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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914902/case-of-posterior-cortical-atrophy-pca-evolved-to-pca-cbs
#1
Nicola Salvadori, Mirella Russo, Leonardo Biscetti, Katia D' Andrea, Massimo Eugenio Dottorini, Lucilla Parnetti
A 68-year-old lawyer developed insidious disturbances in topographic orientation and apraxia. He underwent a geriatric evaluation, only documenting slight cognitive disturbances, and a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), showing mild right-lateralised frontoparietal hypometabolism. After 1 year, because of worsening in spatial orientation and the onset of dressing apraxia, he was referred to our memory clinic. The neuropsychological evaluation documented proeminent visuospatial, praxis deficits and dysgraphia...
June 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913307/the-development-of-the-representativeness-heuristic-in-young-children
#2
Samantha Gualtieri, Stephanie Denison
In classic examinations of the representativeness heuristic, Kahneman and Tversky (1973) presented adult participants with a description of an individual who fit their stereotype of a typical engineer. Importantly, even when participants were told that the individual was drawn from a sample of 70 lawyers and 30 engineers, they estimated that the individual was an engineer at very high levels, showing that they relied almost exclusively on the personality description. Relying on the representativeness heuristic can lead to base-rate neglect and, thus, biased judgments...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907914/asylum-seekers-in-a-time-of-record-forced-global-displacement-the-role-of-physicians
#3
Katherine C McKenzie, Jon Bauer, P Preston Reynolds
In 2016, over 65 million individuals were displaced from their homes due to human rights abuses, and 262,000 people applied for asylum in the USA. Individuals who have experienced persecution are present in many primary and specialty clinics. A medical forensic evaluation can increase the likelihood of a successful asylum case. This paper reviews the legal framework for asylum and the contribution forensic evaluations can make to this vulnerable population. Physicians without asylum expertise can help these patients by recognizing their legal right to residential protection and referring them to lawyers and physicians with expert skills...
June 15, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898126/the-lawyer-the-physician-and-the-suicidal-lance-corporal-evaristo-de-moraes-nina-rodrigues-and-the-attack-that-shook-the-republic
#4
Helga Cunha Gahyva
The lawyer Evaristo de Moraes and the physician Nina Rodrigues both investigated the criminal behavior of Marcelino Bispo, the perpetrator of an attack against President Prudente de Moraes on November 5, 1897, both highlighting the same issue: criminal responsibility. Speaking out in favor of the precepts of criminal anthropology, they shared the conviction that Bispo's criminal responsibility should be attenuated in virtue of his suggestible nature. Despite the similarities, could the specific ways they each used the contributions of criminology give us the chance to identify different forms of appropriation of a single intellectual framework? The aim of this study therefore consists of analyzing where the arguments in their respective analyses converged and diverged...
April 2018: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888816/democracy-and-power-in-alcohol-premises-licensing-a-qualitative-interview-study-of-the-scottish-public-health-objective
#5
Niamh Fitzgerald, Jo Winterbottom, James Nicholls
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There is international interest in how the availability of alcohol can be controlled to reduce harms. An objective of 'protecting and improving public health' was introduced to alcohol premises licensing in Scotland in 2005, resulting in public health actors engaging with licensing in new ways. We aimed to explore their experiences, including perceptions of the distribution of power, and constraints on their influence and that of the general public within the licensing system...
June 11, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888420/is-focusing-on-the-triad-in-suspected-child-abuse-cases-really-irrelevant-and-of-no-practical-use
#6
Niels Lynøe, Anders Eriksson
Since its publication in 2016, the report by the Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services on the diagnostic accuracy of the triad for determining traumatic shaking (1) has been criticised, mainly by paediatricians. One repeated criticism has been that the report focused on the triad of symptoms, namely subdural haematoma, retinal haemorrhages and encephalopathy, in cases without signs of impact. This focus has been described by some critics as one that has been created by lawyers to use in court cases and the triad itself has been dismissed as irrelevant and of no practical or clinical use (2-3) This article is protected by copyright...
June 11, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869635/brain-based-mind-reading-for-lawyers-reflecting-on-possibilities-and-perils
#7
COMMENT
Lisa Claydon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864557/the-barrow-innovation-center-case-series-a-novel-3d-printed-retractor-for-use-with-electromagnetic-neuronavigation-systems
#8
Michael A Bohl, David S Xu, Claudio Cavallo, Gabriella M Paisan, Kris A Smith, Peter Nakaji
OBJECTIVE: The Barrow Innovation Center consists of an educational program that promotes interdisciplinary collaboration among neurosurgery, legal, and engineering professionals to foster the development of new medical devices. This report describes a common issue faced during the placement of ventricular shunts for the treatment of hydrocephalus, and the solution to this problem that was developed through the Barrow Innovation Center. METHODS: Neurosurgery residents involved in the Barrow Innovation Center presented the problem of ferromagnetic retractors interfering with pinless image-guidance systems at a monthly meeting...
June 1, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863721/-the-logical-analysis-of-the-notion-of-medical-error
#9
L A Shmarov
The objective of the present study was the logical analysis of the notions of 'medical error' and 'doctor's error' based on the consideration of the statutory and regulatory enactments published in the available literature. This article continues a series of thematic reports by the author concerning the application of the logical laws for the purpose of both the practical work of forensic medical experts and the use of specific notions in the expert conclusions, normative legal acts, scientific works of the experts and the lawyers...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804875/-advance-directives-in-hospital-practice-a-matter-of-concern-for-every-healthcare-professional-and-consumer
#10
T de Courson, C Sfeir, G de Guillebon, H Sanson, A Yannoutsos, P Priollet
INTRODUCTION: In France, Leonetti and Claeys-Leonetti laws relating to patients' rights and end-of-life practice have introduced the advance healthcare directives (ADs). Although family doctor's role is important in initiating discussions regarding AD, hospital healthcare professionals should also be concerned by the health care planning laws. METHODS: A descriptive, quantitative and qualitative study was conducted in Paris Saint-Joseph hospital to evaluate the knowledge of nursing personnel regarding ADs...
May 24, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804212/technical-report-3d-printing-of-the-brain-for-use-as-a-visual-aid-tool-to-communicate-mr-imaging-features-of-hypoxic-ischaemic-injury-at-term-with-non-physicians
#11
Savvas Andronikou, Ewan Simpson, Maciej Klemm, Schadie Vedajallam, Anith Chacko, Ngoc Jade Thai
3D printing has been used in several medical applications. There are no reports however of 3D printing of the brain in children for demonstrating pathology to non-medical professionals such as lawyers. We printed 3D models of the paediatric brain from volumetric MRI in cases of severe and moderate hypoxic ischaemic injury as well as a normal age matched control, as follows: MRI DICOM data was converted to NifTI (Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative) format; segmentation of the brain into CSF, grey, and white matter was performed; the segmented data was converted to STL format and printed on a commercially available scanner...
May 26, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786891/supporting-asylum-seekers-clinician-experiences-of-documenting-human-rights-violations-through-forensic-psychological-evaluation
#12
Kim A Baranowski, Melissa H Moses, Jasmine Sundri
The United States permits foreign nationals to apply for asylum if they have experienced persecution or have a fear of future persecution. In order to meet the criteria for persecution, the harm inflicted upon the asylum seeker does not need to be or have been physical and can include psychological sequelae. In an effort to document persecution, lawyers seek the assistance of health professionals when preparing their clients' asylum applications. Mental health professionals work to corroborate psychological evidence of the asylum seeker's report of ill treatment through evaluation and presentation of their findings in the form of legal affidavits...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783923/the-doctor-negligence-and-causation-a-lawyer-s-exposition-to-doctors-scientists-and-lawyers
#13
Alec Samuels
The brief history of causation in medicine and science. The law. Setting the scene. Negligence but no causation. Duty to warn. PROGNOSIS: Loss of opportunity. Consecutive negligence. Indivisible injury. Unknown culprits. Obstetrics. The European Court of Justice. The future.
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756494/lexical-properties-trademarks-dictionaries-and-the-sense-of-the-generic
#14
Jose Bellido, Alain Pottage
The third edition of Webster's International Dictionary, first published in 1961, represented a novel approach to lexicography. It recorded the English language used in everyday life, incorporating colloquial terms that previous grammarians would have considered unfit for any responsible dictionary. Many were scandalized by the new lexicography. Trademark lawyers were not the most prominent of these critics, but the concerns they expressed are significant because they touched on the core structure of the trademark as a form of property in language...
May 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753199/acceptability-of-the-predicting-abusive-head-trauma-predaht-clinical-prediction-tool-a-qualitative-study-with-child-protection-professionals
#15
Laura E Cowley, Sabine Maguire, Daniel M Farewell, Harriet D Quinn-Scoggins, Matthew O Flynn, Alison M Kemp
The validated Predicting Abusive Head Trauma (PredAHT) tool estimates the probability of abusive head trauma (AHT) based on combinations of six clinical features: head/neck bruising; apnea; seizures; rib/long-bone fractures; retinal hemorrhages. We aimed to determine the acceptability of PredAHT to child protection professionals. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 56 participants: clinicians (25), child protection social workers (10), legal practitioners (9, including 4 judges), police officers (8), and pathologists (4), purposively sampled across southwest United Kingdom...
May 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724810/voices-of-moral-authority-parents-doctors-and-what-will-actually-help
#16
Richard David William Hain
The public often believes that parents have a right to make medical decisions about their child. The idea that, in respect of children, doctors should do what parents tell them to do is problematic on the face of it. The effect of such a claim would be that a doctor who acted deliberately to harm a child would be making a morally correct decision, providing only that it is what the child's parents said they wanted. That is so obviously nonsense that it cannot be what people who claim it actually mean. In this paper, I suggest that the claim actually represents either or both of two misunderstandings...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722283/communication-between-doctors-and-lawyers
#17
Diana Brahams, Harry Zeitlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696554/domain-specific-relationships-in-sexual-measures-of-impulsive-behavior
#18
Colin T Mahoney, Steven R Lawyer
Impulsivity is an important construct for understanding sexual behaviors, but behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity often are not correlated. One possible explanation for this is that there is little shared variance in the measures because behavioral measures index impulsivity by asking questions about monetary preferences, while self-report measures index impulsivity by asking about a broad range of real-world outcomes (including those of a sexual nature) largely unrelated to money-related preferences...
April 25, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677924/strategies-for-effectively-documenting-sexual-orientation-and-gender-identity-in-electronic-health-record
#19
REVIEW
Julia Frangella, Carlos Otero, Daniel Luna
In this communication we identify strategies for effectively documenting Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Electronic Health Records. For this review a multidisciplinary group composed by three physicians, a nurse, an engineer and a lawyer analyzed the evidence in bibliography related to the topic and summarized the results. After analyzing the information, we summarized and classified them into three major topics: To request, to store and to display and access to the information. How to standardize those data and where data specifically will be populated in EHRs have not been answered yet...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668391/the-reflective-mind-examining-individual-differences-in-susceptibility-to-base-rate-neglect-with-fmri
#20
Oshin Vartanian, Erin L Beatty, Ingrid Smith, Kristen Blackler, Quan Lam, Sarah Forbes, Wim De Neys
Performance on heuristics and bias tasks has been shown to be susceptible to bias. In turn, susceptibility to bias varies as a function of individual differences in cognitive abilities (e.g., intelligence) and thinking styles (e.g., propensity for reflection). Using a classic task (i.e., lawyer-engineer problem), we conducted two experiments to examine the differential contributions of cognitive abilities versus thinking styles to performance. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT)-a well-established measure of reflective thinking-predicted performance on conflict problems (where base rates and intuition point in opposite directions), whereas STM predicted performance on nonconflict problems...
July 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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