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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635509/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-dopaminergic-neurons-from-adult-common-marmoset-fibroblasts
#1
Scott C Vermilyea, Scott Guthrie, Michael Meyer, Kim Smuga-Otto, Katarina Braun, Sara Howden, James A Thomson, Su-Chun Zhang, Marina Emborg, Dr Thaddeus G Golos
The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus; Cj) is an advantageous nonhuman primate species for modeling age-related disorders, including Parkinson's disease, due to their shorter lifespan compared to macaques. Cj-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (Cj-iPSCs) from somatic cells are needed for in vitro disease modeling and testing regenerative medicine approaches. Here we report the development of a novel Cj-iPSC line derived from adult marmoset fibroblasts. The Cj-iPSCs showed potent pluripotency properties including development of mesodermal lineages in tumors after injection to immunocompromised mice, as well as ectoderm and endoderm lineages after in vitro differentiation regimens, demonstrating differentiated derivatives of all three embryonic layers...
June 21, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634270/making-muscle-skeletal-myogenesis-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#2
REVIEW
Jérome Chal, Olivier Pourquié
Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the body and loss of its function or its regenerative properties results in debilitating musculoskeletal disorders. Understanding the mechanisms that drive skeletal muscle formation will not only help to unravel the molecular basis of skeletal muscle diseases, but also provide a roadmap for recapitulating skeletal myogenesis in vitro from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). PSCs have become an important tool for probing developmental questions, while differentiated cell types allow the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634158/stem-cell-therapy-for-enhancement-of-bone-consolidation-in-distraction-osteogenesis-a-contemporary-review-of-experimental-studies
#3
Y Yang, S Lin, B Wang, W Gu, G Li
OBJECTIVES: Distraction osteogenesis (DO) mobilises bone regenerative potential and avoids the complications of other treatments such as bone graft. The major disadvantage of DO is the length of time required for bone consolidation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used to promote bone formation with some good results. METHODS: We hereby review the published literature on the use of MSCs in promoting bone consolidation during DO. RESULTS: Studies differed in animal type (mice, rabbit, dog, sheep), bone type (femur, tibia, skull), DO protocols and cell transplantation methods...
June 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633567/endogenous-bioelectric-signaling-networks-exploiting-voltage-gradients-for-control-of-growth-and-form
#4
Michael Levin, Giovanni Pezzulo, Joshua M Finkelstein
Living systems exhibit remarkable abilities to self-assemble, regenerate, and remodel complex shapes. How cellular networks construct and repair specific anatomical outcomes is an open question at the heart of the next-generation science of bioengineering. Developmental bioelectricity is an exciting emerging discipline that exploits endogenous bioelectric signaling among many cell types to regulate pattern formation. We provide a brief overview of this field, review recent data in which bioelectricity is used to control patterning in a range of model systems, and describe the molecular tools being used to probe the role of bioelectrics in the dynamic control of complex anatomy...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633566/microsphere-based-scaffolds-in-regenerative-engineering
#5
Vineet Gupta, Yusuf Khan, Cory J Berkland, Cato T Laurencin, Michael S Detamore
Microspheres have long been used in drug delivery applications because of their controlled release capabilities. They have increasingly served as the fundamental building block for fabricating scaffolds for regenerative engineering because of their ability to provide a porous network, offer high-resolution control over spatial organization, and deliver growth factors/drugs and/or nanophase materials. Because they provide physicochemical gradients via spatiotemporal release of bioactive factors and nanophase ceramics, microspheres are a desirable tool for engineering complex tissues and biological interfaces...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633074/programming-cells-for-cardiac-repair
#6
REVIEW
Rocco Romagnuolo, Michael A Laflamme
Because the heart is a poorly regenerative organ, there has been considerable interest in developing novel cell-based approaches to restore lost contractile function after myocardial infarction (MI). While a wide variety of candidate cell types have been tested in animal MI models, the vast majority of clinical trials have used adult stem cell types, usually derived from bone marrow. These studies have generally yielded disappointing results, an outcome that may reflect in part the limited cardiogenic potential of the adult stem cell sources employed...
June 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632820/the-nexus-of-stem-cell-derived-beta-cells-and-genome-engineering
#7
Sara D Sackett, Aida Rodriguez, Jon S Odorico
Diabetes, type 1 and type 2 (T1D and T2D), are diseases of epidemic proportions, which are complicated and defined by genetics, epigenetics, environment, and lifestyle choices. Current therapies consist of whole pancreas or islet transplantation. However, these approaches require life-time immunosuppression, and are compounded by the paucity of available donors. Pluripotent stem cells have advanced research in the fields of stem cell biology, drug development, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine, and importantly allows for the interrogation of therapeutic interventions...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632772/characterization-of-slow-cycling-cells-in-the-mouse-cochlear-lateral-wall
#8
Yang Li, Kotaro Watanabe, Masato Fujioka, Kaoru Ogawa
Cochlear spiral ligament fibrocytes (SLFs) play essential roles in the physiology of hearing including ion recycling and the generation of endocochlear potential. In adult animals, SLFs can repopulate after damages, yet little is known about the characteristics of proliferating cells that support SLFs' self-renewal. Here we report in detail about the characteristics of cycling cells in the spiral ligament (SL). Fifteen P6 mice and six noise-exposed P28 mice were injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) for 7 days and we chased BrdU retaining cells for as long as 60 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632137/electrospun-silk-polyaniline-conduits-for-functional-nerve-regeneration-in-rat-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#9
Suradip Das, Manav Sharma, Dhiren Saharia, Kushal Sarma, Elizabeth Muir, Utpal Bora
The present study describes the fabrication of polyaniline-silk fibroin nanocomposite based nerve conduits and its subsequent implantation in a rat sciatic nerve injury model for peripheral nerve regeneration. This is the first in vivo study of polyaniline based nerve conduit describing the safety and efficacy of the conduits in treating peripheral nerve injuries. The nanocomposite was synthesised by electrospinning a mixture of silk fibroin protein and polyaniline wherein the silk nanofibers were observed to be uniformly coated with polyaniline nanoparticles...
June 20, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631754/regenerative-medicine-new-targets-for-enhancing-cardiac-regeneration
#10
Irene Fernández-Ruiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630356/developmental-downregulation-of-lis1-expression-limits-axonal-extension-and-allows-axon-pruning
#11
Kanako Kumamoto, Tokuichi Iguchi, Ryuichi Ishida, Takuya Uemura, Makoto Sato, Shinji Hirotsune
The robust axonal growth and regenerative capacities of young neurons decrease substantially with age. This developmental downregulation of axonal growth may facilitate axonal pruning and neural circuit formation but limits functional recovery following nerve damage. While external factors influencing axonal growth have been extensively investigated, relatively little is known about the intrinsic molecular changes underlying the age-dependent reduction in regeneration capacity. We report that developmental downregulation of LIS1 is responsible for the decreased axonal extension capacity of mature dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons...
June 19, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630333/boosting-cns-axon-regeneration-by-harnessing-antagonistic-effects-of-gsk3-activity
#12
Marco Leibinger, Anastasia Andreadaki, Renate Golla, Evgeny Levin, Alexander M Hilla, Heike Diekmann, Dietmar Fischer
Implications of GSK3 activity for axon regeneration are often inconsistent, if not controversial. Sustained GSK3 activity in GSK3(S/A) knock-in mice reportedly accelerates peripheral nerve regeneration via increased MAP1B phosphorylation and concomitantly reduces microtubule detyrosination. In contrast, the current study shows that lens injury-stimulated optic nerve regeneration was significantly compromised in these knock-in mice. Phosphorylation of MAP1B and CRMP2 was expectedly increased in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons upon enhanced GSK3 activity, but, surprisingly, no GSK3-mediated CRMP2 inhibition was detected in sciatic nerves, thus revealing a fundamental difference between central and peripheral axons...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630143/extracellular-vesicles-of-stromal-origin-target-and-support-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#13
Gregoire Stik, Simon Crequit, Laurence Petit, Jennifer Durant, Pierre Charbord, Thierry Jaffredo, Charles Durand
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recently reported as crucial mediators in cell-to-cell communication in development and disease. In this study, we investigate whether mesenchymal stromal cells that constitute a supportive microenvironment for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) released EVs that could affect the gene expression and function of HSPCs. By taking advantage of two fetal liver-derived stromal lines with widely differing abilities to maintain HSPCs ex vivo, we demonstrate that stromal EVs play a critical role in the regulation of HSPCs...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629858/preparation-characterization-and-antioxidant-activity-of-silk-peptides-grafted-carboxymethyl-chitosan
#14
Meng Liu, Lian Min, Chen Zhu, Ziqie Rao, Liangling Liu, Wenyan Xu, Pengfeng Luo, Lihong Fan
Free radicals are closely related to the occurrence and development of aging, cancer and inflammation, the ability to scavenge free radicals is an important indicator of the antioxidant activity. In this study, we prepared a water soluble, free radical scavenging and biocompatible copolymer for regenerative therapy. Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) was modified with silk peptide (SP) by microbial transglutaminase (MTGase), FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy were used to confirm the successful grafting of SP to CMC. The degree of substitution was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629520/the-erythropoietin-system-protects-the-heart-upon-injury-by-cardiac-progenitor-cell-activation
#15
Maria P Zafeiriou
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a growth hormone, widely known for its role in erythropoiesis. The broad expression of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) in adult organs suggested that EPO may also affect other cells besides late erythroid progenitors. In the embryonic heart, EPOR is expressed in all cells including the immature proliferating cardiomyocytes. In contrast to the embryonic heart in adulthood, EPOR expression is decreased and mainly detected in immature proliferating cells (i.e., resident cardiac progenitor cells) rather than in terminally differentiated cells (i...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629517/erythropoietin-mediated-neuroprotection-in-insects-suggests-a-prevertebrate-evolution-of-erythropoietin-like-signaling
#16
Ralf Heinrich, Verena Günther, Natasa Miljus
The cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) mediates protective and regenerative functions in mammalian nervous systems via activation of poorly characterized receptors that differ from the "classical" homodimeric Epo receptor expressed on erythroid progenitor cells. Epo genes have been identified in vertebrate species ranging from human to fish, suggesting that Epo signaling evolved earlier than the vertebrate lineage. Studies on insects (Locusta migratoria, Chorthippus biguttulus, Tribolium castaneum) revealed Epo-mediated neuroprotection and neuroregeneration...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629082/influence-of-residual-composition-on-the-structure-and-properties-of-extracellular-matrix-derived-hydrogels
#17
Jesús A Claudio-Rizo, Magdalena Rangel-Argote, Laura E Castellano, Jorge Delgado, José L Mata-Mata, Birzabith Mendoza-Novelo
In this work, hydrolysates of extracellular matrix (hECM) were obtained from rat tail tendon (TR), bovine Achilles tendon (TAB), porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and bovine pericardium (PB), and they were polymerized to generate ECM hydrogels. The composition of hECM was evaluated by quantifying the content of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG), fibronectin and laminin. The polymerization process, structure, physicochemical properties, in vitro degradation and biocompatibility were studied and related to their composition...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628856/mammalian-synthetic-biology-in-the-age-of-genome-editing-and-personalized-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Patrick Ho, Yvonne Y Chen
The recent expansion of molecular tool kits has propelled synthetic biology toward the design of increasingly sophisticated mammalian systems. Specifically, advances in genome editing, protein engineering, and circuitry design have enabled the programming of cells for diverse applications, including regenerative medicine and cancer immunotherapy. The ease with which molecular and cellular interactions can be harnessed promises to yield novel approaches to elucidate genetic interactions, program cellular functions, and design therapeutic interventions...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627622/human-amnion-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-protect-against-uva-irradiation-induced-human-dermal-fibroblast-senescence-in%C3%A2-vitro
#19
Chunli Zhang, Haishen Yuchi, Lu Sun, Xiaoli Zhou, Jinde Lin
The aim of the present study was to determine if human amnion‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) exert a protective effect on ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation-induced human dermal fibroblast (HDF) senescence. A senescence model was constructed as follows: HDFs (104‑106 cells/well) were cultured in a six‑well plate in vitro and then exposed to UVA irradiation at 9 J/cm2 for 30 min. Following the irradiation period, HDFs were co‑cultured with HAMSCs, which were seeded on transwells. A total of 72 h following the co‑culturing, senescence‑associated β‑galactosidase staining was performed and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were detected in the HDFs via flow cytometric analysis...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627581/controlled-self-assembly-of-alginate-microgels-by-rapidly-binding-molecule-pairs
#20
Yuebi Hu, Angelo S Mao, Rajiv M Desai, Huanan Wang, David A Weitz, David J Mooney
Controlled self-assembly of cell-encapsulating microscale polymeric hydrogels (microgels) could be advantageous in a variety of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Here, a method of assembly by chemical modification of alginate polymer with binding pair molecules (BPM) was explored. Alginate was modified with several types of BPM, specifically biotin and streptavidin and click chemistry compounds, and fabricated into 25-30 μm microgels using a microfluidic platform. These microgels were demonstrated to self-assemble under physiological conditions...
June 19, 2017: Lab on a Chip
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