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Poovvathingal Haris, Varughese Mary, Chellappanpillai Sudarsanakumar
6-Gingerol [5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) decan-3-one], the bio-active ingredient of the popular Indian spice ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), is well-known for its pharmacological and physiological actions. The potent antioxidant, antiemetic, antiulcer, antimicrobial, analgesic, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, immunostimulant, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and cancer prevention activities of 6-Gingerol has been investigated and explored. 6-Gingerol is a good candidate for the treatment of various cancers including prostrate, pancreatic, breast, skin, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and renal cancer...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Dirk Selmar, Alzahraa Radwan, Neama Abdalla, Hussein Taha, Carina Wittke, Ahmed El-Henawy, Tarek Alshaal, Megahed Amer, Maik Kleinwächter, Melanie Nowak, Hassan El-Ramady
This study aimed to elucidate the origin of the widespread nicotine contamination of plant-derived commodities, by conducting field experiments with various herbs and spice plants. By scattering tobacco and cigarette butts on the field and subsequent nicotine analyses of the acceptor plants, we verified that the alkaloid is leached out into the soil and is taken up by the crop plants. This path of contamination pertains even when there is only one cigarette butt per square meter. Even such minor pollution results - at least in the case of basil and peppermint - in considerable high nicotine contaminations, which exceed the maximum residue level by more than 20-fold...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ann Lowenfels, Mary Jo Pattison, Anne M Martin, Cindy Ferrari
Most Americans consume more than the recommended daily level of sodium, and tools are needed to assess and improve food practices related to sodium. We describe how the Sodium Practices Assessment Tool (SPAT) was developed and used in 19 hospitals and senior meal facilities in upstate New York. Initial results identified opportunities for improvement in food preparation, presentation, and purchasing practices to reduce sodium consumption. Pre-post comparison results showed significant increases in the use of herbs, spices, unsalted butter, fruits and vegetables, and in the availability of lower-sodium foods...
February 15, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Tara L Moore, Bethany G E Bowley, Penny L Shultz, Samantha M Calderazzo, Eli J Shobin, Ajay R Uprety, Douglas L Rosene, Mark B Moss
Aged individuals experience decreased fine motor function of the hand and digits, which could result, in part, from the chronic, systemic state of inflammation that occurs with aging. Recent research for treating age-related inflammation has focused on the effects of nutraceuticals that have anti-inflammatory properties. One particular dietary polyphenol, curcumin, the principal curcuminoid of the spice turmeric, has been shown to have significant anti-inflammatory effects and there is mounting evidence that curcumin may serve to reduce systemic inflammation...
February 15, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Adrian L Lopresti
Curcumin, from the spice turmeric, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, and neurotrophic activity and therefore holds promise as a therapeutic agent to prevent and treat several disorders. However, a major barrier to curcumin's clinical efficacy is its poor bioavailability. Efforts have therefore been dedicated to developing curcumin formulations with greater bioavailability and systemic tissue distribution. However, it is proposed in this review that curcumin's potential as a therapeutic agent may not solely rely on its bioavailability, but rather its medicinal benefits may also arise from its positive influence on gastrointestinal health and function...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Shabnam Sepahpour, Jinap Selamat, Mohd Yazid Abdul Manap, Alfi Khatib, Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis
This study evaluated the efficacy of various organic solvents (80% acetone, 80% ethanol, 80% methanol) and distilled water for extracting antioxidant phenolic compounds from turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass extracts. They were analyzed regarding the total phenol and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and concentration of some phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay...
February 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Aminur Rahman, Ian Jordan, Denis Blackmore
It has been observed through experiments and SPICE simulations that logical circuits based upon Chua's circuit exhibit complex dynamical behaviour. This behaviour can be used to design analogues of more complex logic families and some properties can be exploited for electronics applications. Some of these circuits have been modelled as systems of ordinary differential equations. However, as the number of components in newer circuits increases so does the complexity. This renders continuous dynamical systems models impractical and necessitates new modelling techniques...
January 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Oussama Ahrazem, Javier Argandoña, Alessia Fiore, Carolina Aguado, Rafael Luján, Ángela Rubio-Moraga, Mónica Marro, Cuauhtémoc Araujo-Andrade, Pablo Loza-Alvarez, Gianfranco Diretto, Lourdes Gómez-Gómez
Crocins, the red soluble apocarotenoids of saffron, accumulate in the flowers of Crocus species in a developmental and tissue-specific manner. In Crocus sieberi, crocins accumulate in stigmas but also in a distinct yellow tepal sector, which we demonstrate contains chromoplast converted from amyloplasts. Secondary metabolites were analysed by LC-DAD-HRMS, revealing the progressive accumulation of crocetin and crocins in the yellow sector, which were also localized in situ by Raman microspectroscopy. To understand the underlying mechanisms of crocin biosynthesis, we sequenced the C...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Veda Prachayasittikul, Supaluk Prachayasittikul, Somsak Ruchirawat, Virapong Prachayasittikul
Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum) or coriander is one of the most popularly used spices in culinary worldwide, and its medicinal values has been recognized since ancient time. C. sativum contains bioactive phytochemicals that are accounted for a wide range of biological activities including antioxidant, anticancer, neuroprotective, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, analgesic, migraine-relieving, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, antimicrobial, and antiinflammatory activities. The major compound, linalool, abundantly found in seeds is remarked for its abilities to modulate many key pathogenesis pathways of diseases...
March 2018: Food Research International
Katerina I Aleksieva, Nicola D Yordanov
Irradiation of food in the world is becoming a preferred method for their sterilization and extending their shelf life. For the purpose of trade with regard to the rights of consumers is necessary marking of irradiated foodstuffs, and the use of appropriate methods for unambiguous identification of radiation treatment. One-third of the current standards of the European Union to identify irradiated foods use the method of the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. On the other hand the current standards for irradiated foods of plant origin have some weaknesses that led to the development of new methodologies for the identification of irradiated food...
March 2018: Food Research International
Eman Shawky, Rasha M Abou El Kheir
INTRODUCTION: Species of Apiaceae are used in folk medicine as spices and in officinal medicinal preparations of drugs. They are an excellent source of phenolics exhibiting antioxidant activity, which are of great benefit to human health. Discrimination among Apiaceae medicinal herbs remains an intricate challenge due to their morphological similarity. OBJECTIVE: In this study, a combined "untargeted" and "targeted" approach to investigate different Apiaceae plants species was proposed by using the merging of high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-image analysis and pattern recognition methods which were used for fingerprinting and classification of 42 different Apiaceae samples collected from Egypt...
February 11, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Fenglin Gu, Feifei Huang, Guiping Wu, Hongying Zhu
Black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.) is the most widely used spice in the world. Blackening is considered to be beneficial and important in the processing of black pepper because it contributes to its color and flavor. The purpose of this paper is to investigate polyphenol oxidation as well as the chlorophyll and vitamin C (VC) degradation in the blackening of Piper nigrum L. Black pepper was produced by four methods, and changes in polyphenols, chlorophyll and VC were studied by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultraviolet-visible and visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry...
February 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jonathan Isbill, Jayanthi Kandiah, Jagdish Khubchandani
Background: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies has increased in the United States, but little is known about consumers' perceptions of use of such therapies. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge, perceptions, and predictors of spice use for health promotion among adults in the Midwestern US. Methods: UUsing a cross-sectional study design, adults in the Midwestern US (n = 703) completed a valid and reliable survey which was pilot tested with a small convenience sample of adults (n = 38)...
2018: Health Promotion Perspectives
Elizabeth M Carney, Wendy M Stein, Nicole A Reigh, Felicia M Gater, Alyssa J Bakke, John E Hayes, Kathleen L Keller
American children do not meet the recommended daily servings of vegetables, and previous research suggests children who can taste the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) are more likely to have low vegetable intake. This study tested the hypothesis that adding multiple herb and spice blends to vegetables to increase flavor variety within a meal would increase vegetable intake in 3-5year-old children. Children attended two laboratory visits and consumed two test meals of common foods: macaroni and cheese, applesauce, carrots, milk, and water...
February 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Chi-An Lee, Ronald Labbé
The role of spices as vehicles of foodborne illness prompted an examination of bacterial spores in these products. Here, we report on the levels and characteristics of spores of Clostridium perfringens associated with 247 U.S. retail spices. Forty-three confirmed isolates from 17% of samples were obtained, present at levels ranging from 3.6 to 2,400/g. Twenty-seven (63%) of C. perfringens isolates were positive for the enterotoxin gene ( cpe). Seven random spice isolates produced enterotoxin at levels of between 4 and 16 ng/mL, compared with three outbreak (control) strains that each produced enterotoxin levels of >1,024 ng/mL...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Tae Hwan Kim, Soyoung Shin, Sun Dong Yoo, Beom Soo Shin
Pungent spice constituents such as piperine, capsaicin and [6]-gingerol consumed via daily diet or traditional Chinese medicine, have been reported to possess various pharmacological activities. These dietary phytochemicals have also been reported to inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro and act as an alternative to synthetic P-gp modulators. However, the in vivo effects on P-gp inhibition are currently unknown. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that phytochemical P-gp inhibitors, i.e., piperine, capsaicin and [6]-gingerol, modulate the in vivo tissue distribution of doxorubicin, a representative P-gp substrate...
February 7, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Maryam Zahin, Mohammad Shavez Khan, Faizan Abul Qais, Hussein Hasan Abulreesh, Iqbal Ahmad
Spices and herbs are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants and thus play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases and aging. Piper cubeba is one among them and known for its medicinal properties for decades. Various biological activities are associated with its extract and phytocompounds. However, the anti-mutagenic activity of antioxidant rich extract is less explored. In this study, we performed the fraction-based antioxidant activity of P. cubeba using four different assays and evaluated the anti-mutagenic activity of most potent antioxidant fraction using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains against four mutagens (methyl methanesulfonate [MMS], sodium azide [SA], benzo(a)pyrene, and 2-aminoflourene) respectively...
February 7, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Linda Saxe Einbond, Fabiana Manservisi, Hsan-Au Wu, Michael Balick, Victoria Antonetti, Andrea Vornoli, Ilaria Menghetti, Fiorella Belpoggi, Stephen Redenti, Alan Roter
The spice turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has a long history of use as an anti-inflammatory agent. The active component curcumin induces a variety of diverse biological effects and forms a series of degradation and metabolic products in vivo. Our hypothesis is that the field of toxicogenomics provides tools that can be used to characterize the mode of action and toxicity of turmeric components and to predict turmeric-drug interactions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 4 days with turmeric root containing about 3% curcumin (comparable to what people consume in the fresh or dried root) or a fraction of turmeric enriched for curcumin (∼74%) and liver tissue collected for gene expression analysis...
February 2, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Ishrat Husain, Rumana Ahmad, Anu Chandra, Syed Tasleem Raza, Yogeshwer Shukla, Farzana Mahdi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: India being a multicultural nation, every region of the country offers a distinct culinary flavor and taste. These flavours are attributed to spices and condiments which form the mainstay of Indian cuisine. Most of these spices and condiments are derived from various biodiversity hotspots in India and form the crux of India's multidiverse and multicultural cuisine. Apart from their varying aromas, flavors and tastes, these spices and condiments are known to possess several medicinal properties also...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Xiaojian Yin, Shi-Lei Wang, Raphael N Alolga, Enos Mais, Ping Li, Pingfang Yang, Setsuko Komatsu, Lian-Wen Qi
Ginger is a popular spice used in food and beverages. In this study, we sought to characterize and differentiate ginger samples of Ghana and China origin using label-free proteomic and untargeted metabolomic analyses. As result, a total of 180 proteins significantly changed between the ginger samples from both studied countries. Among them, 17 proteins were specifically identified in the Chinese ginger, while 23 proteins were only identified in the Ghanaian ginger. Function and bioinformatics analyses indicated that changes in carbon metabolism, secondary metabolites biosyntheses, citrate acid cycle, and amino acids biosyntheses-related pathways contributed to the differences...
May 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
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