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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340730/identification-and-determination-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-herbal-products-by-dry-film-attenuated-total-reflectance-infrared-spectroscopy
#1
Victor de la Asunción-Nadal, Sergio Armenta, Salvador Garrigues, Miguel de la Guardia
A new procedure has been developed for the identification and quantitative determination of synthetic cannabinoids in illicit herbal preparations. The methodology is based on the use of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) measurement of sample extracts with 2-propanol drying 5µL of the extracts onto the ATR crystal. The qualitative identification was carried out on the 2-propanol extract after identification of the herbal matrix, followed by its subtraction and using a cut-off criterion of 75%...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340702/selective-solid-phase-extraction-of-jwh-synthetic-cannabinoids-by-using-computationally-designed-peptides
#2
Marcello Mascini, Camilla Montesano, German Perez, Joseph Wang, Dario Compagnone, Manuel Sergi
The objective of the present work is to demonstrate a rational way to prepare selective sorbents able to extract simultaneously several structural analogs. For this purpose the binding specificity of two hexapeptides computationally designed (VYWLVW and YYIGGF) versus four synthetic cannabinoids Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH 018), naphthalen-1-yl-(1-butylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH 073), (R)-(1-((1-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)(naphthalen-1-yl)methanone (AM 1220) and (R)-(+)-[2,3-Dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-napthalenylmethanone (WIN 55) was computationally studied and then experimentally tested by solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295787/an-exploratory-wastewater-analysis-study-of-drug-use-in-auckland-new-zealand
#3
Foon Yin Lai, Chris Wilkins, Phong Thai, Jochen F Mueller
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: New Zealand is considered to have unusual drug use patterns by international standards. However, this understanding has largely been obtained from social surveys where respondents self-report use. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first wastewater study of drug use in Auckland. DESIGN AND METHODS: Wastewater sampling was completed from 2 May to 18 July 2014 at 2 Auckland wastewater treatment plants which service 1.3 million people. Samples were analysed for 17 drug residues by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
March 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138895/the-impact-of-cb2-receptor-ligands-on-the-mk-801-induced-hyperactivity-in-mice
#4
Marta Kruk-Slomka, Izabela Banaszkiewicz, Grazyna Biala
It has been known that there is a relationship between cannabis use and schizophrenia-related symptoms; however, it can be a subject of controversy. The involvement of CB1 receptor ligands in the schizophrenia has already been revealed and confirmed. However, there is still lack of information concerning the role of CB2 receptors in the psychosis-like effects in mice and the further studies are needed.The aim of the present research was to study the role of the CB2 receptor ligands in the symptoms typical for schizophrenia...
April 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130989/comparison-of-the-discriminative-stimulus-and-response-rate-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-female-and-male-rats
#5
Jenny L Wiley, Timothy W Lefever, Julie A Marusich, Rebecca M Craft
BACKGROUND: Women report greater sensitivity to the subjective effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Similarly, female rodents tend to be more sensitive to some pharmacological effects of THC and synthetic cannabinoids. This study examined sex differences in discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of THC and synthetic cannabinoids in rats. METHODS: A cumulative dosing THC discrimination procedure was utilized to evaluate sex differences in the discriminative stimulus effects of THC and three synthetic cannabinoids: CP47,497, WIN55,212-2, and JWH-018...
March 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130957/immunoassay-screening-in-urine-for-synthetic-cannabinoids-an-evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-efficiency
#6
Florian Franz, Verena Angerer, Hanna Jechle, Melanie Pegoro, Harald Ertl, Georg Weinfurtner, David Janele, Christian Schlögl, Matthias Friedl, Stefan Gerl, Reinhard Mielke, Ralf Zehnle, Matthias Wagner, Bjoern Moosmann, Volker Auwärter
BACKGROUND: The abuse of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) as presumed legal alternative to cannabis poses a great risk to public health. For economic reasons many laboratories use immunoassays (IAs) to screen for these substances in urine. However, the structural diversity and high potency of these designer drugs places high demands on IAs regarding cross-reactivity of the antibodies used and detection limits. METHODS: Two retrospective studies were carried out in order to evaluate the capability of two homogenous enzyme IAs for the detection of currently prevalent SCs in authentic urine samples...
January 28, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110689/cannabinoids-possible-agents-for-treatment-of-psoriasis-via-suppression-of-angiogenesis-and-inflammation
#7
Amir Hossein Norooznezhad, Fatemeh Norooznezhad
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease also affecting other sites such as joints. This disease highly depends on inflammation and angiogenesis as well as other pathways. At each step of the psoriasis molecular pathway, different inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic growth factors are involved such as hypoxia inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1 α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalo proteinases (MMPs), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), Angiopoitin-2, interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-17, and IL-2. Beside the mentioned growth factors and cytokines, cellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) which play roles in both angiogenesis and inflammation are also involved in the pathogenesis...
February 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087785/thermolytic-degradation-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-chemical-exposures-and-pharmacological-consequences
#8
Brian F Thomas, Timothy W Lefever, Ricardo A Cortes, Alexander L Kovach, Anderson O Cox, Purvi R Patel, Gerald T Pollard, Julie A Marusich, Richard A Kevin, Thomas F Gamage, Jenny L Wiley
Synthetic cannabinoids are manufactured clandestinely with little quality control and are distributed as herbal "Spice" for smoking or as bulk compound for mixing with a solvent and inhalation via electronic vaporizers. Intoxication with synthetic cannabinoids has been associated with seizure, excited delirium, coma, kidney damage, and other disorders. The chemical alterations produced by heating these structurally novel compounds for consumption are largely unknown. Here we show that heating synthetic cannabinoids containing tetramethylcyclopropyl-ring substituents produced thermal degradants with pharmacological activity that varied considerably from their parent compounds...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994006/attenuation-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-and-motor-activity-via-cannabinoid-cb2-receptor-agonism-and-cb1-receptor-antagonism-in-rats
#9
Foteini Delis, Alexia Polissidis, Nafsika Poulia, Zuzana Justinova, George G Nomikos, Steven R Goldberg, Katerina Antoniou
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown the involvement of cannabinoid (CB) receptors in the behavioral and neurobiological effects of psychostimulants. Most of these studies have focused on the role of CB1 receptors in the psychostimulant effects of cocaine, while very few have investigated the respective role of CB2 receptors. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the extent of CB receptor involvement in the expression of cocaine-induced effects. METHODS: The role of CB1 and CB2 receptors in the rewarding and motor properties of cocaine was assessed in conditioned place preference, conditioned motor activity, and open field activity in rats...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871157/synthetic-cannabinoid-induced-immunosuppression-augments-cerebellar-dysfunction-in-tetanus-toxin-treated-mice
#10
Jaesuk Yun, Sun Mi Gu, Tac-Hyung Lee, Yun Jeong Song, Seonhwa Seong, Young-Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Cha, Kyoung Moon Han, Jisoon Shin, Hokyung Oh, Kikyung Jung, Chiyoung Ahn, Hye-Kyung Park, Hyung Soo Kim
Synthetic cannabinoids are one of most abused new psychoactive substances. The recreational use of abused drug has aroused serious concerns about the consequences of these drugs on infection. However, the effects of synthetic cannabinoid on resistance to tetanus toxin are not fully understood yet. In the present study, we aimed to determine if the administration of synthetic cannabinoids increase the susceptibility to tetanus toxin-induced motor behavioral deficit and functional changes in cerebellar neurons in mice...
November 25, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863282/identification-and-quantification-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-spice-like-herbal-mixtures-update-of-the-german-situation-for-the-spring-of-2016
#11
Nico Langer, Rainer Lindigkeit, Hans-Martin Schiebel, Uli Papke, Ludger Ernst, Till Beuerle
In February 2016, nine "spice-like" products from German language internet shops were analyzed. In total, eight different synthetic cannabinoids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), namely THJ-018, THJ-2201, MAB-CHMINACA, 5F-ADB, 5Cl-AKB48 (syn.: 5C-AKB48), 4-pentenyl-AKB48, MDMB-CHMICA and 5F-AB-PINACA. For the majority of products only one synthetic cannabinoid was identified as the active ingredient, while two products contained 2 and 5 compounds, respectively. For some of the identified cannabinoids (MAB-CHMINACA, 5Cl-AKB48 and 4-pentenyl-AKB48) no or only insufficient physico-chemical data were available in literature...
December 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834143/distribution-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-jwh-210-rcs-4-and-%C3%A2-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-after-intravenous-administration-to-pigs
#12
Nadine Schaefer, Mattias Kettner, Matthias W Laschke, Julia Schlote, Andreas H Ewald, Michael D Menger, Hans H Maurer, Peter H Schmidt
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) have become an increasing issue in forensic toxicology. Controlled human studies evaluating pharmacokinetic data of SCs are lacking and only few animal studies have been published. Thus, an interpretation of analytical results found in intoxicated or poisoned individuals is difficult. Therefore, the distribution of two selected SCs, namely 4-ethylnaphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-210) and 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-indol-3-yl)methanone (RCS-4) as well as ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as reference were examined in pigs...
November 11, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821642/mother-blame-and-the-just-world-theory-in-child-sexual-abuse-cases
#13
Kelsi Toews, Jorden A Cummings, Jessica L Zagrodney
Mothers are blamed for a variety of negative experiences and outcomes of their children, including child sexual abuse (CSA). According to just world hypothesis (JWH), people have a need to view the world as one where there is no such thing as an innocent victim; that is, the world is fair and just. These beliefs predict victim blaming in situations such as sexual abuse, physical abuse, and robbery. However, JWH has not been applied to the examination of mother blame, a situation in which the blame target did not directly experience the traumatic event...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779402/detection-and-activity-profiling-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-and-their-metabolites-with-a-newly-developed-bioassay
#14
Annelies Cannaert, Jolien Storme, Florian Franz, Volker Auwärter, Christophe P Stove
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are the largest group of compounds currently monitored in Europe by the EU Early Warning System on new psychoactive substances. Emerging recreational use of these products has led to multiple cases of adverse health effects and even death. In contrast to marijuana, where Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)THC) is metabolized to only one major active metabolite, it has been reported that several major phase I metabolites of SCs remain biologically active, exerting cannabinoid (CB) receptor affinity, potency, and efficacy greater than those of Δ(9)THC...
December 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769788/cannabinoid-receptor-2-activation-restricts-fibrosis-and-alleviates-hydrocephalus-after-intraventricular-hemorrhage
#15
Qiang Tan, Qianwei Chen, Zhou Feng, Xia Shi, Jun Tang, Yihao Tao, Bing Jiang, Liang Tan, Hua Feng, Gang Zhu, Yunfeng Yang, Zhi Chen
Fibrosis in ventricular system has a role in hydrocephalus following intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has been reported to participate in alleviating the fibrosis process of many diseases. However, its role in fibrosis after IVH was unclear so far, and we hypothesized that CB2 activation has potential to attenuate hydrocephalus after IVH via restricting fibrosis. So the present study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a modified rat IVH model. Autologous non-anticoagulative blood injection model was induced to mimic ventricular extension of hemorrhage in adult Sprague-Dawley rats...
January 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753007/combination-chemistry-structure-activity-relationships-of-novel-psychoactive-cannabinoids
#16
Jenny L Wiley, Julie A Marusich, Brian F Thomas
Originally developed as research tools for use in structure-activity relationship studies, synthetic cannabinoids contributed to significant scientific advances in the cannabinoid field. Unfortunately, a subset of these compounds was diverted for recreational use beginning in the early 2000s. As these compounds were banned, they were replaced with additional synthetic cannabinoids with increasingly diverse chemical structures. This chapter focuses on integration of recent results with those covered in previous reviews...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715709/acute-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-update-2015
#17
Juliana Tournebize, Valérie Gibaja, Jean-Pierre Kahn
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States and Europe. In recent years, a range of new substances with cannabis-like effects-known as synthetic cannabinoids (SCs)-have suddenly burst on the drug scene. However, there is limited information about the clinical hazards linked to the use of these emerging substances. This review summarizes the literature to date relating the health effects of SCs. METHOD: A systematic literature review of original case studies was performed using PubMed and Web of Science (January 1980-July 2015)...
August 11, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695396/vascular-dysfunction-in-a-transgenic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-effects-of-cb1r-and-cb2r-cannabinoid-agonists
#18
Jorge Navarro-Dorado, Nuria Villalba, Dolores Prieto, Begoña Brera, Ana M Martín-Moreno, Teresa Tejerina, María L de Ceballos
There is evidence of altered vascular function, including cerebrovascular, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and transgenic models of the disease. Indeed vasoconstrictor responses are increased, while vasodilation is reduced in both conditions. β-Amyloid (Aβ) appears to be responsible, at least in part, of alterations in vascular function. Cannabinoids, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents, induce vasodilation both in vivo and in vitro. We have demonstrated a beneficial effect of cannabinoids in models of AD by preventing glial activation...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681775/separation-of-isomers-of-jwh-122-on-porous-graphitic-carbon-stationary-phase-with-non-aqueous-mobile-phase-using-intelligent-software
#19
Norbert Rácz, Tibor Veress, Júlia Nagy, Balázs Bobály, Jenő Fekete
Cannabimimetic compounds have gained an increasing attention from the forensic community during the past few years. The present study was aimed to develop a liquid chromatographic separation method for the analysis of JWH-122 and its methyl isomers. In Hungary, JWH-122 is scheduled as a narcotic compound and its methyl isomers fall into the new psychoactive substance category, attracting significantly milder punishment than JWH-122 does. According to our best knowledge, gas chromatography or reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry could not be applied for separation and selective determination of methyl-naphthoyl indol isomers...
November 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634891/cb2-cannabinoid-receptor-activation-promotes-colon-cancer-progression-via-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#20
Esther Martínez-Martínez, Asunción Martín-Ruiz, Paloma Martín, Virginia Calvo, Mariano Provencio, José M García
The pharmacological activation of the cannabinoid receptor type 2, CB2, has been shown to elicit anti-tumoral mechanisms in different cancer types. However, little is known about its endogenous role in tumor pathophysiology, and different studies have attributed pro-tumorigenic properties to this receptor. In a previous work, we showed that CB2 expression is a poor prognostic factor in colon cancer patients. Here we report that activation of CB2 with low doses of specific agonists induce cell proliferation and favor the acquisition of aggressive molecular features in colon cancer cells...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
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