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Lubertus Bijlsma, Rubén Gil-Solsona, Félix Hernández, Juan Vicente Sancho
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are consumed as legal alternative to cannabis and often allow passing drug-screening tests. Their rapid transience on the drug scene, combined with their mostly unknown metabolic profiles, creates a scenario with constantly moving analytical targets, making their monitoring and identification challenging. The development of fast screening strategies for SCs, not directly focused on their chemical structure, as an alternative to the commonly applied target acquisition methods, would be highly appreciated in forensic and public health laboratories...
June 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Liu Yang, Yufei Chen, Lei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To establish the detection method for poppy codeine in seasoning power based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA( LAMP). METHODS: Establishment of the LAMP reaction system and detection of 8 commercially seasoning powders by the specificity test, optimum temperature test and sensitivity test of DNA samples of 12 poppies seeds, 11 spices leaves or seeds and 1 corn poppy seeds based on the specific genes sequence of codeine. RESULTS: The DNA samples of the 12 poppies and the corn poppy showed the specific reaction, the optimum temperature was 66 ℃ and the minimum detectable concentration was 9 pg/μL, and the sensitivity was 100 times larger than that of PCR...
September 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Hong Liu, Jie Zheng, Pengzhan Liu, Fankui Zeng
In this study, the effects of different pulverizing methods on the chemical attributes and thermal properties of black, white and green pepper were evaluated. Cryogenic grinding minimally damaged the lipid, moisture, crude protein, starch, non-volatile ether extract, piperine, essential oil and the typical pepper essential oil compounds of the spices. The pulverizing methods and storage significantly affected the compositions of the fatty acid in the peppers, except for palmitic acid and lignoceric acid. The amino acid contents and the thermo-gravimetric analysis curve were hardly influenced by the grinding techniques...
June 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Kwok Kiong Chan, Muhammad Shafique Bin Hamid, Richard D Webster
Capsaicinoids were extracted from a range of spices and chillies using methanol, prior to concentrating the compounds using solid-phase extraction cartridges and water/methanol (50:50% v/v) as the solvent, followed by elution with acetonitrile. The primary extraction procedure, involving only sonication of the spices in methanol, gave results comparable to a procedure that used a combination of sonication, stirring and centrifuging. The voltammetric quantification of the capsaicinoids, at approximately +0.5 V vs...
November 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jameel Ahmed Baig, Saba Bhatti, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Hassan Imran Afridi
The quantitative assessments and daily intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) were conducted in the 26 common spices collected from the market of Hyderabad, Pakistan. Conventional acid digestion procedure was applied for dissolution of common spices and the contents of toxic elemental were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The conventional acid digestion method was validated by certified reference materials and standard addition. A wide variability was observed in the levels of toxic elements in common spices...
June 7, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Alexandra Walter, Marlene Seegräber, Andreas Wollenberg
A wide variety of foods may cause or aggravate skin diseases such as contact dermatitis, contact urticaria, or atopic dermatitis (AD), both in occupational and private settings. The mechanism of action underlying allergic disease to food, food additives, and spices may be immunologic and non-immunologic. The classification and understanding of these reactions is a complex field, and knowledge of the possible reaction patterns and appropriate diagnostic test methods is essential. In addition, certain foods may cause worsening of atopic dermatitis lesions in children...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Djinoumi Olivia Opportune Akpo-Djènontin, Fernand Gbaguidi, Mohamed M Soumanou, Victor B Anihouvi
Mold infestation and occurrence of aflatoxins were investigated in 66 samples of dried spices and aromatic herbs powder (SAH) as commercialized in Benin and its neighboring countries. The samples were randomly collected from markets, supermarkets, and processing sites. Mold counts were enumerated according to standard method and aflatoxins levels were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The results revealed that mold counts of samples ranged between 2...
May 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Ning Li, Yanxu Yin, Fei Wang, Minghua Yao
Pepper ( Capsicum ) is one of the most important vegetable and spice crops. Aphid-transmitted cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causes significant damage to pepper crops across the world. The genetic basis of CMV resistance in pepper is complex, and the mechanisms underlying resistance remain largely unknown. Here, we employed a SLAF-seq approach to generate a high-density genetic map of pepper. The map spanned 1,785.46 cM, containing 12,727 markers on 12 chromosomes, with a mean marker distance of 0.16 cM between adjacent markers...
March 2018: Breeding Science
P Sestili, T Ismail, C Calcabrini, M Guescini, E Catanzaro, E Turrini, A Layla, S Akhtar, C Fimognari
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L., OB) is a plant world widely used as a spice and a typical ingredient of the healthy Mediterranean diet. In traditional medicine, OB is indicated for many maladies and conditions; OB-containing nutritional supplements are increasingly sold. Conversely, safety concerns have been raised about the promutagens and procarcinogens alkenylbenzenes contained in OB. Areas covered: A critical review of the current status of OB as a nutraceutical, the pharmacology of its bioactive components, the rationale for its indications, and its safety...
June 4, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Ivana Šola, Mirta Stipaničev, Valerija Vujčić, Božena Mitić, Ana Huđek, Gordana Rusak
Native Crocus taxa are abundant in regions with moderate and dry climate; however, their potential in the food industry has thus far been neglected. The objective of this study was to compare the quantitative and qualitative flavonoid content and antioxidant and cytotoxic activity in organs of several populations of Croatian native taxa and assess their potential for application in the food industry. The dominant flavonoids in the native Crocus taxa were kaempferol and quercetin. Tepals contained similar or higher concentrations of flavonoid-glycosides than other organs...
June 2, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Domenico Cautela, Filomena Monica Vella, Domenico Castaldo, Bruna Laratta
Fennel crop has been traditionally used as spice in cooking and fragrances, and in folk medicine for its spectrum of useful properties. Mediterranean is the elective natural cultivation area for this plant with Italy being a leader producer. A limit of this production is due to the high amount of wastes derived still rich of phytochemicals, which are usually underused. Hence, the extraction and characterization of essential oil from residues of fennel horticultural market was investigated to understand the potential profit of their recycling...
May 30, 2018: Natural Product Research
Olivia Costantina Demurtas, Sarah Frusciante, Paola Ferrante, Gianfranco Diretto, Noraddin Hosseinpour Azad, Marco Pietrella, Giuseppe Aprea, Anna Rita Taddei, Elena Romano, Jianing Mi, Salim Al-Babili, Lorenzo Frigerio, Giovanni Giuliano
Saffron is composed of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus and is the most expensive spice on Earth. Its red color is due to the apocarotenoid glycosides, crocins, which accumulate in the vacuole and reach up to 10% of the stigma dry weight. We have previously characterized the first dedicated enzyme in crocin biosynthesis, CsCCD2, which cleaves zeaxanthin to yield crocetin dialdehyde. In this work, we identified six putative aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) transcripts expressed in saffron stigmas. When expressed in E...
May 29, 2018: Plant Physiology
N K Rakhi, Rudraksh Tuwani, Jagriti Mukherjee, Ganesh Bagler
Spices and herbs are key dietary ingredients used across cultures worldwide. Beyond their use as flavoring and coloring agents, the popularity of these aromatic plant products in culinary preparations has been attributed to their antimicrobial properties. Last few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of biomedical literature investigating the impact of spices and herbs on health, presenting an opportunity to mine for patterns from empirical evidence. Systematic investigation of empirical evidence to enumerate the health consequences of culinary herbs and spices can provide valuable insights into their therapeutic utility...
2018: PloS One
Yeon-Hwa Lee, Na-Young Song, Jinyoung Suh, Do-Hee Kim, Wonki Kim, Jihyae Ann, Jeewoo Lee, Jeong-Heum Baek, Hye-Kyung Na, Young-Joon Surh
SIRT1, an NAD+ -dependent histone/protein deacetylase, has diverse physiological actions. Recent studies have demonstrated that SIRT1 is overexpressed in colorectal cancer, suggesting its oncogenic potential. However, the molecular mechanisms by which overexpressed SIRT1 induces the progression of colorectal cancer and its inhibition remain largely unknown. Curcumin (diferuloymethane), a major component of the spice turmeric derived from the plant Curcuma longa L., has been reported to exert chemopreventive and anti-carcinogenic effects on colon carcinogenesis...
May 25, 2018: Cancer Letters
R Perestrelo, Catarina L Silva, Pedro Silva, J S Câmara
The current study reports the effect of storage temperature, storage time and glucose content on the volatomic signature of Tinta Negra wines using liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) combined with gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT MS). A total of 65 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in Tinta Negra, of which only 14 appear during storage. Based on the results, the freshness and fruitiness odours that are related to the presence of some varietal and fermentative components (e...
July 2018: Food Research International
Burcu Guldiken, Gülay Özkan, Gizem Catalkaya, Fatma Duygu Ceylan, İpek Ekin Yalçınkaya, Esra Capanoglu
Phytochemicals are bioactive plant compounds that can be used as antimicrobial, antibacterial, anticancer agents and are reported to prevent cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Herbs and spices are rich in phytochemicals and can be consumed or used traditionally for medical or dietary purposes since the ancient times. However, there may be serious health risks for some population groups such as pregnant women and infants in the case of their unconscious and uncontrolled consumption. Several in vivo and in vitro studies related with the toxicological effects of phytochemicals in herbs and spices created awareness among consumers...
May 23, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Marcia Cruz-Correa, Linda M Hylind, Jessica Hernandez Marrero, Marianna L Zahurak, Tracy Murray-Stewart, Robert A Casero, Elizabeth A Montgomery, Christine Iacobuzio-Donahue, Lodewijk A Brosens, G Johan Offerhaus, Asad Umar, Luz M Rodriguez, Francis M Giardiello
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Familial adenomatous polyposis is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by development of hundreds of colorectal adenomas and eventually colorectal cancer. Oral administration of the spice curcumin has been followed by regression of polyps in patients with this disorder. We performed a double-blind, randomized trial to determine the safety and efficacy of curcumin in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. METHODS: Our study comprised 44 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (18 to 85 years old) who had either not undergone colectomy or had undergone colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis or ileal anal pouches and had 5 or more intestinal adenomatous polyps, enrolled in Puerto Rico or the United States from September 2011 through November 2016...
May 23, 2018: Gastroenterology
Żaneta Zdanowska-Sąsiadek, Joanna Marchewka, Jarosław Olav Horbańczuk, Agnieszka Wierzbicka, Paulina Lipińska, Artur Jóźwik, Atanas G Atanasov, Łukasz Huminiecki, Aleksander Sieroń, Karolina Sieroń, Nina Strzałkowska, Adrian Stelmasiak, Stefaan De Smet, Thomas Van Hecke, Louwrens C Hoffman
The aim of the study was to compare three types of meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat in relation to their nutrients content including fat, fatty acids, heme iron, and peptides, like anserine and carnosine, from which human health may potentially benefit. Dry meat samples were produced, from one type of muscle, obtained from ostrich ( m. ambiens ), beef ( m. semimembranosus ), and broiler chicken meat ( m. pectoralis major ). The composition of dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat, with and without spices was compared...
May 25, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Anindita Dutta, Anindita Chakraborty
In recent years, natural bioactive components draw a major attention for their potent anticarcinogenic activity. Cinnamon, one of the traditional spices, most frequently used in almost every household of tropical countries has got enormous efficacy to combat cancer. Cinnamon as a whole and/or its active components exhibited significant antineoplastic activity in different types of cancer. This review has been carried out to elicit the molecular mechanisms of action of cinnamon and its components on oncogenic regulators and related pathways...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Esmat Alemzadeh, Ahmad Oryan
Crocus sativus is a spice with various pharmacological properties. Crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal are the main compositions of saffron that have recently been considered in the therapy of many diseases. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed presence of these compounds in our saffron extract. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of saffron on burn wound healing at an in vivo model. Saffron was topically applied on burn wounds in rats; the percentage of wound closure, wound contraction, and the levels of main cytokines and growth factors were measured...
May 23, 2018: Planta Medica
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