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Synthetic cannabinoids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334817/stability-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-biological-specimens-analysis-through-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Chelsea Fort, Thomas Jourdan, Jesse Kemp, Byron Curtis
The focus of this study was to determine the stability of four synthetic cannabinoids, XLR-11, UR-144, AB-Pinaca and AB-Fubinaca in biological specimens for the purpose of casework processing prioritization. The study used human whole blood spiked with the compounds of interest to mimic real forensic laboratory samples submitted for synthetic cannabinoid analysis. The spiked whole blood specimens were incubated under one of three temperature conditions: room or ambient (22°C), refrigerated (4°C) and frozen (-20°C) for a period of 12 weeks...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302730/distinguishing-intake-of-new-synthetic-cannabinoids-adb-pinaca-and-5f-adb-pinaca-with-human-hepatocyte-metabolites-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#2
Jeremy Carlier, Xingxing Diao, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
BACKGROUND: ADB-PINACA and its 5-fluoropentyl analog 5F-ADB-PINACA are among the most potent synthetic cannabinoids tested to date, with several severe intoxication cases. ADB-PINACA and 5F-ADB-PINACA have a different legal status, depending on the country. Synthetic cannabinoid metabolites predominate in urine, making detection of specific metabolites the most reliable way for proving intake in clinical and forensic specimens. However, there are currently no data on ADB-PINACA and 5F-PINACA metabolism...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289139/longitudinal-predictors-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-use-in-adolescents
#3
Andrew L Ninnemann, Hye Jeong Choi, Gregory L Stuart, Jeff R Temple
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are a large, heterogeneous group of chemicals that are structurally similar to δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Many SCs are high-efficacy full agonists of the CB1 and/or CB2 cannabinoid receptors, resulting in a potent group of chemicals with a variety of negative health effects, including death. SCs are available to adolescents at convenience stores and smoke shops and on the Internet. However, little is known about the risk factors that contribute to eventual use of SCs in adolescents, and no research has examined the psychiatric, personality, and substance-use risk factors that prospectively predict SC use...
March 13, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289138/health-risk-behaviors-with-synthetic-cannabinoids-versus-marijuana
#4
Heather B Clayton, Richard Lowry, Carmen Ashley, Amy Wolkin, Althea M Grant
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data are limited on the behavioral risk correlates of synthetic cannabinoid use. The purpose of this study was to compare the behavioral risk correlates of synthetic cannabinoid use with those among marijuana users. METHODS: Data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a cross-sectional survey conducted in a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 through 12 (N = 15 624), were used to examine the association between self-reported type of marijuana use (ie, never use of marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids, ever use of marijuana only, and ever use of synthetic cannabinoids) and self-report of 36 risk behaviors across 4 domains: substance use, injury/violence, mental health, and sexual health...
March 13, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287454/am-2201-inhibits-multiple-cytochrome-p450-and-uridine-5-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase-enzyme-activities-in-human-liver-microsomes
#5
Ju-Hyun Kim, Soon-Sang Kwon, Tae Yeon Kong, Jae Chul Cheong, Hee Seung Kim, Moon Kyo In, Hye Suk Lee
AM-2201 is a synthetic cannabinoid that acts as a potent agonist at cannabinoid receptors and its abuse has increased. However, there are no reports of the inhibitory effect of AM-2201 on human cytochrome P450 (CYP) or uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. We evaluated the inhibitory effect of AM-2201 on the activities of eight major human CYPs (1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4) and six major human UGTs (1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B7) enzymes in pooled human liver microsomes using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to investigate drug interaction potentials of AM-2201...
March 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286577/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-human-metabolism-of-a-new-synthetic-cannabinoid-nm-2201-cbl-2201
#6
Xingxing Diao, Jeremy Carlier, Mingshe Zhu, Shaokun Pang, Robert Kronstrand, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
In 2014, NM-2201 (CBL-2201), a novel synthetic cannabinoid (SC), was detected by Russian and United States laboratories. It was already added to the scheduled drugs list in Japan, Sweden and Germany. Unfortunately, no human metabolism data are currently available, making it challenging to confirm its intake because all previous investigated SCs were extensively metabolized. The present study aims to recommend appropriate marker metabolites by investigating NM-2201 metabolism in human hepatocytes and confirm the results in authentic human urine specimens...
January 2017: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284383/tubulointerstitial-injury-and-drugs-of-abuse
#7
REVIEW
Arani Nanavati, Leal C Herlitz
Drug abuse is widespread in many populations, and patients abusing illicit substances are at a significantly increased risk of kidney injury. The tubulointerstitial compartment is a common target of these nephrotoxic agents. This review will cover some of the common illicit drugs and will focus on the tubulointerstitial injuries seen in the setting of drug abuse. Agents addressed in this review are synthetic cannabinoids, "bath salts," ecstasy, anabolic steroids, inhaled solvents, heroin, and cocaine. The most frequent biopsy findings are those of acute tubular necrosis and acute interstitial nephritis...
March 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283378/the-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-ur-144-on-the-human-body-a-review-of-39-cases
#8
Piotr Adamowicz, Joanna Gieroń, Dominika Gil, Wojciech Lechowicz, Agnieszka Skulska, Bogdan Tokarczyk
UR-144 [(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone] is a synthetic cannabinoid, which has been detected in many 'legal highs', seized from the global drug market since the beginning of 2012. It has gained popularity as a 'legal' alternative to classic cannabis in countries where it was not controlled. Despite the widespread distribution of this substance, the data on its effects on the human body are scarce. Therefore, this paper describes the results of analysis and observed effects in 39 cases in which UR-144 was determined in blood...
March 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281107/cannabis-for-pain-and-headaches-primer
#9
REVIEW
Philip S Kim, Michael A Fishman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Marijuana has been used both medicinally and recreationally since ancient times and interest in its compounds for pain relief has increased in recent years. The identification of our own intrinsic, endocannabinoid system has laid the foundation for further research. RECENT FINDINGS: Synthetic cannabinoids are being developed and synthesized from the marijuana plant such as dronabinol and nabilone. The US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of dronabinol and nabilone for chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) wasting...
April 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276820/cannabinoids-for-treating-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-where-are-we-and-where-do-we-go
#10
Carina Hasenoehrl, Martin Storr, Rudolf Schicho
Fifty years after the discovery of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as the psychoactive component of Cannabis, we are assessing the possibility of translating this herb into clinical treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Here, a discussion on the problems associated with a potential treatment is given. From first surveys and small clinical studies in patients with IBD we have learned that Cannabis is frequently used to alleviate diarrhea, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite. Single ingredients from Cannabis, such as THC and cannabidiol, commonly described as cannabinoids, are responsible for these effects...
April 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267375/university-students-attributions-for-abstinence-from-synthetic-cannabinoids-and-synthetic-cathinones
#11
Kirstin J Lauritsen, Harold Rosenberg, Jon E Sprague
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are two increasingly available and potentially dangerous classes of substances. OBJECTIVE: We designed this study to test whether university students rated the influence of different types of reasons for abstaining differently as a function of type of drug (synthetic cannabinoids vs. synthetic cathinones) and gender (male vs. female). METHOD: Using a web-based survey, 176 male and 437 female undergraduate university students rated the degree to which each of 42 reasons for not taking drugs influenced their abstinence from those two classes of substances...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263006/rapid-analysis-of-forensic-related-samples-using-two-ambient-ionization-techniques-coupled-to-high-resolution-mass-spectrometers
#12
Eshwar Jagerdeo, Amanda Wriston
RATIONALE: This paper highlights the versatility of interfacing two ambient ionization techniques, Laser Diode Thermal Desorption (LDTD) and Atmospheric Solids Analysis probe (ASAP), to high resolution mass spectrometers and demonstrate the method's capability to rapidly generate high-quality data from multiple sample types with minimal, if any sample preparation. METHODS: For ASAP-MS analysis of solid and liquid samples, the material was transferred to a capillary surface before being introduced into the mass spectrometer...
March 6, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262132/ischemic-stroke-associated-with-the-use-of-a-synthetic-cannabinoid-spice
#13
Sebastian Moeller, Caroline Lücke, Tobias Struffert, Bernhard Schwarze, Stefan T Gerner, Stefan Schwab, Martin Köhrmann, Kristin Machold, Alexandra Philipsen, Helge H Müller
Synthetic cannabinoids, i.e. "spice", are psychoactive drugs with increasing use worldwide. Spice may have harmful neuropsychiatric and physical side effects. Here, we present the case of a 25-year-old man with ischemic stroke after smoking spice on the previous evening. Diagnostic work-up was negative for other common causes of stroke. Toxicology screen unveiled the cannabimimetic ADB-FUBINACA in the drug sample and in patient's urine. The cardiac sympathomimetic effect of spice might have triggered an unnoticed episode of tachyarrhythmia and resulted in stroke via cardioembolic etiology...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261100/endocannabinoids-a-promising-impact-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
REVIEW
Lesley D Schurman, Aron H Lichtman
The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system regulates a diverse array of physiological processes and unsurprisingly possesses considerable potential targets for the potential treatment of numerous disease states, including two receptors (i.e., CB1 and CB2 receptors) and enzymes regulating their endogenous ligands N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG). Increases in brain levels of endocannabinoids to pathogenic events suggest this system plays a role in compensatory repair mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249817/the-direct-actions-of-cannabidiol-and-2-arachidonoyl-glycerol-at-gabaa-receptors
#15
T Bakas, P S van Nieuwenhuijzen, S O Devenish, I S McGregor, J C Arnold, M Chebib
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-intoxicating component of cannabis and possesses anti-epileptic, anxiolytic and anti-hyperalgesic properties. The mechanism of action of CBD in producing such effects remains unclear. Despite evidence that some endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids interact with GABAA receptors, no-one has yet investigated the effects of CBD. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology to compare the actions of CBD with those of the major central endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) on human recombinant GABAA receptors (synaptic α1-6βγ2 and extrasynaptic α4β2δ) expressed on Xenopus oocytes...
February 27, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245077/marijuana-and-other-cannabinoids-as-a-treatment-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-literature-review
#16
Maria M Steenkamp, Esther M Blessing, Isaac R Galatzer-Levy, Laura C Hollahan, William T Anderson
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in the general population, yet there are limitations to the effectiveness, tolerability, and acceptability of available first-line interventions. We review the extant knowledge on the effects of marijuana and other cannabinoids on PTSD. Potential therapeutic effects of these agents may largely derive from actions on the endocannabinoid system and we review major animal and human findings in this area. Preclinical and clinical studies generally support the biological plausibility for cannabinoids' potential therapeutic effects, but underscore heterogeneity in outcomes depending on dose, chemotype, and individual variation...
February 28, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240187/the-endocannabinoid-system-modulating-levels-of-consciousness-emotions-and-likely-dream-contents
#17
Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, José Carlos Pastrana-Trejo, Mireille Salas-Crisóstomo, Miriel de-la-Cruz
Cannabinoids are derivatives that are either compounds occurring naturally in the plant, Cannabis sativa or synthetic analogs of these molecules. The first and most widely investigated of the cannabinoids is ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), which is the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis and undergoes significant binding to cannabinoid receptors. These cannabinoid receptors are seven-transmembrane receptors that received their name from the fact that they respond to cannabinoid compounds, including Δ9-THC...
February 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238395/profound-hypotension-and-bradycardia-in-the-setting-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-intoxication-a-case-series
#18
David O Andonian, Shauna R Seaman, Elaine B Josephson
Cannabinoids are the most commonly used illegal substances in the world [1]. Synthetic Cannabinoids (SCB) are also known as "Spice", "K2", "Spike", "herbal incense", "Cloud 9", "Mojo" and many others are becoming a large public health concern due to their increasing use, unpredictable toxicity, and abuse potential [2]. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison control record are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo, chest pain, acute kidney injury, seizures, heart attacks and both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes [3]...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237318/strokes-are-possible-complications-of-cannabinoids-use
#19
REVIEW
Valérie Wolff, Emilie Jouanjus
It is critically important to identify all factors that may play a role in the recent increase of the incidence of stroke among the young population. Considering the worldwide use of cannabinoids (cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids), the recent legalization of their consumption in some countries, and their supposed involvement in cardiovascular events, we evaluated their role in the occurrence of neurovascular complications among the young. Ninety-eight patients were described in the literature as having a cannabinoids-related stroke (85 after cannabis use and 13 after synthetic cannabinoids)...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235999/concise-review-of-the-management-of-iatrogenic-emesis-using-cannabinoids-emphasis-on-nabilone-for-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting
#20
REVIEW
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Robert Taylor, Jo Ann LeQuang, Gianpietro Zampogna, Robert B Raffa
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a prevalent, distressing, and burdensome side effect of cancer chemotherapy. It is estimated to affect the majority of patients receiving certain anti-cancer drug regimens and can be treatment-limiting, even for life-saving medications. Despite seemingly numerous options, such as antimuscarinic anticholinergics, antihistamines, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, dopamine receptor antagonists, and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists, preventative therapies are often inadequately effective, particularly for "delayed CINV"-leaving an important unmet clinical need...
March 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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