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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469427/vaping-synthetic-cannabinoids-a-novel-preclinical-model-of-e-cigarette-use-in-mice
#1
Timothy W Lefever, Julie A Marusich, Brian F Thomas, Daniel G Barrus, Nicholas C Peiper, Richard C Kevin, Jenny L Wiley
Smoking is the most common route of administration for cannabis; however, vaping cannabis extracts and synthetic cannabinoids ("fake marijuana") in electronic cigarette devices has become increasingly popular. Yet, most animal models used to investigate biological mechanisms underlying cannabis use employ injection as the route of administration. This study evaluated a novel e-cigarette device that delivers aerosolized cannabinoids to mice. The effects of aerosolized and injected synthetic cannabinoids (CP 55,940, AB-CHMINACA, XLR-11, and JWH-018) in mice were compared in a battery of bioassays in which psychoactive cannabinoids produce characteristic effects...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467971/anti-proliferative-pro-apoptotic-and-anti-invasive-effect-of-ec-ev-system-in-human-osteosarcoma
#2
Francesca Punzo, Chiara Tortora, Daniela Di Pinto, Iolanda Manzo, Giulia Bellini, Fiorina Casale, Francesca Rossi
Osteosarcoma is the most common and aggressive bone tumor in children. The Endocannabinoid/Endovanilloid system has been proposed as anticancer target in tumor of different origins. This system is composed of two receptors (CB1 and CB2), the Transient Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel and their ligands and enzymes. CB1 is expressed mainly in central nervous system while CB2 predominantly on immune and peripheral cells. We investigated the effects of JWH-133 (CB2 agonist) and RTX (TRPV1 agonist) in six human Osteosarcoma cell lines: MG-63, U-2OS, MNNG/HOS, Saos-2, KHOS/NP, Hs888Lu, by Apoptosis and Migration-Assay...
April 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442584/apparent-cb1-receptor-rimonabant-affinity-estimates-combination-with-thc-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-the-mouse-in-vivo-triad-model
#3
Travis W Grim, Anthony J Morales, Brian F Thomas, Jenny L Wiley, Gregory W Endres, Sidney S Negus, Aron H Lichtman
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) represent an emerging class of abused drugs associated with psychiatric complications and other substantial health risks. These ligands are largely sold over the internet for human consumption presumably because of their high cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) affinity and potency in eliciting similar pharmacological effects as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), while circumventing laws illegalizing this plant. Factors potentially contributing to the increased prevalence of SC abuse and related hospitalizations, such as increased CB1R efficacy and non-CB1R targets, highlight the need for quantitative pharmacological analyses to determine receptor mediation of the pharmacological effects of cannabinoids...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441106/jwh-122-consumption-adverse-effects-a-case-of-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-five-year-follow-up
#4
Maurizio Coppola, Raffaella Mondola
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists are a heterogeneous group of psychotropic drugs functionally related to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. These substances, marketed as cannabis substitutes, have been associated with numerous cases of severe intoxication and death across the world. In our article, we describe a case of hallucinogen persisting perception disorder developing in a natural cannabis user after consumption of JWH-122, a naphthoylindole largely used since 2010. Clinical symptomatology persisted for about four years and was alleviated through treatment with clonazepam...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406320/underestimated-impact-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-laboratory-confirmation-of-recreational-drug-toxicity-in-oslo-norway
#5
Odd Martin Vallersnes, Per Sverre Persett, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Ritva Karinen, Fridtjof Heyerdahl, Knut Erik Hovda
CONTEXT: Recreational drug toxicity is frequent. Availability of new psychoactive substances is steadily increasing. However, data with verified analyses from clinical settings are limited. To evaluate the impact of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) on recreational drug toxicity in Oslo, Norway, we analysed samples from a selection of patients. METHODS: All the patients presenting with recreational drug toxicity at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) and at the Oslo University Hospital (OUH) were registered from April through September 2014...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371432/determination-of-cannabinoid-and-synthetic-cannabinoid-metabolites-in-wastewater-by-liquid-liquid-extraction-and-ultrahigh-performance-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#6
Iria González-Mariño, Kevin V Thomas, Malcolm J Reid
For the first time, ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has been used to determine cannabinoid and synthetic cannabinoid residues in wastewater. Combined with a downscaled version of the classical liquid-liquid extraction, the proposed method allows for the quantification of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol, three of its major metabolites (the monohydroxylated, the dihydroxylated and the carboxylated species) and four synthetic cannabinoid metabolites (from the JWH-series) at low ng L(-1) levels...
March 31, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365515/pharmacokinetic-properties-of-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-jwh-018-and-of-its-metabolites-in-serum-after-inhalation
#7
Stefan W Toennes, Anna Geraths, Werner Pogoda, Alexander Paulke, Cora Wunder, Eef L Theunissen, Johannes G Ramaekers
Each year, synthetic cannabinoids are occurring in high numbers in the illicit drug market, but data on their pharmacology and toxicology are scarcely available. Therefore, a pilot study was performed to assess adverse effects of JWH-018, which is one of the oldest and best known synthetic cannabinoids. Six subjects inhaled smoke from 2 and 3mg JWH-018. The drug and nine of its metabolites were analyzed in their blood samples taken during the following 12h by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340730/identification-and-determination-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-herbal-products-by-dry-film-attenuated-total-reflectance-infrared-spectroscopy
#8
Victor de la Asunción-Nadal, Sergio Armenta, Salvador Garrigues, Miguel de la Guardia
A new procedure has been developed for the identification and quantitative determination of synthetic cannabinoids in illicit herbal preparations. The methodology is based on the use of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) measurement of sample extracts with 2-propanol drying 5µL of the extracts onto the ATR crystal. The qualitative identification was carried out on the 2-propanol extract after identification of the herbal matrix, followed by its subtraction and using a cut-off criterion of 75%...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340702/selective-solid-phase-extraction-of-jwh-synthetic-cannabinoids-by-using-computationally-designed-peptides
#9
Marcello Mascini, Camilla Montesano, German Perez, Joseph Wang, Dario Compagnone, Manuel Sergi
The objective of the present work is to demonstrate a rational way to prepare selective sorbents able to extract simultaneously several structural analogs. For this purpose the binding specificity of two hexapeptides computationally designed (VYWLVW and YYIGGF) versus four synthetic cannabinoids Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH 018), naphthalen-1-yl-(1-butylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH 073), (R)-(1-((1-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)(naphthalen-1-yl)methanone (AM 1220) and (R)-(+)-[2,3-Dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-napthalenylmethanone (WIN 55) was computationally studied and then experimentally tested by solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295787/an-exploratory-wastewater-analysis-study-of-drug-use-in-auckland-new-zealand
#10
Foon Yin Lai, Chris Wilkins, Phong Thai, Jochen F Mueller
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: New Zealand is considered to have unusual drug use patterns by international standards. However, this understanding has largely been obtained from social surveys where respondents self-report use. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first wastewater study of drug use in Auckland. DESIGN AND METHODS: Wastewater sampling was completed from 2 May to 18 July 2014 at 2 Auckland wastewater treatment plants which service 1.3 million people. Samples were analysed for 17 drug residues by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
March 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138895/the-impact-of-cb2-receptor-ligands-on-the-mk-801-induced-hyperactivity-in-mice
#11
Marta Kruk-Slomka, Izabela Banaszkiewicz, Grazyna Biala
It has been known that there is a relationship between cannabis use and schizophrenia-related symptoms; however, it can be a subject of controversy. The involvement of CB1 receptor ligands in the schizophrenia has already been revealed and confirmed. However, there is still lack of information concerning the role of CB2 receptors in the psychosis-like effects in mice and the further studies are needed.The aim of the present research was to study the role of the CB2 receptor ligands in the symptoms typical for schizophrenia...
April 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130989/comparison-of-the-discriminative-stimulus-and-response-rate-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-female-and-male-rats
#12
Jenny L Wiley, Timothy W Lefever, Julie A Marusich, Rebecca M Craft
BACKGROUND: Women report greater sensitivity to the subjective effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Similarly, female rodents tend to be more sensitive to some pharmacological effects of THC and synthetic cannabinoids. This study examined sex differences in discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of THC and synthetic cannabinoids in rats. METHODS: A cumulative dosing THC discrimination procedure was utilized to evaluate sex differences in the discriminative stimulus effects of THC and three synthetic cannabinoids: CP47,497, WIN55,212-2, and JWH-018...
March 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130957/immunoassay-screening-in-urine-for-synthetic-cannabinoids-an-evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-efficiency
#13
Florian Franz, Verena Angerer, Hanna Jechle, Melanie Pegoro, Harald Ertl, Georg Weinfurtner, David Janele, Christian Schlögl, Matthias Friedl, Stefan Gerl, Reinhard Mielke, Ralf Zehnle, Matthias Wagner, Bjoern Moosmann, Volker Auwärter
BACKGROUND: The abuse of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) as presumed legal alternative to cannabis poses a great risk to public health. For economic reasons many laboratories use immunoassays (IAs) to screen for these substances in urine. However, the structural diversity and high potency of these designer drugs places high demands on IAs regarding cross-reactivity of the antibodies used and detection limits. METHODS: Two retrospective studies were carried out in order to evaluate the capability of two homogenous enzyme IAs for the detection of currently prevalent SCs in authentic urine samples...
January 28, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110689/cannabinoids-possible-agents-for-treatment-of-psoriasis-via-suppression-of-angiogenesis-and-inflammation
#14
Amir Hossein Norooznezhad, Fatemeh Norooznezhad
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease also affecting other sites such as joints. This disease highly depends on inflammation and angiogenesis as well as other pathways. At each step of the psoriasis molecular pathway, different inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic growth factors are involved such as hypoxia inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1 α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalo proteinases (MMPs), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), Angiopoitin-2, interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-17, and IL-2. Beside the mentioned growth factors and cytokines, cellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) which play roles in both angiogenesis and inflammation are also involved in the pathogenesis...
February 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087785/thermolytic-degradation-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-chemical-exposures-and-pharmacological-consequences
#15
Brian F Thomas, Timothy W Lefever, Ricardo A Cortes, Megan Grabenauer, Alexander L Kovach, Anderson O Cox, Purvi R Patel, Gerald T Pollard, Julie A Marusich, Richard C Kevin, Thomas F Gamage, Jenny L Wiley
Synthetic cannabinoids are manufactured clandestinely with little quality control and are distributed as herbal "spice" for smoking or as bulk compound for mixing with a solvent and inhalation via electronic vaporizers. Intoxication with synthetic cannabinoids has been associated with seizure, excited delirium, coma, kidney damage, and other disorders. The chemical alterations produced by heating these structurally novel compounds for consumption are largely unknown. Here, we show that heating synthetic cannabinoids containing tetramethylcyclopropyl-ring substituents produced thermal degradants with pharmacological activity that varied considerably from their parent compounds...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994006/attenuation-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-and-motor-activity-via-cannabinoid-cb2-receptor-agonism-and-cb1-receptor-antagonism-in-rats
#16
Foteini Delis, Alexia Polissidis, Nafsika Poulia, Zuzana Justinova, George G Nomikos, Steven R Goldberg, Katerina Antoniou
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown the involvement of cannabinoid (CB) receptors in the behavioral and neurobiological effects of psychostimulants. Most of these studies have focused on the role of CB1 receptors in the psychostimulant effects of cocaine, while very few have investigated the respective role of CB2 receptors. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the extent of CB receptor involvement in the expression of cocaine-induced effects. METHODS: The role of CB1 and CB2 receptors in the rewarding and motor properties of cocaine was assessed in conditioned place preference, conditioned motor activity, and open field activity in rats...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871157/synthetic-cannabinoid-induced-immunosuppression-augments-cerebellar-dysfunction-in-tetanus-toxin-treated-mice
#17
Jaesuk Yun, Sun Mi Gu, Tac-Hyung Lee, Yun Jeong Song, Seonhwa Seong, Young-Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Cha, Kyoung Moon Han, Jisoon Shin, Hokyung Oh, Kikyung Jung, Chiyoung Ahn, Hye-Kyung Park, Hyung Soo Kim
Synthetic cannabinoids are one of most abused new psychoactive substances. The recreational use of abused drug has aroused serious concerns about the consequences of these drugs on infection. However, the effects of synthetic cannabinoid on resistance to tetanus toxin are not fully understood yet. In the present study, we aimed to determine if the administration of synthetic cannabinoids increase the susceptibility to tetanus toxin-induced motor behavioral deficit and functional changes in cerebellar neurons in mice...
May 1, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863282/identification-and-quantification-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-spice-like-herbal-mixtures-update-of-the-german-situation-for-the-spring-of-2016
#18
Nico Langer, Rainer Lindigkeit, Hans-Martin Schiebel, Uli Papke, Ludger Ernst, Till Beuerle
In February 2016, nine "spice-like" products from German language internet shops were analyzed. In total, eight different synthetic cannabinoids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), namely THJ-018, THJ-2201, MAB-CHMINACA, 5F-ADB, 5Cl-AKB48 (syn.: 5C-AKB48), 4-pentenyl-AKB48, MDMB-CHMICA and 5F-AB-PINACA. For the majority of products only one synthetic cannabinoid was identified as the active ingredient, while two products contained 2 and 5 compounds, respectively. For some of the identified cannabinoids (MAB-CHMINACA, 5Cl-AKB48 and 4-pentenyl-AKB48) no or only insufficient physico-chemical data were available in literature...
December 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834143/distribution-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-jwh-210-rcs-4-and-%C3%A2-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-after-intravenous-administration-to-pigs
#19
Nadine Schaefer, Mattias Kettner, Matthias W Laschke, Julia Schlote, Andreas H Ewald, Michael D Menger, Hans H Maurer, Peter H Schmidt
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) have become an increasing issue in forensic toxicology. Controlled human studies evaluating pharmacokinetic data of SCs are lacking and only few animal studies have been published. Thus, an interpretation of analytical results found in intoxicated or poisoned individuals is difficult. Therefore, the distribution of two selected SCs, namely 4-ethylnaphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-210) and 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-indol-3-yl)methanone (RCS-4) as well as ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as reference were examined in pigs...
November 11, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821642/mother-blame-and-the-just-world-theory-in-child-sexual-abuse-cases
#20
Kelsi Toews, Jorden A Cummings, Jessica L Zagrodney
Mothers are blamed for a variety of negative experiences and outcomes of their children, including child sexual abuse (CSA). According to just world hypothesis (JWH), people have a need to view the world as one where there is no such thing as an innocent victim; that is, the world is fair and just. These beliefs predict victim blaming in situations such as sexual abuse, physical abuse, and robbery. However, JWH has not been applied to the examination of mother blame, a situation in which the blame target did not directly experience the traumatic event...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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