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amniotic fluid infection

Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Yi Xu, Derek Miller, Yaozhu Leng, Bogdan Panaitescu, Pablo Silva, Jonathan Faro, Ali Alhousseini, Navleen Gill, Sonia S Hassan, Chaur-Dong Hsu
PROBLEM: The immune cellular composition of amniotic fluid is poorly understood. Herein, we determined: 1) the immunophenotype of amniotic fluid immune cells during the second and third trimester in the absence of intra-amniotic infection/inflammation; 2) whether amniotic fluid T cells and ILCs display different phenotypical characteristics to that of peripheral cells; and 3) whether the amniotic fluid immune cells are altered in women with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation. METHOD OF STUDY: Amniotic fluid samples (n = 57) were collected from 15 to 40 weeks of gestation in women without intra-amniotic infection/inflammation...
March 3, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Lutiana Roque Simões, Gustavo Sangiogo, Michael Hikaru Tashiro, Jaqueline S Generoso, Cristiano Julio Faller, Diogo Dominguini, Gustavo Antunes Mastella, Giselli Scaini, Vijayasree Vayalanellore Giridharan, Monique Michels, Drielly Florentino, Fabricia Petronilho, Gislaine Zilli Réus, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Alexandra I Zugno, Tatiana Barichello
Evidence suggest that prenatal immune system disturbance contributes largely to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. We investigated if maternal immune activation (MIA) could induce inflammatory alterations in fetal brain and pregnant rats. Adult rats subjected to MIA also were investigated to evaluate if ketamine potentiates the effects of infection. On gestational day 15, Wistar pregnant rats received lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce MIA. After 6, 12 and 24 h, fetus brain, placenta, and amniotic fluid were collected to evaluate early effects of LPS...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Emmanuelle Varlet-Marie, Yvon Sterkers, Marina Perrotte, Patrick Bastien
Toxoplasmosis is generally a benign infection caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii but can have severe consequences in fetuses of mothers infected during pregnancy (congenital toxoplasmosis) and immunocompromised individuals. PCR-based diagnostic tests have become crucial for its diagnosis. However, this molecular diagnosis essentially relies upon laboratory-developed methods and suffers from a lack of standardization, leading to great variation in methods and performance among laboratories. With the need for accreditation of clinical microbiological laboratories, the use of commercial PCR kits has become an attractive alternative; but thorough evaluation of newly commercialized kits by proficient groups is necessary before any recommendation can be made to parasitology laboratories by health authorities or learned societies...
February 22, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Mylène Da Silva, Clara Dombre, Aurélien Brionne, Philippe Monget, Magali Chessé, Marion De Pauw, Maryse Mills, Lucie Combes-Soia, Valérie Labas, Nicolas Guyot, Yves Nys, Sophie Rehault-Godbert
In many amniotes, the amniotic fluid is depicted as a dynamic milieu that participates in the protection of the embryo (cushioning, hydration, and immunity). However, in birds, the protein profile of the amniotic fluid remains unexplored, even though its proteomic signature is predicted to differ compared to human's. In fact, unlike humans, chicken amniotic fluid does not collect excretory products and its protein composition strikingly changes at mid-development due to the massive inflow of egg white proteins, which are thereafter swallowed by the embryo to support its growth...
February 14, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Mutsumi Miyauchi, Min Ao, Hisako Furusho, Chanbora Chea, Atsuhiro Nagasaki, Shinnichi Sakamoto, Toshinori Ando, Toshihiro Inubushi, Katsuyuki Kozai, Takashi Takata
Dental infection is risk for preterm birth (PTB) through unclear mechanisms. We established a dental infection-induced PTB mouse model, in which Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) induced PTB by 2 days. We analysed pathogenic factors contributing to PTB and their effects on trophoblasts in vitro. TNF-α, IL-8, and COX-2 were upregulated in P.g.-infected placenta. Galectin-3 (Gal-3), an immune regulator, was significantly upregulated in placenta, amniotic fluid, and serum. In vitro, P.g.-lipopolysaccharide (P.g...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jay Vornhagen, Phoenicia Quach, Verónica Santana-Ufret, Varchita Alishetti, Alyssa Brokaw, Blair Armistead, Hai Qing Tang, James W MacDonald, Theodor K Bammler, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Niels Uldbjerg, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and lacks an effective therapy. Ascending microbial infections from the lower genital tract lead to infection of the placenta, amniotic fluid and fetus causing preterm birth or stillbirth. Directly in the path of an ascending infection is the cervical mucus plug (CMP), a dense mucoid structure in the cervical canal with potential antimicrobial properties. In this study, we aimed to define the components of CMP responsible for antimicrobial activity against a common lower genital tract organism associated with preterm birth and stillbirths, namely Group B Streptococcus (GBS)...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Loredana Delle Chiaie, Patrick Neuberger, Matthias Vochem, Angela Lihs, Ulrich Karck, Martin Enders
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of obstetrical adverse events and clinical outcome in infants following antenatal hyperimmune globulin (HIG) treatment for primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in pregnancy. METHODS: Data from 50 women including three twin pregnancies were retrospectively evaluated. Primary infection was defined by seroconversion or the presence of CMV-specific IgM and low IgG avidity. All women received two or more infusions of HIG (200 U/kg)...
February 5, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Mamta Dhaneria, Sachin Jain, Poonam Singh, Aditya Mathur, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg, Ashish Pathak
Very little is known about laboratory-confirmed blood stream infections (LCBIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in resource-limited settings. The aim of this cohort study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and causative agents of LCBIs in a level-2 NICU in India. The diagnosis of LCBIs was established using the Centre for Disease Control, USA criteria. A predesigned questionnaire containing risk factors associated with LCBIs was filled-in. A total of 150 neonates (43% preterm) were included in the study...
January 30, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: Amoxicillin is a broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. Due to its low toxicity, it is commonly used in obstetrics. The objective of this study was to assess amoxicillin concentrations in amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, placenta and maternal serum two hours following oral administration among pregnant women at term and to assess obstetric and non-obstetric factors that might affect amoxicillin's penetration of these tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 full-term pregnant women who qualified for elective Caesarean delivery were included in the study...
December 25, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Erin M Fricke, Timothy G Elgin, Huiyu Gong, Jeff Reese, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Robert M Weiss, Kathy Zimmerman, Noelle C Bowdler, Karen M Kalantera, David A Mills, Mark A Underwood, Steven J McElroy
PROBLEM: Premature birth complicates 10%-12% of deliveries. Infection and inflammation are the most common etiologies and are associated with increased offspring morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced maternal inflammation causes direct placenta injury and subsequent injury to the fetal intestine. METHOD OF STUDY: Pregnant C57Bl6 mice were injected intraperitoneally on day 15.5 with 100 μg/kg LPS or saline. Maternal serum, amniotic fluid, placental samples, and ileal samples of offspring were obtained assessed for inflammation and/or injury...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Leila Chimelli, Sheila Moura Pone, Elyzabeth Avvad-Portari, Zilton Farias Meira Vasconcelos, Andrea Araújo Zin, Daniela Prado Cunha, Nathalia Raposo Thompson, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira, Clayton A Wiley, Marcos Vinicius da Silva Pone
During the Zika epidemic in Brazil, a baby was born at term with microcephaly and arthrogryposis. The mother had Zika symptoms at 10 weeks of gestation. At 17 weeks, ultrasound showed cerebral malformation and ventriculomegaly. At 24 weeks, the amniotic fluid contained ZIKV RNA and at birth, placenta and maternal blood were also positive using RT-qPCR. At birth the baby urine contained ZIKV RNA, whereas CSF at birth and urine at 17 days did not. Seizures started at 6 days. EEG was abnormal and CT scan showed cerebral atrophy, calcifications, lissencephaly, ventriculomegaly, and cerebellar hypoplasia...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Noa A Brzezinski-Sinai, Moshe Stavsky, Tal Rafaeli-Yehudai, Maayan Yitshak-Sade, Isaac Brzezinski-Sinai, Majdi Imterat, Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia, Offer Erez
OBJECTIVES: To analyze in a retrospective cohort study the outcomes of pregnancies with isolated oligohydramnios at the late preterm period (34-36.6 weeks of gestation). STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study included three groups of women: (1) Women with isolated oligohydramnios whose pregnancy was managed conservatively (n = 33 births); (2) women with isolated oligohydramnios who were managed actively (i.e. induction of labor) (n = 111 births); and (3) a control group including women with normal amount of amniotic fluid who had a spontaneous late preterm delivery (n = 10,445 births)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
I W Husstedt, M Maschke, C Eggers, E Neuen-Jacob, G Arendt
Zika virus is an arbovirus from the family of flaviviruses, which is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegyptii and also by the Asian mosquito Aedes albopticus. The largest observed Zika virus epidemic is currently taking place in North and South America, in the Caribbean, southern USA and Southeast Asia. In most cases the infection is an unspecific, acute, febrile disease. Neurological manifestations consist mainly of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome but other rare manifestations have also become known in the meantime, such as meningoencephalitis and myelitis...
January 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Noriko Yoneda, Satoshi Yoneda, Hideki Niimi, Masami Ito, Kaori Fukuta, Tomohiro Ueno, Mika Ito, Arihiro Shiozaki, Mika Kigawa, Isao Kitajima, Shigeru Saito
PROBLEM: To investigate whether amniotic fluid (AF) "sludge" in patients with preterm labor (PTL) with intact membranes is related to intra-amniotic infection or inflammation. METHOD OF STUDY: 105 PTL patients before 29 weeks' gestation were enrolled. AF "sludge" was evaluated by transvaginal sonography. Microorganisms were identified in AF by our newly established PCR method using a eukaryote-made thermostable DNA polymerase. RESULTS: AF "sludge" was present in 18...
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Percy Pacora, Roberto Romero, Offer Erez, Eli Maymon, Bogdan Panaitescu, Juan Pedro Kusanovic, Adi L Tarca, Chaur-Dong Hsu, Sonia S Hassan
INTRODUCTION: A bioassay based on the detection of beta-glucan, a constituent of the cell wall of fungi, has been successfully used to diagnose fungal infections in a variety of biological fluids but not yet in the amniotic fluid. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic performance of a beta-glucan bioassay in the detection of Candida species in the amniotic fluid of women who either did or did not have an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) in place during an episode of spontaneous preterm parturition...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
María Isabel Relimpio-López, María Gessa-Sorroche, Antonio Manuel Garrido-Hermosilla, Concepción Díaz-Ruiz, Jesús Montero-Iruzubieta, Jaime Etxebarría-Ecenarro, Diego Ruiz-Casas, Enrique Rodríguez-de-la-Rúa-Franch
PURPOSE: To present the different evolution of 2 cases of endophthalmitis caused by Fusarium solani, an aggressive filamentous fungus, depending on the medical and surgical treatment performed. METHODS: We present 2 cases of endophthalmitis caused by Fusarium solani. Topical, intrastromal, intravitreal, and systemic antifungal treatment (natamycin, voriconazole, amphotericin B) failed in both cases. Corneal perforation took place in one of them, being unsuccessfully treated with cyanoacrylate and several amniotic membrane transplants...
November 30, 2017: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
Alberto Hidalgo-Chicharro, Raquel Abad-Torreblanca, José María Navarro-Marí, José Gutiérrez-Fernández
Introduction. Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) usually has a multifactorial etiology that is often unknown, although the most frequently reported cause is infection by group B Streptococcus . Therefore, the etiology of PPROM, although probably infectious, remains unknown in most cases. This case describes a PPROM caused by infection from oropharyngeal microbiota. Case presentation. We report the case of a 26-yr-old pregnant woman. The gestational age was 32 weeks+5 days. Examinations in the emergency department revealed the release of clear amniotic fluid and a closed multiparous cervix with a length of 22 mm...
October 2017: JMM Case Reports
S De Carolis, S Tabacco, F Rizzo, G Perrone, C Garufi, A Botta, S Salvi, P Benedetti Panici, A Lanzone
The present study investigated: (a) the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and (b) the obstetric outcome in healthy pregnant women showing false-positive TORCH-Toxoplasmosis, Other: syphilis, varicella-zoster, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes infections-results. Data from 23 singleton healthy pregnancies with false-positive TORCH results were collected. Each woman was systematically screened for TORCH IgG and IgM during the pre-conception assessment and/or at the beginning of pregnancy. In the presence of IgM positivity, when indicated (CMV, toxoplasmosis, rubella, herpes simplex virus), IgG avidity was evaluated and, if possible, polymerase chain reaction was performed on an amniotic fluid sample in order to distinguish between primary infection or false positivity...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
Grace Lim, Eleni Kotsis, Jamie M Zorn, Patricia L Dalby, Catherine J Ralph, Jonathan H Waters
BACKGROUND: The safety and effectiveness of cell salvage for vaginal delivery is unknown. This case series aimed to assess the utility and adverse events related to the use of cell salvage for maternal haemorrhage during vaginal delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort study design was chosen, focused on postpartum haemorrhages that occurred after vaginal delivery for which cell salvage equipment was requested to be set up in the labour and delivery room outside of a sterile operating room environment...
September 29, 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
Sridhar Santhanam, Sumita Arun, Grace Rebekah, Nithya J Ponmudi, Jolly Chandran, Ruby Jose, Atanu Kumar Jana
Objectives: To identify the perinatal risk factors for early-onset Group B Streptococcus (EOGBS) sepsis in neonates after inception of a risk-based maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis strategy in 2004. Design: Case control study. Methods: All newborn with early onset GBS sepsis (born between 2004 and 2013) were deemed to be "cases" and controls were selected in a 1:4 ratio. Results: More than three per vaginal (PV) examinations [odds ratio (OR) 8...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
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