiotic prescription. Controlled trial data are urgently needed, although many clinicians would find withholding of antibiotic therapy unethical...
November 16, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145679/-leukopenia-a-diagnostic-guideline-for-the-clinical-routine
#6
Deborah Christen, Tim H Brümmendorf, Jens Panse
Reasons for leukopenia can be numerous. To get close to the diagnosis it's always useful to check previous blood counts of the patient to get a feeling for the dynamic development of the leukopenia. Furthermore, it's important to check the red blood cell count and platelet count as well; a bi- or a pancytopenia usually implies an insufficient production in the bone marrow. Nevertheless, a manual counted peripheral blood smear is an essential step towards the right diagnosis in leukopenia: Beside cell counts of the single subgroups of leucocytes it also provides information on potential causes such as dysplasia...
November 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144559/treatment-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-a-clinical-practice-update
#7
REVIEW
Rocco Maurizio Zagari, Stefano Rabitti, Leonardo Henry Eusebi, Franco Bazzoli
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is still frequent in the community and all infected subjects should be offered an eradication therapy. Nowdays physicians have to face the challenge of antibiotic resistance in treating Helicobacter pylori infected individuals. AIM: This review provides an overview of current international guidelines and reports recent evidence from systematic reviews and clinical trials on the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, and should help physicians to better treat their patients...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142389/bioactive-constituents-radical-scavenging-and-antibacterial-properties-of-the-leaves-and-stem-essential-oils-from-peperomia-pellucida-l-kunth
#8
Sunday O Okoh, Benson C Iweriebor, Omobola O Okoh, Anthony I Okoh
Background: Peperomia pellucida is an annual herbaceous ethnomedicinal plant used in the treatment of a variety of communicable and noncommunicable diseases in the Amazon region. Objective: The study aimed at profiling the bioactive constituents of the leaves and stem essential oils (LEO and SEO) of P. pellucida, their in vitro antibacterial and radical scavenging properties as probable lead constituents in the management of oxidative stress and infectious diseases...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137627/prevalence-of-current-patterns-and-predictive-trends-of-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-typhi-in-sudan
#9
Ayman A Elshayeb, Abdelazim A Ahmed, Marmar A El Siddig, Adil A El Hussien
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137595/study-of-bacterial-infections-among-patients-receiving-kidney-transplant-in-mashhad-iran
#10
Davood Mansury, Azad Khaledi, Kiarash Ghazvini, Mahin Ghorban Sabbagh, Hosna Zare, Mohammad Hossein Rokni-Hosseini, Hossein Vazini
OBJECTIVES: Over the past 2 decades, significant advances have been made in the management of infections after transplant; however, transplant recipients are still at high risk of infectious complications. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial infections and antimicrobial resistance patterns in kidney transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 356 patients who received kidney transplants, regardless of the underlying disease, from 2013 to 2015 at the Montaserieh Transplant Hospital (Mashhad, Iran)...
November 15, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137487/emergence-of-fosfomycin-resistance-among-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-harboring-extended-spectrum-and-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamases
#11
Aghil Bahramian, Gita Eslami, Ali Hashemi, Ali Tabibi, Mohsen Heidary
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common type of infectious disease globally. The aim of this study was to detect the frequency of fosA3 and fosC2 genes in extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and blaDHA, blaCMY-2, and blaCMY-42 genes in AmpC β-lactamases-producing isolates of Escherichia coli. In total, 120 isolates of E. coli were collected from three teaching hospitals between March 2014 and February 2015. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out by disk diffusion method. The presence of blaCMY-2, blaCMY-42, blaDHA, fosA3, and fosC2 genes was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing...
November 15, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136646/the-effect-of-interventions-aiming-to-optimise-the-prescription-of-antibiotics-in-dental-care-a-systematic-review
#12
Christin Löffler, Femke Böhmer
BACKGROUND: Abundant evidence in dentistry suggests that antibiotics are prescribed despite the existence of guidelines aiming to reduce the development of antibiotic resistance. This review investigated (1) which type of interventions aiming to optimise prescription of antibiotics exist in dentistry, (2) the effect of these interventions and (3) the specific strengths and limitations of the studies reporting on these interventions. METHOD: Literature search was based on Medline, Embase, Global Health, Cochrane CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132613/identification-and-management-of-shigella-infection-in-children-with-diarrhoea-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Kirkby D Tickell, Rebecca L Brander, Hannah E Atlas, Jeffrey M Pernica, Judd L Walson, Patricia B Pavlinac
BACKGROUND: Shigella infections are a leading cause of diarrhoeal death among children in low-income and middle-income countries. WHO guidelines reserve antibiotics for treating children with dysentery. Reliance on dysentery for identification and management of Shigella infection might miss an opportunity to reduce Shigella-associated morbidity and mortality. We aimed to systematically review and evaluate Shigella-associated and dysentery-associated mortality, the diagnostic value of dysentery for the identification of Shigella infection, and the efficacy of antibiotics for children with Shigella or dysentery, or both...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129177/copd-x-australian-and-new-zealand-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-2017-update
#14
Ian A Yang, Juliet L Brown, Johnson George, Sue Jenkins, Christine F McDonald, Vanessa M McDonald, Kirsten Phillips, Brian J Smith, Nicholas A Zwar, Eli Dabscheck
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by persistent respiratory symptoms and chronic airflow limitation, and is associated with exacerbations and comorbidities. Advances in the management of COPD are updated quarterly in the national COPD guidelines, the COPD-X plan, published by Lung Foundation Australia in conjunction with the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and available at http://copdx.org.au. Main recommendations: Spirometry detects persistent airflow limitation (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0...
November 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128151/is-the-choosing-wisely-%C3%A2-campaign-model-applicable-to-the-management-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-france-a-gresep-pilot-study
#15
B Trumbic, H Zéphir, J-C Ouallet, E Le Page, D Laplaud, C Bensa, J de Sèze
BACKGROUND: Launched in the US in 2012, Choosing Wisely(®) is a campaign promoted by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation with the goal of improving healthcare effectiveness by avoiding wasteful or unnecessary medical tests, treatments and procedures. It uses concise recommendations produced by national medical societies to start discussions between physicians and patients on the relevance of these services as part of a shared decision-making process. The Multiple Sclerosis Focus Group (Groupe de Reflexion Autour de la Sclérose en Plaques; GRESEP) undertook a pilot study to assess the relevance and feasibility of this approach in the management of multiple sclerosis (MS) in France...
November 8, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125257/improving-door-to-needle-times-for-patients-with-suspected-neutropenic-sepsis
#16
Tracy Wild
Neutropenic sepsis is a potentially life-threatening complication of chemotherapy and has an associated mortality of 2% to 21%. Patients can deteriorate rapidly and are usually advised to attend their local emergency department (ED) for urgent assessment and antibiotic therapy within one hour of arrival. Delivery of this emergency care is, however, inconsistent, and at times suboptimal, due to a lack of awareness of the condition and of clinical expertise. This article discusses a collaborative project between an acute oncology service and an ED, which has improved and sustained compliance with this standard through a range of initiatives, including revised and integrated sepsis guidelines, education, sepsis champions and a fast-track patient pathway...
November 10, 2017: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124451/current-treatment-concepts-for-iatrogenic-ventriculitis-a-nationwide-survey-in-germany
#17
Niklas von Spreckelsen, Norma Jung, Sergej Telentschak, Jürgen Hampl, Roland Goldbrunner, Stefan Grau
BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic ventriculitis is a common complication of the external ventricular drainage. While the procedure and indications for external ventricular drains (EVD) are highly standardized, the treatment of ventriculitis is not clearly defined. OBJECTIVE: To depict the treatment of iatrogenic ventriculitis currently performed in German hospitals. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire consisting of 18 multiple choice questions, each with the ability to provide additional individual answers, covering the diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic ventriculitis as well as general handling of EVDs, was sent to 121 neurosurgical hospitals registered in the German Society for Neurosurgery (DGNC)...
November 9, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121626/wh%C3%A4-nau-perceptions-and-experiences-of-acute-rheumatic-fever-diagnosis-for-m%C3%A4-ori-in-northland-new-zealand
#18
Anneka Anderson, Clair Mills, Kyle Eggleton
AIM: In New Zealand, acute rheumatic fever (ARF) remains a significant health problem with persistent ethnic inequities. Māori children 5-15 years of age in Northland have some of the highest ARF rates nationally. This study explored Māori whānau experiences of ARF, including pathways to primary healthcare and barriers and facilitators for diagnosis of ARF. METHODS: The study applied a qualitative kaupapa Māori approach including eight whānau, two individual interviews and participant observations with 36 participants...
November 10, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117323/group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-for-pregnant-women-stillbirths-and-children-why-what-and-how-to-undertake-estimates
#19
Joy E Lawn, Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Neal J Russell, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Cally J Tann, Jennifer Hall, Lola Madrid, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Anna C Seale
Improving maternal, newborn, and child health is central to Sustainable Development Goal targets for 2030, requiring acceleration especially to prevent 5.6 million deaths around the time of birth. Infections contribute to this burden, but etiological data are limited. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important perinatal pathogen, although previously focus has been primarily on liveborn children, especially early-onset disease. In this first of an 11-article supplement, we discuss the following: (1) Why estimate the worldwide burden of GBS disease? (2) What outcomes of GBS in pregnancy should be included? (3) What data and epidemiological parameters are required? (4) What methods and models can be used to transparently estimate this burden of GBS? (5) What are the challenges with available data? and (6) How can estimates address data gaps to better inform GBS interventions including maternal immunization? We review all available GBS data worldwide, including maternal GBS colonization, risk of neonatal disease (with/without intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis), maternal GBS disease, neonatal/infant GBS disease, and subsequent impairment, plus GBS-associated stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal encephalopathy...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114643/analytical-evaluation-of-a-vancomycin-immunoassay-in-synovial-fluid
#20
REVIEW
Francesca Luceri, Fiamma Balboni, Giovanni Balato, Paola Pezzati, Nicoletta Cini, Gianni Virgili, Andrea Baldini
In clinical laboratories performing routine activities, the need to answer the burning clinical question in emerging field may be limited by lack of technology support or assays accessibility. Commercially available methods, although originally validated for specific biological matrices, may be employed for other matrices, following appropriate guidelines such as Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) EP 19. We investigated the use of a vancomycin assay with synovial fluid samples, in view of a possible employment in vancomycin release study...
June 2017: Joints
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