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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276691/lateral-flow-immunoassay-and-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-as-effective-immunomethods-for-the-detection-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-jwh-200-based-on-the-newly-synthesized-hapten
#1
Lucie Fojtíková, Anna Šuláková, Martina Blažková, Barbora Holubová, Martin Kuchař, Petra Mikšátková, Oldřich Lapčík, Ladislav Fukal
In recent years, the use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) as drugs of abuse has greatly increased. SCs are associated with a risk of severe poisoning or even death. Therefore, more rapid, cost effective and reliable methods are needed, especially for the screening of drivers after traffic accidents and for detailed toxicological analysis in forensic laboratories. In this study, we developed a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of JWH-200 in oral fluids...
2018: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245085/excretion-of-metabolites-of-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-jwh-018-in-urine-after-controlled-inhalation
#2
Stefan W Toennes, Anna Geraths, Werner Pogoda, Alexander Paulke, Cora Wunder, Eef L Theunissen, Johannes G Ramaekers
Each year, synthetic cannabinoids are occurring in high numbers on the illicit drug market but data obtained after controlled application are rare. The present study on pharmacokinetics in urine is part of a pilot study on adverse effects of JWH-018, which is one of the oldest and best known synthetic cannabinoids. Six subjects inhaled smoke from 2 and 3mg JWH-018. The drug and ten potential metabolites were analyzed in urine samples collected during 12h after inhalation by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) without and with conjugate cleavage...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194599/teens-and-spice-a-review-of-adolescent-fatalities-associated-with-synthetic-cannabinoid-use
#3
Anthea B Mahesan Paul, Lary Simms, Saeideh Amini, Abraham Ebenezer Paul
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are commonly abused by adolescents with reported past year (2013) use in high school students between 3 and 10%. Standard adolescent postmortem toxicology does not include routine SC analysis, and thus, the true burden of fatalities related to SCs is unknown. A retrospective case review of two cases included scene investigation, interviews, autopsy, and toxicology. SCs were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Review of the eight adolescent SC-associated fatalities in the literature revealed five of eight cases had no other discernible cause of death on autopsy...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170454/cb2-receptor-activation-causes-an-erk1-2-dependent-inflammatory-response-in-human-rpe-cells
#4
M Hytti, S Andjelic, N Josifovska, N Piippo, E Korhonen, M Hawlina, K Kaarniranta, T J Nevalainen, G Petrovski, T Parkkari, A Kauppinen
A chronic low-level inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of blindness in the elderly in Western countries. The loss of central vision results from attenuated maintenance of photoreceptors due to the degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells beneath the photoreceptor layer. It has been proposed that pathologic inflammation initiated in RPE cells could be regulated by the activation of type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2). Here, we have analysed the effect of CB2 activation on cellular survival and inflammation in human RPE cells...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164599/neurocognition-and-subjective-experience-following-acute-doses-of-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-jwh-018-a-phase-1-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#5
Eef L Theunissen, Nadia R P W Hutten, Natasha L Mason, Stefan W Toennes, Kim P C Kuypers, Eliza B de Sousa Fernandes Perna, Johannes G Ramaekers
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Synthetic cannabinoids (often sold as Spice or K2) have become a very popular alternative to cannabis due to the easy access and portrayed safety. Controlled studies on the behavioral effects of synthetic cannabinoids are currently lacking, which hampers risk assessments of these compounds. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: This is a first attempt to assess the influence of a synthetic cannabinoid, JWH-018, on neurocognition and subjective experience in humans after controlled administration...
November 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146503/methodology-for-controlled-administration-of-smoked-synthetic-cannabinoids-jwh-018-and-jwh-073
#6
REVIEW
Ziva D Cooper, Justin L Poklis, Fei Liu
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are a significant public health concern given their widespread use and severe effects associated with intoxication. However, there is a paucity of controlled human studies investigating the behavioral and physiological effects and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. Designing a reliable method to administer consistent, concentration-dependent synthetic cannabinoids is an integral component of controlled study of these compounds. Further, optimizing methods to assess the parent compounds and metabolites in plasma is critical in order to be able to establish their pharmacokinetics after administration...
November 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143802/the-inhibitory-effects-of-cobalt-protoporphyrin-ix-and-cannabinoid-2-receptor-agonists-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#7
Christina McDonnell, Sergi Leánez, Olga Pol
The activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 inhibits neuropathy and modulates the activity of delta-opioid receptors (DOR) in type 2 diabetic mice but the impact of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway on the antinociceptive actions of cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB2R) has not been assessed. Using male mice BKS.Cg-m+/+Leprdb/J (db/db) we investigated if treatment with cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP), an HO-1 inductor, inhibited mechanical allodynia, hyperglycemia and obesity associated to type 2 diabetes. The antinociceptive effects of JWH-015 and JWH-133 (CB2R agonists) administered with and without CoPP or sulforaphane (SFN), a Nrf2 transcription factor activator, have been also evaluated...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128791/acpa-and-jwh-133-modulate-the-vascular-tone-of-superior-mesenteric-arteries-through-cannabinoid-receptors-bkca-channels-and-nitric-oxide-dependent-mechanisms
#8
Evelyn López-Dyck, Felipa Andrade-Urzúa, Alejandro Elizalde, Tania Ferrer-Villada, Adan Dagnino-Acosta, Miguel Huerta, Zyanya Osuna-Calleros, Cinthia Rangel-Sandoval, Enrique Sánchez-Pastor
BACKGROUND: Some cannabinoids, a family of compounds derived from Cannabis sativa (marijuana), have previously shown vasodilator effects in several studies, a feature that makes them suitable for the generation of a potential treatment for hypertension. The mechanism underlying this vasodilator effect in arteries is still controversial. In this report, we explored how the synthetic cannabinoids ACPA (CB1-selective agonist) and JWH-133 (CB2-selective agonist) regulate the vascular tone of rat superior mesenteric arteries...
July 1, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113898/finding-order-in-chemical-chaos-continuing-characterization-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-receptor-agonists
#9
REVIEW
Julie A Marusich, Jenny L Wiley, Timothy W Lefever, Purvi R Patel, Brian F Thomas
Diversion of synthetic cannabinoids from the lab to drugs of abuse has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. Moreover, as earlier synthetic cannabinoids were banned, manufacturers introduced a new supply of novel compounds to serve as replacements. Hence, the chemical diversity of synthetic cannabinoid analogs has also rapidly increased. The present study examined 8 new synthetic cannabinoids: AM-1220, AM-2232, AM-2233, AM-679, EAM-2201, JWH-210, JHW-251, and MAM-2201. Each compound was assessed for binding affinity and functional activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors, and pharmacological equivalence with Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in THC drug discrimination...
November 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097307/effect-fingerprinting-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-what-can-we-learn-from-in-vitro-data
#10
REVIEW
Laura Hondebrink, Anne Zwartsen, Remco H S Westerink
The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is increasing and currently >600 NPS have been reported. However, limited information on neuropharmacological and toxicological effects of NPS is available, hampering risk characterization. We reviewed the literature on the in vitro neuronal modes of action to obtain effect fingerprints of different classes of illicit drugs and NPS. The most frequently reported NPS were selected for review: cathinones (MDPV, α-PVP, mephedrone, 4-MEC, pentedrone, methylone), cannabinoids (JWH-018), (hallucinogenic) phenethylamines (4-fluoroamphetamine, benzofurans (5-APB, 6-APB), 2C-B, NBOMes (25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, 25I-NBOMe)), arylcyclohexylamines (methoxetamine) and piperazine derivatives (mCCP, TFMPP, BZP)...
October 30, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072524/acute-side-effects-after-consumption-of-the-new-synthetic-cannabinoids-ab-chminaca-and-mdmb-chmica
#11
Maren Hermanns-Clausen, Dieter Müller, Josephine Kithinji, Verena Angerer, Florian Franz, Florian Eyer, Hartmud Neurath, Gesine Liebetrau, Volker Auwärter
INTRODUCTION: In 2014, the "European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction" (EMCDDA) reported on 30 novel synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). Among these were indole- and indazole-based valine derivatives with a cyclohexylmethyl side chain (e.g., AB-CHMINACA and MDMB-CHMICA), which represent a new class of SCs. METHODS: A prospective observational study of patients treated in emergency departments (EDs) after the intake of SCs was conducted. Clinical and laboratory data were combined and reported to a poison control centre...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028489/assessment-of-types-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-narcotic-cases-assessed-by-the-council-of-forensic-medicine-between-2011-2015-ankara-turkey
#12
Ersin Göl, İsmet Çok
Synthetic cannabinoids mimic the effects of cannabis and are the largest and fastest growing class of newly appearing designer drugs. Reports have revealed that various types of synthetic cannabinoids are mixed with herbal substances. The present study investigated the herbal substance cases involving synthetic cannabinoids in Ankara and nearby cities in Turkey. Data were collected from the reports of synthetic cannabinoids that were analyzed between January 01, 2011 and December 31, 2015 in the Ankara Narcotic Department of the Council of Forensic Medicine at the request of the judicial authorities...
November 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967189/pharmacokinetic-properties-of-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-jwh-018-in-oral-fluid-after-inhalation
#13
Stefan W Toennes, Anna Geraths, Werner Pogoda, Alexander Paulke, Cora Wunder, Eef L Theunissen, Johannes G Ramaekers
BACKGROUND: Each year, synthetic cannabinoids are occurring in high numbers on the illicit drug market, but data on their detectability are rarely available. Therefore, a pilot study was performed to assess adverse effects of JWH-018, which is one of the oldest and best known synthetic cannabinoids. Oral fluid has been evaluated as a specimen for drug monitoring. METHODS: Six subjects inhaled smoke derived from 2 and 3 mg JWH-018. The drug and ten of its metabolites were analyzed in oral fluid samples collected during the following 12 hours using the Quantisal collection device by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
October 2, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942375/determination-of-cross-reactivity-of-poly-and-monoclonal-antibodies-for-synthetic-cannabinoids-by-direct-spr-and-elisa
#14
Nico Langer, Franziska Steinicke, Rainer Lindigkeit, Ludger Ernst, Till Beuerle
One of the main reasons for the rise in popularity of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) is their ability to remain unrecognized in conventional drug screenings. Due to their structural diversity, caused by the constant introduction of new substances to circumvent legal regulation, antibodies with a wide range of cross-reactivity are necessary for the establishment of a reliable immunological based drug test. Therefore, high-quality binding data are needed to select promising antibody candidates for further development...
September 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903355/anti-proliferative-pro-apoptotic-and-anti-invasive-effect-of-ec-ev-system-in-human-osteosarcoma
#15
Francesca Punzo, Chiara Tortora, Daniela Di Pinto, Iolanda Manzo, Giulia Bellini, Fiorina Casale, Francesca Rossi
Osteosarcoma is the most common and aggressive bone tumor in children. The Endocannabinoid/Endovanilloid system has been proposed as anticancer target in tumor of different origins. This system is composed of two receptors (CB1 and CB2), the Transient Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel and their ligands and enzymes. CB1 is expressed mainly in central nervous system while CB2 predominantly on immune and peripheral cells. We investigated the effects of JWH-133 (CB2 agonist) and RTX (TRPV1 agonist) in six human Osteosarcoma cell lines: MG-63, U-2OS, MNNG/HOS, Saos-2, KHOS/NP, Hs888Lu, by Apoptosis and Migration-Assay...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879802/anti-nociceptive-interactions-between-opioids-and-a-cannabinoid-receptor-2-agonist-in-inflammatory-pain
#16
Matthew B Yuill, David E Hale, Josée Guindon, Daniel J Morgan
The cannabinoid 1 receptor and cannabinoid 2 receptor can both be targeted in the treatment of pain; yet, they have some important differences. Cannabinoid 1 receptor is expressed at high levels in the central nervous system, whereas cannabinoid 2 receptor is found predominantly, although not exclusively, outside the central nervous system. The objective of this study was to investigate potential interactions between cannabinoid 2 receptor and the mu-opioid receptor in pathological pain. The low level of adverse side effects and lack of tolerance for cannabinoid 2 receptor agonists are attractive pharmacotherapeutic traits...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874764/natural-%C3%A2-9-thc-and-synthetic-jwh-018-cannabinoids-induce-seizures-by-acting-through-the-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor
#17
Olga Malyshevskaya, Kosuke Aritake, Mahesh K Kaushik, Nahoko Uchiyama, Yoan Cherasse, Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri, Yoshihiro Urade
Natural cannabinoids and their synthetic substitutes are the most widely used recreational drugs. Numerous clinical cases describe acute toxic symptoms and neurological consequences following inhalation of the mixture of synthetic cannabinoids known as "Spice." Here we report that an intraperitoneal administration of the natural cannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (10 mg/kg), one of the main constituent of marijuana, or the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 (2.5 mg/kg) triggered electrographic seizures in mice, recorded by electroencephalography and videography...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854352/screening-of-spice-herbal-mixtures-from-high-field-to-low-field-proton-nmr
#18
Gaëtan Assemat, Florian Dubocq, Stéphane Balayssac, Catherine Lamoureux, Myriam Malet-Martino, Véronique Gilard
Forty one samples of herbal spices intended to be introduced into the European market and seized by the French customs were analysed with high-field (1)H NMR. Nine synthetic cannabinoids (MAM-2201, JWH-073, JWH-210, JWH-122, JWH-081, JWH-250, UR-144, XLR-11 and AKB-48-5F) were detected and quantified. The ability of a compact benchtop low-field NMR spectrometer for a rapid screening of the content of herbal blends was then successfully explored for the first time. Even if low-field (1)H NMR spectra are much less resolved than high-field spectra, we demonstrate that they provide valuable clues on the chemical structures of synthetic cannabinoids with the detection of some typical signals...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846955/synthetic-cannabinoids-found-in-spice-products-alter-body-temperature-and-cardiovascular-parameters-in-conscious-male-rats
#19
Charles W Schindler, Benjamin R Gramling, Zuzana Justinova, Eric B Thorndike, Michael H Baumann
BACKGROUND: The misuse of synthetic cannabinoids is a persistent public health concern. Because these drugs target the same cannabinoid receptors as the active ingredient of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), we compared the effects of synthetic cannabinoids and THC on body temperature and cardiovascular parameters. METHODS: Biotelemetry transmitters for the measurement of body temperature or blood pressure (BP) were surgically implanted into separate groups of male rats...
October 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838808/characterization-of-structurally-novel-g-protein-biased-cb1-agonists-implications-for-drug-development
#20
Benjamin M Ford, Lirit N Franks, Sherrica Tai, William E Fantegrossi, Edward L Stahl, Michael D Berquist, Christian V Cabanlong, Catheryn D Wilson, Narsimha R Penthala, Peter A Crooks, Paul L Prather
The human cannabinoid subtype 1 receptor (hCB1R) is highly expressed in the CNS and serves as a therapeutic target for endogenous ligands as well as plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids. Unfortunately, acute use of hCB1R agonists produces unwanted psychotropic effects and chronic administration results in development of tolerance and dependence, limiting the potential clinical use of these ligands. Studies in β-arrestin knockout mice suggest that interaction of certain GPCRs, including μ-, δ-, κ-opioid and hCB1Rs, with β-arrestins might be responsible for several adverse effects produced by agonists acting at these receptors...
August 23, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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