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Heyu Li, Kailin Liu, Gareth R Williams, Junzi Wu, Jianrong Wu, Haijun Wang, Shiwei Niu, Li-Min Zhu
We report a dual-responsive drug delivery system prepared by electrospinning. Blend fibers of poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) and ethyl cellulose (EC) were first prepared, with the aim of developing thermoresponsive sustained release formulations. Eudragit L100-based fibers were then generated to yield pH-sensitive materials. Attempts to produce three-polymer fibers of EC, PNVCL and Eudragit were unsuccessful, and therefore hybrid mats containing two fiber populations (one made of PNVCL/EC, one comprising Eudragit) were instead fabricated by twin-jet electrospinning...
July 10, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Qifu Zhang, Hong Zhang, Qunxia Zhang, Qing Huang
Norfloxacin is a synthetic antibiotics drug which is widely used in the treatment of infectious diseases and also often carelessly released into natural environment resulting in antibiotics-contaminated wastewater. In this work, we employed atmospheric-pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to treat norfloxacin-contaminated water and investigated the degradation efficiency and mechanism for the plasma treatments under different conditions with varied working gas atmospheres. Our results showed that the DBD efficiency for norfloxacin degradation depended on reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) produced in the plasma treatment, while the plasma-induced hydroxyl radical played a critical role in the norfloxacin degradation...
July 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Wenbo Sun, Xinyong Li, Jincheng Mu, Shiying Fan, Zhifan Yin, Xinyang Wang, Meichun Qin, Moses Tadé, Shaomin Liu
A series of MnCeZrOx mixed oxide catalysts were facilely synthesized using the impregnation-NH3 ·H2 O coprecipitation method and tested for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 . Doping manganese significantly improved the catalytic activity and the best performing SCR catalyst, Mn0.25 Ce0.5 Zr0.25 Ox , was shown to achieve NO conversion > 80% in the temperature range (60-350 °C), with the denitration effect up to 50% at room temperature (conditions: [NO] = [NH3 ] = 500 ppm, [O2 ] = 5 vol%, He as balance, flow rate  =  100 mL/min, GHSV  =  40, 000 h-1 )...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Bingbing Guo, Yi Hong, Guofu Qiao, Jinping Ou, Zuohua Li
The chloride transport properties of cement-based materials are determined via the physicochemical interactions between the pore solution and the cement hydrates. Herein, a thermodynamic model based on surface complexation reactions and dissolution/precipitation reactions was established to investigate the essential physicochemical interactions. The effects of chloride concentration, temperature, and saturation degree (the ratio of water volume to pore volume) on the physicochemical interactions were studied in detail using the resulting thermodynamic model...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Leichang Cao, Iris K M Yu, Daniel C W Tsang, Shicheng Zhang, Yong Sik Ok, Eilhann E Kwon, Hocheol Song, Chi Sun Poon
The catalytic activity of engineered biochar was scrutinized for generation of glucose and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from starch-rich food waste (bread, rice, and spaghetti). The biochar catalysts were synthesized by chemical activation of pinewood sawdust with phosphoric acid at 400-600 °C. Higher activation temperatures enhanced the development of porosity and acidity (characterized by COPO3 and CPO3 surface groups), which imparted higher catalytic activity of H3 PO4 -activated biochar towards starch hydrolysis and fructose dehydration...
July 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Xiaojing Tian, Qianqian Yu, Wei Wu, Xingmin Li, Ruitong Dai
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important food-borne pathogenic microorganism that has been used as a model organism for studying microbial inactivation effects and inactivation mechanism in various sterilization technologies. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high voltage short time ohmic- (HVST), low voltage long time ohmic- (LVLT), and water bath- (WB) heating on inactivation and proteome changes of E. coli O157:H7 cells at the same endpoint temperature of 72 °C, and to analyze whether a non-thermal death effect existed in ohmic heating...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Cristina Postigo, Pere Emiliano, Damià Barceló, Fernando Valero
In order to reduce the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during potabilization of water it is necessary to explore the potential of the source water and the applied treatment to generate these chemicals. This is actually more challenging in large drinking water networks that use different source waters to satisfy drinking water demand. In this regard, this work investigated the formation of DBPs in water matrices that are commonly supplied to the city of Barcelona and its metropolitan area. The regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids were the most abundant DBP classes in these waters, followed by haloacetamides and haloacetonitriles or trihalogenated acetaldehydes (THALs)...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Connor J Easley, Magi Mettry, Emily M Moses, Richard J Hooley, Christopher J Bardeen
A deep cavitand is used to encapsulate the aromatic mole-cule pyrene in its interior while also binding Tl+ ions with its terminal carboxylates. The combination of selective bind-ing and strong Tl+ recognition enhances the intersystem crossing and decreases the phosphorescence radiative life-time from ~30 s to 0.23 s. The cavitand also decreases the rate of O2 quenching by a factor of 100. Together, these factors boost the room temperature phosphorescence sig-nal by several orders of magnitude, allowing it to be detect-ed in water without O2 removal...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Biao Chen, Xuepeng Zhang, Yucai Wang, Hui Miao, Guoqing Zhang
Aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ), where excited-state and/or ground-state electronic structures are altered to exhibit an increased proclivity for non-radiative decay for the aggregates, is largely responsible for the lack of fluorescence and phosphorescence in molecular solids in general. Here we show that ACQ could be effectively circumvented by constructing an aromatic system with a methylene-linker, where the system exhibits typical aggregation-induced emission (AIE) with long-lived room-temperature phosphorescence, since the tetrahedral structure in the solid state may significantly reduce strong intermolecular interactions contributing to ACQ...
July 19, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Abel Carreras, Efrem Bernuz, Xavier Marugan, Miquel Llunell, Pere Alemany
Despite its undeniable problems from a philosophical point of view, the concept of molecular structure, with attributes such as shape and symmetry, directly borrowed from the description of macroscopic objects, is nowadays central to most of the chemical sciences. Descriptions such as "the tetrahedral" carbon atom or "octahedral coordination complexes" are widely used as much in elementary textbooks as in the most up-to-date research articles. The definition of molecular shape is, however, not as simple as it might seem at first sight...
July 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
M Herrador-Colmenero, F Harrison, E Villa-González, C Rodríguez-López, F B Ortega, J R, A P Jones, P Chillón
AIM: To study the associations of weather conditions with the travel mode choice for commuting to and from school. METHODS: A total of 6,979 Spanish youths aged 7 to 18 years old (80% adolescents aged 12-18 years old, 51% male) completed a 5-day survey of mode of commuting to school in autumn, winter, and spring. Weather data from the nearest weather station to each school was registered. We used Google Maps™ to calculate the distance from home to school. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate odds of active travel based on weather and season...
July 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Joshua J Stratton, Jay Ham, Thomas Borch
Atmospheric deposition of NH and NH contributes to eutrophication within sensitive subalpine ecosystems of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in the United States. However, little is known about the local contribution of NH from soils within the park. Thus, the goal of this study was to quantify and compare NH emissions from intact soil cores sampled from a subalpine grassland and forest within RMNP. Cores were collected at 2-wk intervals from 20 June 2011 to 12 Sept. 2011 and transferred to a laboratory chamber system for NH flux measurements...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Brian J Wienhold, Virginia L Jin, Marty R Schmer, Gary E Varvel
The western US Corn Belt is projected to experience major changes in growing conditions due to climate change over the next 50 to 100 yr. Projected changes include increases in growing season length, number of high temperature stress days and warm nights, and precipitation, with more heavy rainfall events. The impact these changes will have on soil organic carbon (SOC) needs to be estimated and adaptive changes in management developed to sustain soil health and system services. The process-based model CQESTR was used to model changes in SOC stocks (0-30 cm) of continuous corn ( L...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Gabriel Maltais-Landry, Nicolas Bertoni, Will Valley, Nicholas Grant, Zoran Nesic, Sean M Smukler
Manure-based soil amendments (MBSAs) must be managed optimally to maximize N concentration and availability while minimizing environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas [GHG]) emissions. We conducted an 83-d incubation study to determine the effects of different moisture (60 or 120% of water-holding capacity [WHC]) and temperature (4 or 20°C) conditions during the decomposition of MBSAs. We measured CO, CH, and NO emissions and total C, total N, NH, and NO during the decomposition of chicken MBSA and two understudied MBSAs (turkey and horse)...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Luis A Reyes Rojas, Kabindra Adhikari, Stephen J Ventura
Soil organic C (SOC) is the largest terrestrial C pool, and it influences diverse soil properties and processes in a landscape. At global scales, SOC is related to climate; as climate changes, we expect that SOC will change at broad scales as well, but how SOC will respond to climate change in diverse environments is complex and highly uncertain. To evaluate the potential impact of predicted changes in temperature and precipitation across central Chile, we first estimated current SOC content using pedon descriptions and environmental variables (temperature, rainfall, land use, topography, soil types, and geology) as predictors...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Hero T Gollany, Rodney T Venterea
A the anticipated impacts of climate change is a pressing issue facing agriculture, as precipitation and temperature changes are expected to have major effects on agricultural production in many regions of the world. These changes will also affect soil organic matter decomposition and associated stocks of soil organic C (SOC), which have the potential to feed back to climate change and affect agroecosystem resiliency. This special section brings together multiple efforts to assess effects of climate change on SOC stocks around the globe in grassland, pasture, and crop agroecosystems under varying management practices...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Susan E Crow, Carlos A Sierra
Accurately capturing dynamic soil response to disturbance effects in agroecosystem models remains elusive, thereby limiting projections of climate change mitigation potential. Perennial grasses cultivated in zero-tillage management systems hold promise as sustainable agroecosystems. High-yielding tropical C grasses often have extensive rooting systems, and the belowground processes of root turnover, aggregate formation, and mineral stabilization drove rapid C accumulation after cultivation in a recent study...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Asma Jebari, Agustin Del Prado, Guillermo Pardo, José Antonio Rodríguez Martín, Jorge Álvaro-Fuentes
Soil organic C (SOC) stock assessments at the regional scale under climate change scenarios are of paramount importance in implementing soil management practices to mitigate climate change. In this study, we estimated the changes in SOC sequestration under climate change conditions in agricultural land in Spain using the RothC model at the regional level. Four Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate change scenarios (CGCM2-A2, CGCM2-B2, ECHAM4-A2, and ECHAM4-B2) were used to simulate SOC changes during the 2010 to 2100 period across a total surface area of 2...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Marta B Roser, Gary W Feyereisen, Kurt A Spokas, David J Mulla, Jeffrey S Strock, Jessica Gutknecht
Nitrogen losses from croplands contribute to impairment of water bodies. This laboratory experiment evaluated various C sources for use in a denitrifying bioreactor, a conservation practice designed to reduce N losses. The nitrate removal efficiency of candidate treatments (corn cobs [CC], corn cobs with modified coconut coir [CC+MC], corn cobs with modified coconut coir and modified macadamia shell biochar [CC+MC+MBC], wood chips [WC], wood chips with hardwood biochar [WC+BC], and wood chips with continuous sodium acetate addition [WC+A]) were tested with up-flow direction...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Peter A Vadas, Melanie N Stock, Gary W Feyereisen, Francisco J Arriaga, Laura W Good, K G Karthikeyan
Agricultural nutrient management is an issue due to N and P losses from fields and water quality degradation. Better information is needed on the risk of nutrient loss in runoff from dairy manure applied in winter. We investigated the effect of temperature on nutrient release from liquid and semisolid manure to water, and of manure quantity and placement within a snowpack on nutrient release to melting snow. Temperature did not affect manure P and NH-N release during water extraction. Manure P release, but not NH-N release, was significantly influenced by the water/manure solids extraction ratio...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
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