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Antibiotic guidelines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224028/evaluation-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-integron-carriage-in-helicobacter-pylori-isolates-from-patients
#1
Mehdi Goudarzi, Mohsen Heidary, Mehdi Azad, Maryam Fazeli, Hossein Goudarzi
AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and distribution of integron in H. pylori isolates collected from patients referred to private health care centers in Tehran, Iran. BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is the main reason for failure of Helicobacter pylori therapy. Integrons as genetic reservoirs play main roles in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance gene. METHODS: During a 12-month cross-sectional study period, 65 H...
December 2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223382/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-omadacycline-against-two-biothreat-pathogens-bacillus-anthracis-and-yersinia-pestis
#2
Judith Steenbergen, S Ken Tanaka, Lynda L Miller, Stephanie A Halasohoris, Jeremy R Hershfield
Introduction: The in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy of omadacycline (OMC) were evaluated against the causative pathogens of anthrax and plague, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, respectively.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of OMC were determined by microbroth dilution according to CLSI guidelines for 30 isolates each of Y. pestis and B. anthracis The in vivo efficacy of omadacycline was studied at a range of dosages in both a post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) murine model of anthrax and plague as well as in a delayed treatment model of inhalational anthrax...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220736/antibiotic-prescription-patterns-of-south-african-general-medical-practitioners-for-treatment-of-acute-bronchitis
#3
N B Q Ncube, G C Solanki, T Kredo, R Lalloo
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a significant public health problem. Prudent use of antibiotics is crucial in reducing this resistance. Acute bronchitis is a common reason for consultations with general medical practitioners, and antibiotics are often prescribed even though guidelines recommend not prescribing them for uncomplicated acute bronchitis. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the antibiotic prescription patterns of South African (SA) general medical practitioners in the treatment of acute bronchitis...
January 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220246/treatment-of-open-fractures-of-the-hand-in-the-emergency-department
#4
Nofar Ben Basat, Raviv Allon, Ahmad Nagmi, Ronit Wollstein
Current guidelines suggest early surgical treatment of open fractures. This rule in open hand fractures is not well supported and may be unpractical. Furthermore, desirable debridement and washout can be obtained in the emergency department (ED). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the level of contamination, quality of washout in the emergency room, and the development of infection. Sixty-one patients with open fractures of the hand were retrospectively reviewed for demographic and fracture characteristics, and other complications...
February 20, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216959/prescription-patterns-and-appropriateness-of-antibiotics-in-the-management-of-cough-cold-and-diarrhea-in-a-rural-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#5
Akram Ahmad, Muhammad Umair Khan, Sadiqa Malik, Guru Prasad Mohanta, S Parimalakrishnan, Isha Patel, Sameer Dhingra
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis and respiratory illnesses are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prescription pattern of antibiotic utilization during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted for 6 months in pediatric units of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Children under 5 years of age presenting with illness related to diarrhea and/or cough/cold were included in this study...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216442/a-seven-day-course-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-may-be-as-effective-as-a-seven-day-course-of-ciprofloxacin-for-the-treatment-of-pyelonephritis
#6
Miriam T Fox, Michael T Melia, Rebecca G Same, Anna T Conley, Pranita D Tamma
INTRODUCTION: The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines recommend either 14 days of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) or 7 days of ciprofloxacin for the treatment of pyelonephritis. Antibiotic courses of 7 days of TMP-SMX versus 7 days of ciprofloxacin for pyelonephritis have not been previously compared. We evaluated the odds of a subsequent, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) for women with E. coli pyelonephritis receiving a 7-day course of TMP-SMX versus a 7-day course of ciprofloxacin...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216060/incidence-of-fever-in-labor-and-risk-of-neonatal-sepsis
#7
Craig V Towers, Angela Yates, Nikki Zite, Casey Smith, Lindsey Chernicky, Bobby Howard
BACKGROUND: The current recommendation regarding the management of a term newborn delivered of a mother with an intrapartum fever or a diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis is that the neonate should have baseline laboratory work drawn along with blood cultures and be universally treated with antibiotics until culture results return. These guidelines report that the rate of intrapartum fever is about 3%; however, a few large studies suggest that the rate is higher at about 7%. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the rate of fever during labor in a large number of deliveries and determine the rate of early onset neonatal sepsis in newborns delivered from mothers with an intrapartum fever compared with the newborns that delivered from mothers that did not have an intrapartum fever...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213367/antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-infective-endocarditis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Thomas J Cahill, James L Harrison, Paul Jewell, Igho Onakpoya, John B Chambers, Mark Dayer, Peter Lockhart, Nia Roberts, David Shanson, Martin Thornhill, Carl J Heneghan, Bernard D Prendergast
OBJECTIVE: The use of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) for prevention of infective endocarditis (IE) is controversial. In recent years, guidelines to cardiologists and dentists have advised restriction of AP to high-risk groups (in Europe and the USA) or against its use at all (in the UK). The objective of this systematic review was to appraise the evidence for use of AP for prevention of bacteraemia or IE in patients undergoing dental procedures. METHODS: We conducted electronic searches in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and ISI Web of Science...
February 17, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207768/prevalence-of-mdr-pathogens-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-egypt-and-new-synergistic-antibiotic-combinations
#9
Mona M Abdelkader, Khaled M Aboshanab, Marwa A El-Ashry, Mohammad M Aboulwafa
The aim of this study was identifying bacterial pathogens involved in meningitis, studying their antibiotic resistance profiles, investigating the antibiotic resistance genes as well as evaluating the use of various antibiotic combinations. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were evaluated according to CLSI guidelines. Antibiotic combinations were evaluated by calculating the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index. A total of 71 bacterial isolates were recovered from 68 culture positive CSF specimens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205064/appropriateness-of-surgical-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-breast-surgery-procedures
#10
Smeem Jaber, Crystal Rogers, Bruce Sunderland, Richard Parsons, Sarah MacKenzie, Jason Seet, Petra Czarniak
Background Guidelines for the appropriate use of antibiotic prophylaxis are provided in the Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotics (eTG) in Australia. Inappropriate use of antibiotics is problematic. Objective To examine adherence with therapeutic guidelines (eTG) in breast surgery and trends in non-adherence dependent on the type of breast surgery performed. Setting Major Western Australian teaching hospital. Method A retrospective cross-sectional study reviewed a random sample of 150 from 1049 eligible medical records of patients who underwent a breast surgical procedure in 2013 or 2014...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199048/practice-variability-in-management-of-infectious-issues-in-heterotaxy-a-survey-of-pediatric-cardiologists
#11
Rohit S Loomba, Gabrielle Geddes, Amanda J Shillingford, David A Hehir
BACKGROUND: Splenic dysfunction is common in heterotaxy syndrome, and increases the risk of bacteremia and bacteremia related mortality. Despite the risks associated with bacteremia in this setting, best practice guidelines for management of infectious concerns are lacking. We conducted a survey of pediatric cardiologists to characterize practice regarding the diagnosis of splenic dysfunction, approach to antibiotic prophylaxis, and management of possible bacterial infection. METHODS: A 22-item web-based survey was distributed via email to pediatric cardiologists in North America...
February 15, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198727/new-guidelines-for-nosocomial-pneumonia
#12
Mark L Metersky, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of these entities were released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society in 2016. This review summarizes the recommendations contained within these guidelines and their supporting rationale. RECENT FINDINGS: With respect to diagnosis of HAP and VAP, the guidelines suggest using semiquantitative cultures of noninvasively obtained respiratory samples instead of quantitative cultures of invasively obtained samples...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198726/community-acquired-pneumonia-requiring-hospitalization-rational-decision-making-and-interpretation-of-guidelines
#13
Douwe F Postma, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the evidence base for guideline recommendations on the diagnosis, the optimal choice, timing and duration of empirical antibiotic therapy, and the use of microbiological tests for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): issues for which guidelines are frequently used as a quick reference. Furthermore, we will discuss possibilities for future research in these topics. RECENT FINDINGS: Many national and international guideline recommendations, even on critical elements of CAP management, are based on low-to-moderate quality evidence...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196700/-splenic-abscesses-from-diagnosis-to-therapy
#14
B Davido, A Dinh, E Rouveix, P Crenn, T Hanslik, J Salomon
Splenic abscess is septic collection which occurs after haematogenous spread or local dissemination. Splenic abscess is an uncommon and rare condition, more frequently affecting male and immunocompromised patients. There are no guidelines regarding its diagnosis and management. Computed tomography (CT) scan is highly sensitive and specific (95% and 92%, respectively) in the diagnosis of splenic abscess. Diagnosis is based on blood cultures which are positive in 24 to 80% of cases. Bacterial growth culture of abscess after drainage is more efficient (50-80%) and can be performed after surgery or percutaneous drainage under imaging, including CT scan...
February 10, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193184/survey-of-spanish-general-practitioners-attitudes-toward-management-of-sore-throat-an-internet-based-questionnaire-study
#15
Carl Llor, Isabel Vilaseca, Eduardo Lehrer-Coriat, Xavier Boleda, José L Cañada, Ana Moragas, Josep M Cots
BACKGROUND: The management of sore throat varies widely in Europe. The objective of this study was to gain insight into clinicians' perceptions on the current management of sore throat in Spain. METHODS: Cross-sectional, internet-based questionnaire study answered from July to September 2013. General practitioners (GPs) affiliated with the two largest scientific societies of primary care were invited to participate in the study. Questions were asked about physician knowledge, the use of current national guidelines for sore throat management, and management in two clinical scenarios, depicting a young adult with sore throat and: 1...
February 14, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192108/timely-use-of-probiotics-in-hospitalized-adults-prevents-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review-with-meta-regression-analysis
#16
Nicole T Shen, Anna Maw, Lyubov L Tmanova, Alejandro Pino, Kayley Ancy, Carl V Crawford, Matthew S Simon, Arthur T Evans
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systematic reviews have provided evidence for the efficacy of probiotics in preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but guidelines do not recommend probiotic use for prevention of CDI. We performed an updated systematic review to help guide clinical practice. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics, and The Cochrane Library databases for randomized controlled trials evaluating use of probiotics and CDI in hospitalized adults taking antibiotics...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190700/epidemiology-of-escherichia-coli-bacteraemia-in-england-results-of-an-enhanced-sentinel-surveillance-programme
#17
J Abernethy, R Guy, E A Sheridan, S Hopkins, M Kiernan, M H Wilcox, A P Johnson, R Hope
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli causes more than one-third of the bacteraemia cases in England each year, and the incidence of these infections is increasing. AIM: To determine the underlying risk factors associated with E. coli bacteraemia. METHODS: A three-month enhanced sentinel surveillance study involving 35 National Health Service hospitals was undertaken in the winter of 2012/13 to collect risk factor information and further details on the underlying source of infection to augment data already collected by the English national surveillance programme...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188364/a-survey-of-pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformation-screening-management-and-follow-up-in-hereditary-hemorrhagic-telangiectasia-centers-of-excellence
#18
Jeffrey Forris Beecham Chick, Shilpa N Reddy, Reed E Pyeritz, Scott O Trerotola
PURPOSE: To determine current practice regarding screening, management, and follow-up of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs), particularly those with feeding arteries <3 mm in diameter, in those patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) at HHT Centers of Excellence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 32-question survey focusing on PAVM screening, management, and follow-up was sent to 147 participants at HHT Centers worldwide. RESULTS: Thirty-three responses were received (22%); 60% from interventional radiologists and 20% from pulmonologists; 67% from the USA, 21% European, and 6% Asian...
February 10, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187754/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-organisms-causing-urinary-tract-infections-in-sri-lanka-and-their-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-a-hospital-based-cross-sectional-study
#19
M M P S C Fernando, W A N V Luke, J K N D Miththinda, R D S S Wickramasinghe, B S Sebastiampillai, M P M L Gunathilake, F H D S Silva, R Premaratna
BACKGROUND: Extended Spectrum Beta- Lactamase producing organisms causing urinary tract infections (ESBL-UTI) are increasing in incidence and pose a major burden to health care. While ESBL producing Klebsiella species seem to account for most nosocomial outbreaks, ESBL-producing E. coli have been isolated from both hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. Although 95-100% ESBL organisms are still considered sensitive to meropenem, rapid emergence of carbapenem resistance has been documented in many countries...
February 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187481/-hospital-antibiotic-stewardship-new-guidelines-and-new%C3%A2-findings
#20
Katja de With, Katja Wilke, Gesche Först, Evelyn Kramme, Winfried V Kern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
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