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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318332/-zika-virus-infection-and-the-nervous-system
#1
REVIEW
I W Husstedt, M Maschke, C Eggers, E Neuen-Jacob, G Arendt
Zika virus is an arbovirus from the family of flaviviruses, which is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegyptii and also by the Asian mosquito Aedes albopticus. The largest observed Zika virus epidemic is currently taking place in North and South America, in the Caribbean, southern USA and Southeast Asia. In most cases the infection is an unspecific, acute, febrile disease. Neurological manifestations consist mainly of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome but other rare manifestations have also become known in the meantime, such as meningoencephalitis and myelitis...
January 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280532/sludge-reflects-intra-amniotic-inflammation-with-or-without-microorganisms
#2
Noriko Yoneda, Satoshi Yoneda, Hideki Niimi, Masami Ito, Kaori Fukuta, Tomohiro Ueno, Mika Ito, Arihiro Shiozaki, Mika Kigawa, Isao Kitajima, Shigeru Saito
PROBLEM: To investigate whether amniotic fluid (AF) "sludge" in patients with preterm labor (PTL) with intact membranes is related to intra-amniotic infection or inflammation. METHOD OF STUDY: 105 PTL patients before 29 weeks' gestation were enrolled. AF "sludge" was evaluated by transvaginal sonography. Microorganisms were identified in AF by our newly established PCR method using a eukaryote-made thermostable DNA polymerase. RESULTS: AF "sludge" was present in 18...
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226760/the-diagnostic-performance-of-the-beta-glucan-assay-in-the-detection-of-intra-amniotic-infection-with-candida-species
#3
Percy Pacora, Roberto Romero, Offer Erez, Eli Maymon, Bogdan Panaitescu, Juan Pedro Kusanovic, Adi L Tarca, Chaur-Dong Hsu, Sonia S Hassan
INTRODUCTION: A bioassay based on the detection of beta-glucan, a constituent of the cell wall of fungi, has been successfully used to diagnose fungal infections in a variety of biological fluids but not yet in the amniotic fluid. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic performance of a beta-glucan bioassay in the detection of Candida species in the amniotic fluid. METHODS: The study population comprised women who had a singleton pregnancy without congenital or chromosomal abnormalities, who experienced preterm labor or preterm prelabor rupture of the fetal membranes, and who underwent transabdominal amniocentesis for clinical indications...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190624/extreme-surgical-maneuvers-in-fungal-endophthalmitis
#4
María Isabel Relimpio-López, María Gessa-Sorroche, Antonio Manuel Garrido-Hermosilla, Concepción Díaz-Ruiz, Jesús Montero-Iruzubieta, Jaime Etxebarría-Ecenarro, Diego Ruiz-Casas, Enrique Rodríguez-de-la-Rúa-Franch
PURPOSE: To present the different evolution of 2 cases of endophthalmitis caused by Fusarium solani, an aggressive filamentous fungus, depending on the medical and surgical treatment performed. METHODS: We present 2 cases of endophthalmitis caused by Fusarium solani. Topical, intrastromal, intravitreal, and systemic antifungal treatment (natamycin, voriconazole, amphotericin B) failed in both cases. Corneal perforation took place in one of them, being unsuccessfully treated with cyanoacrylate and several amniotic membrane transplants...
November 30, 2017: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188068/32-week-premature-rupture-of-membranes-caused-by-oropharyngeal-microbiota
#5
Alberto Hidalgo-Chicharro, Raquel Abad-Torreblanca, José María Navarro-Marí, José Gutiérrez-Fernández
Introduction. Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) usually has a multifactorial etiology that is often unknown, although the most frequently reported cause is infection by group B Streptococcus. Therefore, the etiology of PPROM, although probably infectious, remains unknown in most cases. This case describes a PPROM caused by infection from oropharyngeal microbiota. Case presentation. We report the case of a 26-yr-old pregnant woman. The gestational age was 32 weeks+5 days. Examinations in the emergency department revealed the release of clear amniotic fluid and a closed multiparous cervix with a length of 22 mm...
October 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157179/association-between-false-positive-torch-and-antiphospholipid-antibodies-in-healthy-pregnant-women
#6
S De Carolis, S Tabacco, F Rizzo, G Perrone, C Garufi, A Botta, S Salvi, P Benedetti Panici, A Lanzone
The present study investigated: (a) the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and (b) the obstetric outcome in healthy pregnant women showing false-positive TORCH-Toxoplasmosis, Other: syphilis, varicella-zoster, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes infections-results. Data from 23 singleton healthy pregnancies with false-positive TORCH results were collected. Each woman was systematically screened for TORCH IgG and IgM during the pre-conception assessment and/or at the beginning of pregnancy. In the presence of IgM positivity, when indicated (CMV, toxoplasmosis, rubella, herpes simplex virus), IgG avidity was evaluated and, if possible, polymerase chain reaction was performed on an amniotic fluid sample in order to distinguish between primary infection or false positivity...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106356/cell-salvage-for-postpartum-haemorrhage-during-vaginal-delivery-a-case-series
#7
Grace Lim, Eleni Kotsis, Jamie M Zorn, Patricia L Dalby, Catherine J Ralph, Jonathan H Waters
BACKGROUND: The safety and effectiveness of cell salvage for vaginal delivery is unknown. This case series aimed to assess the utility and adverse events related to the use of cell salvage for maternal haemorrhage during vaginal delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort study design was chosen, focused on postpartum haemorrhages that occurred after vaginal delivery for which cell salvage equipment was requested to be set up in the labour and delivery room outside of a sterile operating room environment...
September 29, 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036682/perinatal-risk-factors-for-neonatal-early-onset-group-b-streptococcal-sepsis-after-initiation-of-risk-based-maternal-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-a-case-control-study
#8
Sridhar Santhanam, Sumita Arun, Grace Rebekah, Nithya J Ponmudi, Jolly Chandran, Ruby Jose, Atanu Kumar Jana
Objectives: To identify the perinatal risk factors for early-onset Group B Streptococcus (EOGBS) sepsis in neonates after inception of a risk-based maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis strategy in 2004. Design: Case control study. Methods: All newborn with early onset GBS sepsis (born between 2004 and 2013) were deemed to be "cases" and controls were selected in a 1:4 ratio. Results: More than three per vaginal (PV) examinations [odds ratio (OR) 8...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034376/exploring-the-pregnant-guinea-pig-as-a-model-for-group-b-streptococcus-intrauterine-infection
#9
Maria I Harrell, Kellie Burnside, Christopher Whidbey, Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Infection of the amniotic cavity remains a major cause of preterm birth, stillbirth, fetal injury and early onset, fulminant infections in newborns. Currently, there are no effective therapies to prevent in utero infection and consequent co-morbidities. This is in part due to the lack of feasible and appropriate animal models to understand mechanisms that lead to in utero infections. Use of mouse and rat models do not fully recapitulate human pregnancy, while pregnant nonhuman primate models are limited by ethical considerations, technical constraints, and cost...
September 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030612/healing-of-preterm-ruptured-fetal-membranes
#10
Haruta Mogami, Annavarapu Hari Kishore, Yucel Akgul, R Ann Word
Preterm premature rupture of membrane (pPROM) is associated with 30-40% of preterm births. Infection is considered a leading cause of pPROM due to increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in amniotic fluid. Only 30%, however, are positive for microbial organisms by amniotic fluid culture. Interestingly, in some pregnancies complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM), membranes heal spontaneously and pregnancy continues until term. Here, we investigated mechanisms of amnion healing. Using a preclinical mouse model, we found that small ruptures of the fetal membrane closed within 72 h whereas healing of large ruptures was only 40%...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030170/in-utero-negativization-of-zika-virus-in-a-foetus-with-serious-central-nervous-system-abnormalities
#11
C Rodó, A Suy, E Sulleiro, A Soriano-Arandes, A Antón, I García-Ruiz, S Arévalo, É Vázquez, A Vázquez, F de Ory, M P Sánchez-Seco, C Rodrigo, T Pumarola, E Carreras
We describe a case of a pregnant woman with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and a foetus with severe brain malformations. ZIKV tested positive in amniotic fluid at 19 weeks but was negative at delivery. The newborn did not meet the case definition of congenital ZIKV syndrome because neither ZIKV RNA nor IgM antibodies were detected; however, prenatal brain lesions were confirmed after birth (Graphical Abstract).
October 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020827/the-frequency-and-clinical-significance-of-intra-amniotic-inflammation-in-twin-pregnancies-with-preterm-labor-and-intact-membranes
#12
Kyung Joon Oh, Joon-Seok Hong, Roberto Romero, Bo Hyun Yoon
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of intra-amniotic inflammation in twin pregnancies with preterm labor and intact membranes. STUDY DESIGN: Amniotic fluid (AF) was retrieved from both sacs in 90 twin gestations with preterm labor and intact membranes (gestational age between 20 and 34 6/7 weeks). Preterm labor was defined as the presence of painful regular uterine contractions, with a frequency of at least 2 every 10 min, requiring hospitalization...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016591/caesarean-section-during-second-stage-of-labor-in-a-tertiary-centre
#13
Padma Gurung, Sameer Malla, Sushma Lama, Anagha Malla, Alka Singh
BACKGROUND: There is an alarming rise in caesarean section leading to increased adverse outcomes for both the mother and fetus when compared with vaginal delivery. Within this increasing caesarean section rate, there is a concerning increase in the rate of second stage caesarean section. This study highlight the feto-maternal outcome of caesarean section in second stage of labour. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort review of all women with a singleton, cephalic fetus at term delivered by caesarean section in the second stage of labor between April 1, 2013 and March 30, 2017 at Patan Academy of Health Sciences...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978246/prevention-and-treatment-of-fetal-cytomegalovirus-infection-with-cytomegalovirus-hyperimmune-globulin-a-multicenter-study-in-madrid
#14
Daniel Blázquez-Gamero, Alberto Galindo Izquierdo, Teresa Del Rosal, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Nuria Izquierdo Méndez, María Soriano-Ramos, Pablo Rojo Conejo, María Isabel González-Tomé, Antonio García-Burguillo, Noelia Pérez Pérez, Virginia Sánchez, Jose Tomás Ramos-Amador, Maria De la Calle
INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of congenital infection worldwide. Data about the management of CMV infection in pregnant women are scarce, and treatment options are very limited. The aim of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin (CMV-HIG) for the prevention and treatment of congenital CMV (cCMV) infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in three tertiary hospitals in Madrid...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964823/are-amniotic-fluid-neutrophils-in-women-with-intraamniotic-infection-and-or-inflammation-of-fetal-or-maternal-origin
#15
Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Yi Xu, Yaozhu Leng, Valeria Garcia-Flores, Derek Miller, Suzanne M Jacques, Sonia S Hassan, Jonathan Faro, Adham Alsamsam, Ali Alhousseini, Hunter Gomez-Roberts, Bogdan Panaitescu, Lami Yeo, Eli Maymon
BACKGROUND: Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cells found in the amniotic cavity of women with intraamniotic infection and/or inflammation. The current belief is that these neutrophils are of fetal origin. However, abundant neutrophils have been found in the amniotic fluid of women with a severe acute maternal inflammatory response but without a fetal inflammatory response in the placenta, suggesting that these innate immune cells can also be of maternal origin or a mixture of both fetal and maternal neutrophils...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956761/apobec3a-is-upregulated-by-human-cytomegalovirus-hcmv-in-the-maternal-fetal-interface-acting-as-an-innate-anti-hcmv-effector
#16
Yiska Weisblum, Esther Oiknine-Djian, Zichria Zakay-Rones, Olesya Vorontsov, Ronit Haimov-Kochman, Yuval Nevo, David Stockheim, Simcha Yagel, Amos Panet, Dana G Wolf
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of congenital infection and is associated with a wide range of neurodevelopmental disabilities and intrauterine growth restriction. Yet our current understanding of the mechanisms modulating transplacental HCMV transmission is poor. The placenta, given its critical function in protecting the fetus, has evolved effective yet largely uncharacterized innate immune barriers against invading pathogens. Here we show that the intrinsic cellular restriction factor apolipoprotein B editing catalytic subunit-like 3A (APOBEC3A [A3A]) is profoundly upregulated following ex vivo HCMV infection in human decidual tissues-constituting the maternal aspect of the placenta...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946175/parameters-associated-with-adverse-fetal-outcomes-in-parvovirus-b19-congenital-infection
#17
Isabela Karine Rodrigues Agra, Antonio Gomes Amorim Filho, Lawrence Hsu Lin, Sckarlet Ernandes Biancolin, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco, Maria de Lourdes Brizot
Objective To investigate the clinical and sonographic parameters associated with adverse fetal outcomes in patients with congenital parvovirus B19 infection managed by intrauterine transfusion. Methods This was a single-center retrospective study conducted from January 2005 to December 2016 that assessed patients with singleton pregnancies with fetal parvovirus infection confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction of the amniotic fluid or fetal blood samples who underwent at least one intrauterine transfusion...
November 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939908/microbiome-profile-of-the-amniotic-fluid-as-a-predictive-biomarker-of-perinatal-outcome
#18
Daichi Urushiyama, Wataru Suda, Eriko Ohnishi, Ryota Araki, Chihiro Kiyoshima, Masamitsu Kurakazu, Ayako Sanui, Fusanori Yotsumoto, Masaharu Murata, Kazuki Nabeshima, Shin'ichiro Yasunaga, Shigeru Saito, Makoto Nomiyama, Masahira Hattori, Shingo Miyamoto, Kenichiro Hata
Chorioamnionitis (CAM), an inflammation of the foetal membranes due to infection, is associated with preterm birth and poor perinatal prognosis. The present study aimed to determine whether CAM can be diagnosed prior to delivery based on the bacterial composition of the amniotic fluid (AF). AF samples from 79 patients were classified according to placental inflammation: Stage III (n = 32), CAM; Stage II (n = 27), chorionitis; Stage 0-I (n = 20), sub-chorionitis or no neutrophil infiltration; and normal AF in early pregnancy (n = 18)...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899604/clinical-and-epidemiological-use-of-nested-pcr-targeting-the-repetitive-element-is1111-associated-with-the-transposase-gene-from-coxiella-burnetii
#19
Maria Angélica M M Mares-Guia, Alexandro Guterres, Tatiana Rozental, Michelle Dos Santos Ferreira, Elba R S Lemos
Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii-a small obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium found in a variety of animals. It is transmitted to humans by inhalation of contaminated aerosols from urine, feces, milk, amniotic fluid, placenta, abortion products, wool, and rarely by ingestion of raw milk from infected animals. Nested PCR can improve the sensitivity and specificity of testing while offering a suitable amplicon size for sequencing. Serial dilutions were performed tenfold to test the limit of detection, and the result was 10× detection of C...
August 24, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891072/stable-control-of-physiological-parameters-but-not-infection-in-preterm-lambs-maintained-on-ex-vivo-uterine-environment-therapy
#20
Yuichiro Miura, Haruo Usuda, Shimpei Watanabe, Eleanor Woodward, Masatoshi Saito, Gabrielle C Musk, Suhas G Kallapur, Shinichi Sato, Ryuta Kitanishi, Tadashi Matsuda, John P Newnham, Sarah J Stock, Matthew W Kemp
Ex vivo uterine environment (EVE) therapy is an experimental neonatal intensive care strategy wherein gas exchange is performed by membranous oxygenators attached to the umbilical vessels. Our aim was to assess the ability of a newly refined EVE system to maintain key physiological parameters in preterm lambs within optimal ranges for 48 h. EVE group; n = 6: Preterm lambs were delivered under general anesthesia at 115 ± 2 days of gestational age. Animals were submerged in a bath of artificial amniotic fluid on EVE therapy for 48 h...
September 11, 2017: Artificial Organs
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