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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299191/cytomegalovirus-in-pregnancy-and-the-neonate
#1
REVIEW
Vincent C Emery, Tiziana Lazzarotto
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a leading cause of disability in children. Understanding the pathogenesis of infection from the mother via the placenta to the neonate is crucial if we are to produce new interventions and provide supportive mechanisms to improve the outcome of congenitally infected children. In recent years, some major goals have been achieved, including the diagnosis of primary maternal CMV infection in pregnant women by using the anti-CMV IgG avidity test and the diagnosis and prognosis of foetal CMV infection by using polymerase chain reaction real-time tests to detect and quantify the virus in amniotic fluid...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296632/severe-neurologic-disorders-in-2-fetuses-with-zika-virus-infection-colombia
#2
Jorge Acosta-Reyes, Edgar Navarro, Maria José Herrera, Eloina Goenaga, Martha L Ospina, Edgar Parra, Marcela Mercado, Pablo Chaparro, Mauricio Beltran, Maria Luz Gunturiz, Lissethe Pardo, Catalina Valencia, Sandra Huertas, Jorge Rodríguez, Germán Ruiz, Diana Valencia, Lisa B Haddad, Sarah C Tinker, Cynthia A Moore, Hernando Baquero
We report the results of pathologic examinations of 2 fetuses from women in Colombia with Zika virus infection during pregnancy that revealed severe central nervous system defects and potential associated abnormalities of the eye, spleen, and placenta. Amniotic fluid and tissues from multiple fetal organs tested positive for Zika virus.
June 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293501/management-of-a-complex-excoriation-disorder-induced-wound-with-a-viable-cryopreserved-placental-membrane
#3
Michael A Bain, Jennifer Vincent
Excoriation disorder (ED), also known as dermatotillomania, is a condition characterized by repeated "skin picking" that leads to the formation of skin lesions. Because of the similarity of its symptoms to obsessive compulsive disorder, ED is classified as a subcategory of obsessive compulsive disorder by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition. Although the majority of the self-inflicted wounds are not clinically significant, many wounds lead to social and occupational dysfunction by becoming infected, chronic, and life threatening...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292285/congenital-malformations-and-medical-conditions-associated-with-orofacial-clefts-in-children-in-burkina-faso
#4
Kisito Nagalo, Isso Ouédraogo, Jean-Martin Laberge, Louise Caouette-Laberge, Jean Turgeon
BACKGROUND: Orofacial clefts are usually isolated cases but can be associated with other congenital malformations that are either recognised or unrecognised syndromes. The reported prevalence and pattern of such associated malformations, however, vary among studies. OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequencies and aetiologies of congenital malformations and associated medical conditions in children with orofacial clefts in Burkina Faso (Western Africa). METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was carried out at the El Fateh-Suka Clinic in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso...
March 14, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267444/a-multicenter-prospective-study-of-neonatal-outcomes-at-less-than-32-weeks-associated-with-indications-for-maternal-admission-and-delivery
#5
Thomas J Garite, C Andrew Combs, Kimberly Maurel, Anita Das, Kevin Huls, Richard Porreco, Dale Reisner, George Lu, Melissa Bush, Bruce Morris, April Bleich
BACKGROUND: Counseling for patients with impending premature delivery has been traditionally based primarily on the projected gestational age at delivery. There are limited data regarding how the indications for the preterm birth affect the neonatal outcome and whether this issue should be taken into account in decisions regarding management and patient counseling. OBJECTIVE: We performed a prospective study of pregnancies resulting in premature delivery at less than 32 weeks to determine the influence of both the Indications for Admission and their associated Indications for Delivery on neonatal mortality and complications of prematurity...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257964/twenty-five-percent-of-patients-with-clinical-chorioamnionitis-in-preterm-gestations-have-no-evidence-of-either-culture-proven-intra-amniotic-infection-or-intra-amniotic-inflammation
#6
Kyung Joon Oh, Sun Min Kim, Joon-Seok Hong, Eli Maymon, Offer Erez, Bogdan Panaitescu, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Bo Hyun Yoon
BACKGROUND: Recent studies on clinical chorioamnionitis at term suggest that some patients with this diagnosis have neither intra-amniotic infection nor intra-amniotic inflammation. A false-positive diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis in preterm gestation may lead to unwarranted preterm delivery. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of intra-amniotic inflammation and microbiologically proven amniotic fluid (AF) infection in patients with preterm clinical chorioamnionitis...
February 28, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231241/hydrocephalus-and-arthrogryposis-in-an-immunocompetent-mouse-model-of-zika-teratogeny-a-developmental-study
#7
Jose Xavier-Neto, Murilo Carvalho, Bruno Dos Santos Pascoalino, Alisson Campos Cardoso, Ângela Maria Sousa Costa, Ana Helena Macedo Pereira, Luana Nunes Santos, Ângela Saito, Rafael Elias Marques, Juliana Helena Costa Smetana, Silvio Roberto Consonni, Carla Bandeira, Vivian Vasconcelos Costa, Marcio Chaim Bajgelman, Paulo Sérgio Lopes de Oliveira, Marli Tenorio Cordeiro, Laura Helena Vega Gonzales Gil, Bianca Alves Pauletti, Daniela Campos Granato, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Lucio Freitas-Junior, Carolina Borsoi Moraes Holanda de Freitas, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Estela Bevilacqua, Kleber Franchini
The teratogenic mechanisms triggered by ZIKV are still obscure due to the lack of a suitable animal model. Here we present a mouse model of developmental disruption induced by ZIKV hematogenic infection. The model utilizes immunocompetent animals from wild-type FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J strains, providing a better analogy to the human condition than approaches involving immunodeficient, genetically modified animals, or direct ZIKV injection into the brain. When injected via the jugular vein into the blood of pregnant females harboring conceptuses from early gastrulation to organogenesis stages, akin to the human second and fifth week of pregnancy, ZIKV infects maternal tissues, placentas and embryos/fetuses...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222448/acute-effects-of-viral-exposure-on-p-glycoprotein-function-in-the-mouse-fetal-blood-brain-barrier
#8
Enrrico Bloise, Sophie Petropoulos, Majid Iqbal, Alisa Kostaki, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho, William Gibb, Stephen G Matthews
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB). As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of the developing fetus to environmental toxins and xenobiotics present in the maternal circulation...
February 22, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217610/disseminated-tuberculosis-in-a-newborn-infant
#9
Tanu Sagar, Kavita Gupta, Mayuri Rani, Iqbal Rajinder Kaur
Tuberculosis (TB) remaining as one of the deadliest communicable diseases. Congenital infection by vertical transmission is rare but high neonatal mortality (up to 60%) and morbidity warrant early and accurate diagnosis of newborns suffering from TB. Intrauterine infection of tuberculosis is most commonly caused by haematogenous spread from the mother causing placental seedling. The organisms reach the fetus via the umbilical vein and the primary focus is often in the fetal liver in hematgenous spread. Another route of infection is by direct ingestion or aspiration of infected amniotic fluid if the placental caseous lesion ruptures directly into the amniotic cavity...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209336/analysis-of-blood-from-zika-virus-infected-fetuses-a-prospective-case-series
#10
Bruno Schaub, Manon Vouga, Fatiha Najioullah, Michèle Gueneret, Alice Monthieux, Caroline Harte, Françoise Muller, Eugénie Jolivet, Clara Adenet, Sophie Dreux, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Raymond Cesaire, Jean-Luc Volumenie, David Baud
BACKGROUND: Zika virus has spread through the Americas and the Caribbean since early 2015 and was rapidly declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by WHO because of the potential association with fetal anomalies. We analysed fetal and maternal fluids and tissues in fetuses with confirmed Zika virus infection prospectively monitored in Martinique, a French Caribbean island. METHODS: Since the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak in Martinique, all pregnant women undergo monthly fetal ultrasound examination surveillance...
February 10, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207161/prenatal-diagnosis-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-115-cases-a-5%C3%A2-years-single-centre-experience
#11
M Enders, A Daiminger, S Exler, K Ertan, G Enders, R Bald
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic value of invasive prenatal diagnosis (PD) of congenital CMV infection from amniotic fluid (AF) and fetal blood (FB) METHODS: Retrospective study on 115 pregnancies with CMV primary infection. A total of 111 AF and 106 FB samples were investigated for various virological and non-virological markers. Detailed ultrasound examinations were performed at time of PD. RESULTS: Overall sensitivity of CMV PCR in FB (75.6%; 95%CI 60-87) and AF (72...
February 16, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202111/-mortality-rate-and-cause-of-death-in-hospitalized-neonates-an-analysis-of-480-cases
#12
Feng-Dan Xu, Xiang-Yong Kong, Zhi-Chun Feng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mortality rate and the cause of death of hospitalized neonates. METHODS: The clinical data of 480 neonates who died between January 2008 and December 2014 were collected. The mortality rates of neonates with different gestational ages, birth weights, sexes, and ages in days were analyzed. The abnormal perinatal factors, cause of death, and death grade were summarized. RESULTS: Among the 41 910 hospitalized neonates, 480 (1...
February 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178046/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-pregnant-women
#13
Barret Rush, Pawel Martinka, Brett Kilb, Robert C McDermid, John H Boyd, Leo Anthony Celi
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in pregnant patients as well as to investigate clinical conditions associated with mortality. METHODS: We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2006 to 2012 to identify a cohort of pregnant patients who underwent mechanical ventilation for ARDS. A multivariate model predicting in-hospital mortality was created. RESULTS: A total of 55,208,382 hospitalizations from the 2006-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Samples were analyzed...
March 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167848/amniotic-fluid-infection-in-preterm-pregnancies-with-intact-membranes
#14
Tarja Myntti, Leena Rahkonen, Irmeli Nupponen, Anu Pätäri-Sampo, Minna Tikkanen, Timo Sorsa, Juuso Juhila, Sture Andersson, Jorma Paavonen, Vedran Stefanovic
Introduction. Intra-amniotic infection (IAI) is a major cause of preterm labor and adverse neonatal outcome. We evaluated amniotic fluid (AF) proteolytic cascade forming biomarkers in relation to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and IAI in preterm pregnancies with intact membranes. Material and Methods. Amniocentesis was made to 73 women with singleton pregnancies; 27 with suspected IAI; and 46 controls. AF biomarkers were divided into three cascades: Cascade 1: matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), MMP-9, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and interleukin-6; Cascade 2: neutrophil elastase (HNE), elafin, and MMP-9; Cascade 3: MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), MMP-8/TIMP-1 molar ratio, and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152987/trends-and-causes-of-maternal-mortality-in-ethiopia-during-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-diseases-study-2013
#15
Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Caroline O Laurence, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Awoke Misganaw, Sintayehu A Woldie, Abiye Hiruye, Azmeraw T Amare, Yihunie Lakew, Berihun M Zeleke, Amare Deribew
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is noticeably high in sub-Saharan African countries including Ethiopia. Continuous nationwide systematic evaluation and assessment of the problem helps to design appropriate policy and strategy in Ethiopia. This study aimed to investigate the trends and causes of maternal mortality in Ethiopia between 1990 and 2013. METHODS: We used the Global Burden of Diseases and Risk factors (GBD) Study 2013 data that was collected from multiple sources at national and subnational levels...
February 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148737/antenatal-suppression-of-il-1-protects-against-inflammation-induced-fetal-injury-and-improves-neonatal-and-developmental-outcomes-in-mice
#16
Mathieu Nadeau-Vallée, Peck-Yin Chin, Lydia Belarbi, Marie-Ève Brien, Sheetal Pundir, Martin H Berryer, Alexandra Beaudry-Richard, Ankush Madaan, David J Sharkey, Alexis Lupien-Meilleur, Xin Hou, Christiane Quiniou, Alexandre Beaulac, Ines Boufaied, Amarilys Boudreault, Adriana Carbonaro, Ngoc-Duc Doan, Jean-Sebastien Joyal, William D Lubell, David M Olson, Sarah A Robertson, Sylvie Girard, Sylvain Chemtob
Preterm birth (PTB) is commonly accompanied by in utero fetal inflammation, and existing tocolytic drugs do not target fetal inflammatory injury. Of the candidate proinflammatory mediators, IL-1 appears central and is sufficient to trigger fetal loss. Therefore, we elucidated the effects of antenatal IL-1 exposure on postnatal development and investigated two IL-1 receptor antagonists, the competitive inhibitor anakinra (Kineret) and a potent noncompetitive inhibitor 101.10, for efficacy in blocking IL-1 actions...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145652/amniotic-fluid-infection-cytokine-levels-and-mortality-and-adverse-pulmonary-intestinal-and-neurologic-outcomes-in-infants-at-32-weeks-gestation-or-less
#17
Eun Young Jung, Kyo Hoon Park, Bo Ryoung Han, Soo Hyun Cho, Ha Na Yoo, Juyoung Lee
To what extent the risks of neonatal morbidities are directly related to premature birth or to biological mechanisms of preterm birth remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the effect of exposure to amniotic fluid (AF) infection and elevated cytokine levels on the mortality and pulmonary, intestinal, and neurologic outcomes of preterm infants, and whether these associations persist after adjustment for gestational age at birth. This retrospective cohort study included 152 premature singleton infants who were born at ≤ 32 weeks...
March 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143615/coxsackievirus-b4-vertical-transmission-in-a-murine-model
#18
Hela Jaïdane, Aymen Halouani, Habib Jmii, Firas Elmastour, Moncef Mokni, Mahjoub Aouni
BACKGROUND: Life-threatening infections with type B Coxsackieviruses (CV-B) are frequently encountered among newborns and are partly attributed to vertically-transmitted virus. Our current study investigates this alternative way of contamination by CV-B, using a mouse model. METHODS: Pregnant Swiss mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with CV-B4 E2 at gestational day 10(G) or 17G. Dams and offspring were monitored for mortality and morbidity, and sampled at different time-points to document the infection and explore eventual vertical transmission...
January 31, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139962/intra-amniotic-administration-of-lipopolysaccharide-induces-spontaneous-preterm-labor-and-birth-in-the-absence-of-a-body-temperature-change
#19
Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Marcia Arenas-Hernandez, Bogdan Panaitescu, Valeria Garcia-Flores, Tara N Mial, Aashna Sahi, Sonia S Hassan
OBJECTIVE: Intra-amniotic infection is associated with spontaneous preterm labor. In most cases, the infection is subclinical and bacteria are detected in the amniotic cavity rather than in the chorioamniotic membranes. The aims of this study were to establish a model of intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preterm labor/birth that resembles the subclinical syndrome and to compare this model to two established models of LPS-induced preterm labor/birth. METHODS: Pregnant B6 mice received an intra-amniotic, intra-uterine, or intra-peritoneal injection of LPS (100 ng/amniotic sac, 15 μg/25 μL, and 15 μg/200 μL respectively) or PBS (control)...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134669/prenatal-imaging-findings-in-fetal-zika-virus-infection
#20
Edward Araujo Júnior, Francisco H C Carvalho, Gabriele Tonni, Heron Werner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to report the most recent observations concerning intrauterine Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and associated neuroimaging. RECENT FINDINGS: ZIKV outbreak in Brazil in 2015 was associated with an impressive registration of cases of congenital microcephaly in women with symptoms suggestive of ZIKV infection. Clinical and laboratory testing for ZIKV and hypothetic etiopathogenetic mechanisms are described. Diagnostic tests on blood, urine and amniotic fluid should be performed in all mothers with symptoms suggestive of intrauterine ZIKV infection...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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