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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642509/in-our-opinion
#1
G Roberts, V S Lucas, F McDonald, S Camilleri, J Jayaraman, D Davies, K Moze
The misleading statements made in the British Dental Journal in the December 2016 issue relating to dental age assessment are assessed for inaccuracies and negligent omission of the issue of Child Protection. It is emphasised that there is a need for the approach of objective knowledge viz. not influenced by personal feelings or opinions in considering and representing facts. The article by the Chair of the Education, Ethics, and Team Working Group implies that unsatisfactory consent procedures are followed...
June 23, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638041/-the-presumption-of-mental-health-is-it-really-proved
#2
S N Shishkov, N V Skibina
The article is devoted to one of the most complicated and peculiar problems of modern psychiatry - the presumption of mental health. Its originality is seen in the fact that practically all speaking and writing about it noted the importance of this principle for the protection of rights and legal interests of citizens, failing into the field of psychiatry. However, expressing this opinion, doctors and lawyers offer very few arguments in support of this view. Traditional arguments in favor of the presumption of mental health, scattered and unsystematic, prove to be absolutely insolvent...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622536/peer-review-in-forensic-science
#3
REVIEW
Kaye N Ballantyne, Gary Edmond, Bryan Found
Peer review features prominently in the forensic sciences. Drawing on recent research and studies, this article examines different types of peer review, specifically: editorial peer review; peer review by the scientific community; technical and administrative review; and verification (and replication). The article reviews the different meanings of these quite disparate activities and their utility in relation to enhancing performance and reducing error. It explains how forensic practitioners should approach and use peer review, as well as how it should be described in expert reports and oral testimony...
May 25, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585456/potential-conflicts-in-midwifery-practice-regarding-conscientious-objection-to-abortions-in-scotland
#4
Valerie Fleming, Yvonne Robb
BACKGROUND: This study was developed as a result of a court case involving conflicts between midwives' professional practice and their faith when caring for women undergoing abortions in Scotland. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: What are practising Roman Catholics' perspectives of potential conflicts between midwives' professional practice in Scotland with regard to involvement in abortions and their faith? How relevant is the 'conscience clause' to midwifery practice today? and What are participants' understandings of Canon 1398 in relation to midwifery practice? RESEARCH DESIGN: The theoretical underpinning of this study was Gadamer's hermeneutic out of which the method developed by Fleming et al...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582459/traumatic-injury-and-perceived-injustice-fault-attributions-matter-in-a-no-fault-compensation-state
#5
Liane J Ioannou, Peter A Cameron, Stephen J Gibson, Belinda J Gabbe, Jennie Ponsford, Paul A Jennings, Carolyn A Arnold, Stella M Gwini, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Melita J Giummarra
BACKGROUND: Traumatic injury can lead to loss, suffering and feelings of injustice. Previous research has shown that perceived injustice is associated with poorer physical and mental wellbeing in persons with chronic pain. This study aimed to identify the relative association between injury, compensation and pain-related characteristics and perceived injustice 12-months after traumatic injury. METHODS: 433 participants were recruited from the Victorian Orthopedic Trauma Outcomes Registry and Victorian State Trauma Registry, and completed questionnaires at 12-14 months after injury as part of an observational cohort study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580630/the-midgut-microbiota-plays-an-essential-role-in-sand-fly-vector-competence-for-leishmania-major
#6
Isabelle Louradour, Carolina Cunha Monteiro, Ehud Inbar, Kashinath Ghosh, Richard Merkhofer, Phillip Lawyer, Andrea Paun, Margery Smelkinson, Nagila Secundino, Michael Lewis, Dinesh Erram, Ludek Zurek, David Sacks
For many arthropod vectors, the diverse bacteria and fungi that inhabit the gut can negatively impact pathogen colonization. Our attempts to exploit antibiotic treatment of colonized Phlebotomus duboscqi sand flies in order to improve their vector competency for Leishmania major resulted instead in flies that were refractory to the development of transmissible infections due to the inability of the parasite to survive and to colonize the anterior midgut with infective, metacyclic stage promastigotes. The parasite survival and development defect could be overcome by feeding the flies on different symbiont bacteria but not by feeding them on bacterial supernatants or replete medium...
June 5, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579819/outcomes-and-prognostic-variables-of-radiofrequency-zygapophyseal-joint-neurotomy-in-utah-workers-compensation-patients
#7
Tyler J Christensen, M Scott DeBerard, Anthony J Wheeler
PURPOSE: The prevalence of radiofrequency zygapophyseal joint neurotomy (RFN) has increased substantially across the past decade. Limited research exists that has examined pre-procedure predictors of RFN outcomes, particularly within workers' compensation populations. The purpose of this study was to determine if pre-procedure biopsychosocial variables are predictive of outcomes in a cohort of compensated Utah patients who have undergone RFN. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study consisting of a review of pre-procedure medical records and a telephone outcome survey...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569707/know-how-in-postwar-business-and-law
#8
Douglas O'Reagan
In the mid-twentieth century, businesses around the world began to see technical know-how as one of the most important assets they could possess. While their exact definitions of know-how varied (usually centering on employees' tacit knowledge; accumulated, minor innovations rather than just patentable inventions; and tailoring to local conditions), the rapidly growing perception that it was invaluable led to widespread know-how licensing. As businesses embraced it, legal scholars and business lawyers during the 1950s through the 1970s scrambled to clarify legal bases for intellectual property protections for know-how...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559120/the-emerging-role-of-lawyers-as-addiction-quasi-experts
#9
Kate Seear
This paper examines a discrete set of issues pertaining to the constitution of addiction in law. Based on qualitative interviews undertaken with lawyers in Australia and Canada, I examine how addiction figures in lawyers' daily practice. Drawing on ideas from science and technology studies scholars Sheila Jasanoff, Michael Lynch and Bruno Latour, and building on recent research I undertook on legal addiction veridiction, I explore the constitution of addiction 'facts' in law. I examine how and when lawyers claim to make decisions about addiction in the course of their legal practice...
May 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548107/current-controversies-in-brain-death-determination
#10
REVIEW
Ariane Lewis, David Greer
Although the concept of brain death is accepted by the majority of physicians, lawyers, ethicists and society at large, controversies about determination of death by neurological criteria persist, and often reach the public eye. In this article, we examine four prominent controversial brain death cases from 2013-2016. We review current controversies, including protocol variability, recognition of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria for brain death as an accepted medical standard, and management of objections to discontinuation of organ support after determination of brain death...
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525618/establishing-expanding-and-certifying-a-closed-colony-of-phlebotomus-argentipes-diptera-psychodidae-for-xenodiagnostic-studies-at-the-kala-azar-medical-research-center-muzaffarpur-bihar-india
#11
Puja Tiwary, Shakti Kumar Singh, Anurag Kumar Kushwaha, Edgar Rowton, David Sacks, Om Prakash Singh, Shyam Sundar, Phillip Lawyer
This pilot project was preliminary and essential to a larger effort to define the ability of certain human-subject groups across the infection spectrum to serve as reservoirs of Leishmania donovani infection to sand flies in areas of anthroponotic transmission such as in Bihar state, India. This is possible only via xenodiagnosis of well-defined subject groups using live vector sand flies. The objective was to establish at the Kala Azar Medical Research Center (KAMRC), Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India, a self-sustaining colony of Phlebotomus argentipes (Annandale & Brunneti), closed to infusion with wild-caught material and certified safe for human xenodiagnosis...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506414/unintentional-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-injuries-following-thyroidectomy-is-it-the-surgeon-who-pays-the-bill
#12
REVIEW
C Gambardella, A Polistena, A Sanguinetti, R Patrone, S Napolitano, D Esposito, D Testa, V Marotta, A Faggiano, P G Calò, N Avenia, G Conzo
BACKGROUND: Thyroidectomy is one of the most common intervention in general surgery and, after the turn of the century, its rate has sharply increased, along with a worldwide increased incidence of differentiated thyroid cancers. Therefore, injuries of the recurrent laryngeal nerve have become one of the most frequent cause of surgical malpractice claims, mostly following surgery for benign pathology. MAIN BODY: Even if the incidence of definitive paralysis is generally lower than 3%, during the last 20 years in Italy, the number of claims for damages has sharply raised...
May 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483770/lawyers-plan-class-action-against-uk-government-on-asthma-caused-by-air-pollution
#13
Susan Mayor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447019/a-cross-sectional-study-need-of-equal-respect-for-all-professionals-in-the-institutional-ethics-committees-composition
#14
Ramandeep Kaur, Ajay Francis Christopher, Vikas Gupta, Parveen Bansal
BACKGROUND: The composition of the Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) with an equal respect plays a major role in evaluating research proposals to ensure the safety of the subjects and ethical quality of research project. It is mandatory that all research projects with an involvement of human subjects should be approved by the IEC before commencement. AIM: To find out the equality of respect to members of IEC irrespective of nature of their profession. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methods include a cross-sectional study, the general information and member composition, multidisciplinary nature, independent performance, competence, decision capability, professionally biased of IECs in health research institutions of Punjab, India...
April 2017: Perspectives in Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446742/work-and-health-care-in-milan-1864-1874
#15
Alessandro Porro, Lorenzo Lorusso, Bruno Falconi, Antonia Francesca Franchini
In 1864 in Milan, Giovanni Rosmini (1832-1896) opened an ophthalmic dispensary for workers. In 1874 this dispensary was transformed into the first ophthalmic hospital of the city. This hospital still exists today. The authors analyze a document that belonged to the lawyer Enrico Rosmini (1828-1898), brother of Giovanni, which helps to piece together the early years of the dispensary, where about 4,000 surgeries were carried out in the first four years of activity. This historical document is valuable as it sheds light on one of the first healthcare institution for workers in Milan...
April 21, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429396/children-s-uncertain-responses-when-testifying-about-alleged-sexual-abuse-in-scottish-courts
#16
Samantha J Andrews, Elizabeth C Ahern, Michael E Lamb
This study examined the uncertain responses of 56 alleged sexual abuse victims, aged 5-17 years, testifying in Scottish criminal court trials. Don't know/remember ground rules were explained to 38% of the children and each child reported uncertainty in response to 15% of the questions on average. Uncertain responding was associated with expressions of resistance and confusion, questioning context (proportionally more regarding substantive than non-substantive issues), question content (least to disclosure-focused questions), utterance type (more to directives, particularly those posed by defense lawyers; more to recall-based than recognition prompts), and age (children in mid-adolescence were less likely to respond uncertainly than those who were either older or younger)...
April 20, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428181/irish-mp-calls-for-key-documents-on-pandemrix-to-be-handed-to-lawyers-representing-children-with-narcolepsy
#17
Clare Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413600/screening-the-use-of-informed-consent-forms-prior-to-procedures-involving-operative-dentistry-ethical-aspects
#18
Livia Graziele Rodrigues, João Batista De Souza, Erica Miranda De Torres, Rhonan Ferreira Silva
Background. The present study aimed to screen the knowledge and attitudes of dentists toward the use of informed consent forms prior to procedures involving operative dentistry. Methods. A research tool containing questions (questionnaire) regarding the use of informed consent forms was developed. The questionnaire consisted of seven questions structured to screen the current practice in operative dentistry towards the use of informed consent forms. Results. The questionnaires were distributed among 731 dentists, of which 179 returned them with answers...
2017: Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384145/prevalence-of-enduring-power-of-attorney-and-barriers-towards-it-in-community-geriatric-population-in-counties-manukau-health
#19
So-Jung Park, Heather Astell
AIM: Enduring power of attorney (EPA) is a simple and easy-to-set-up legal document which protects the wishes of the donor, as well as preventing significant psychological and social cost for the patient and their family when long-term residential care needs to be arranged due to the patient's increasing care requirements. It also reduces the significant cost in hospital beds days for the district health board involved while awaiting the Protection of Personal and Property Rights order...
April 7, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379154/retaliatory-rico-and-the-puzzle-of-fraudulent-claiming
#20
Nora Freeman Engstrom
Over the past century, the allegation that the tort liability system incentivizes legal extortion and is chock-full of fraudulent claims has dominated public discussion and prompted lawmakers to ever-more-creatively curtail individuals' incentives and opportunities to seek redress. Unsatisfied with these conventional efforts, in recent years, at least a dozen corporate defendants have "discovered" a new fraud-fighting tool. They've started filing retaliatory RICO suits against plaintiffs and their lawyers and experts, alleging that the initiation of certain nonmeritorious litigation constitutes racketeering activity—while tort reform advocates have applauded these efforts and exhorted more "courageous" companies to follow suit...
2017: Michigan Law Review
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