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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427705/dismantling-the-justice-silos-flowcharting-the-role-and-expertise-of-forensic-science-forensic-medicine-and-allied-health-in-adult-sexual-assault-investigations
#1
Sally F Kelty, Roberta Julian, Eva Bruenisholz, Linzi Wilson-Wilde
Forensic science is increasingly used to help exonerate the innocent and establishing links between individuals and criminal activities. With increased reliance on scientific services provided by multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational in the private and government sectors (health, justice, legal, police) practitioners, the potential for miscommunication resulting unjust outcomes increases. The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational information sharing is to prevent the 'justice silo effect'; where practitioners from different organisations operate in isolation with minimal or no interaction...
January 31, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389172/a-meta-analysis-of-nonsystematic-responding-in-delay-and-probability-reward-discounting
#2
Kathleen R Smith, Steven R Lawyer, Joshua K Swift
Delay discounting (DD) and probability discounting (PD) are behavioral measures of choice that index sensitivity to delayed and probabilistic outcomes, which are associated with a range of negative health-related outcomes. Patterns of discounting tend to be predictable, where preferences for immediate (vs. delayed) and certain (vs. probabilistic) rewards change as a function of delay and probability. However, some participants yield nonsystematic response patterns (NSR) that cannot be accounted for by theories of choice and could have implications for the validity of discounting-related experiments...
February 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381106/medical-evidence-and-proof-of-cause-of-death-in-nigerian-courts
#3
John Oladapo Obafunwa, Oluwatomi Ajayi, Mathias I Okoye
Medical evidence has continued to be given and evaluated in Nigerian courts since Nigeria's independence from Britain. The attitudes of the courts have been largely varied against a background of the individual judge's appreciation of forensic science and who should be considered an expert witness. The prosecution and defence lawyers equally display limited knowledge of forensic science. This paper reviews some of the decided cases, the reasons for the verdicts, forensic concerns and recommendations for the improvement of the criminal justice system...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373053/the-status-health-paradox-organizational-context-stress-exposure-and-well-being-in-the-legal-profession
#4
Jonathan Koltai, Scott Schieman, Ronit Dinovitzer
Prior research evaluates the health effects of higher status attainment by analyzing highly similar individuals whose circumstances differ after some experience a "status boost." Advancing that research, we assess health differences across organizational contexts among two national samples of lawyers who were admitted to the bar in the same year in their respective countries. We find that higher-status lawyers in large firms report more depression than lower-status lawyers, poorer health in the American survey, and no health advantage in Canada...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351624/takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-associated-with-work-place-bullying
#5
Halla Malik, Nadarajah Kangaharan, Ian Agahari
Background: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a condition of transient left ventricular dysfunction precipitated by acute physical or emotional stress. The pathogenesis of TC is not well understood, but it is known to predominantly affect postmenopausal women in the context of physical or emotional triggers. Aims: To describe a case of TC with an association to a never previously described work place stressor of bullying. Case Report: A 48-year-old female lawyer developed acute chest pain after experiencing significant emotional distress at a workplace meeting...
January 17, 2018: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326317/comparative-analysis-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-intracameral-cefuroxime-moxifloxacin-and-vancomycin-at-the-end-of-cataract-surgery-a-meta-analysis
#6
Randy C Bowen, Andrew Xingyu Zhou, Sailaja Bondalapati, Thomas W Lawyer, Karisa B Snow, Patrick R Evans, Tyler Bardsley, Mary McFarland, Matthew Kliethermes, Dallas Shi, Christina A Mamalis, Tom Greene, Christopher J Rudnisky, Balamurali Krishna Ambati
BACKGROUND: Current practice methods are unclear as to the most safe and effective prophylactic pharmacotherapy and method of delivery to reduce postoperative endophthalmitis occurrence. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis using Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines was performed to compare the efficacy of intracameral cefuroxime, moxifloxacin and vancomycin in preventing postphacoemulsification cataract surgery endophthalmitis...
January 11, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319469/lgbt-family-lawyers-and-same-sex-marriage-recognition-how-legal-change-shapes-professional-identity-and-practice
#7
Amanda K Baumle
Lawyers who practice family law for LGBT clients are key players in the tenuous and evolving legal environment surrounding same-sex marriage recognition. Building on prior research on factors shaping the professional identities of lawyers generally, and activist lawyers specifically, I examine how practice within a rapidly changing, patchwork legal environment shapes professional identity for this group of lawyers. I draw on interviews with 21 LGBT family lawyers to analyze how the unique features of LGBT family law shape their professional identities and practice, as well as their predictions about the development of the practice in a post-Obergefell world...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294891/lawyers-question-repetition-and-children-s-responses-in-scottish-criminal-courts
#8
Samantha J Andrews, Michael E Lamb
This study examined the effects of repeated questions ( n = 7,968) on fifty-six 5- to 17-year-olds' testimony in child sexual abuse cases in Scottish criminal courts. We examined transcripts of direct- and cross-examinations, categorizing how lawyers asked repeated questions in court and how children responded. Defense lawyers repeated more questions (39.6% of all questions asked) than prosecutors (30.6%) and repeated questions using more suggestive prompts (52% of their repeated questions) than prosecutors (18%) did...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290074/reported-time-to-onset-of-neurological-adverse-drug-reactions-among-different-age-and-gender-groups-using-metoclopramide-an-analysis-of-the-global-database-vigibase%C3%A2
#9
Kristian Svendsen, Mollie Wood, Erika Olsson, Hedvig Nordeng
PURPOSE: Despite FDA and EMA warnings of long-term use, little is known regarding the time to onset (TTO) of neurological adverse drug reactions (ADR) for metoclopramide. The aims of this study were, first, to evaluate whether neurological ADRs are more commonly reported for metoclopramide than for other medications, and second, to describe how time to onset of neurological ADRs differs by age and gender. METHODS: All ADR reports with metoclopramide as the suspected/interacting drug were extracted from the WHOs Global ADR database Vigibase® between 1967 and May 2016...
December 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237314/-we-now-have-a-patient-and-not-a-criminal-an-exploratory-study-of-judges-and-lawyers-views-on-suicide-attempters-and-the-law-in-ghana
#10
Joseph Osafo, Charity S Akotia, Johnny Andoh-Arthur, Kofi E Boakye, Emmanuel N-B Quarshie
This study explored the views of judges and lawyers of the superior courts of Ghana on the law criminalizing attempted suicide. Qualitative data were collected from 12 experienced legal practitioners of the superior courts (five judges and seven lawyers) using a semi-structured interview schedule. Thematic analysis of the data yielded three main perspectives: In defence of the Law, Advocating a Repeal, and Pro-Health Orientation. Although exploratory, the findings of this study offer cues for stepping up suicide literacy and advocacy programmes toward either a repeal of the law or a reform...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236812/-freud-for-all-psychoanalysis-and-mass-culture-in-chile-1920-1950
#11
Mariano Ruperthuz Honorato
This article deals with the circulation and early spread of Freudianism in mass culture in Chilean society at the turn of the twentieth century. It documents the first references to Sigmund Freud in the Chilean media, the announcement of Freudian-style self-help classes, the appearance of psychoanalysts as characters in some fantasy novels, and the open lectures on psychoanalysis given by the first juvenile court judge in Santiago, the lawyer Samuel Gajardo Contreras. It explores the expectations projected onto Freudianism by the Chilean elite, and how Freud's theories contributed to a rethinking of childhood, the family and emotional life in Chile from 1920-1950...
November 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186780/bullying-and-cyberbullying-their-legal-status-and-use-in-psychological-assessment
#12
(no author information available yet)
Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK)...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176829/tobacco-industry-attempts-to-frame-smoking-as-a-disability-under-the-1990-americans-with-disabilities-act
#13
Yvette van der Eijk, Stanton A Glantz
Using the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Library and Congressional records, we examined the tobacco industry's involvement with the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). During legislative drafting of the ADA (1989-1990), the Tobacco Institute, the tobacco industry's lobbying and public relations arm at the time, worked with industry lawyers and civil rights groups to include smoking in the ADA's definition of "disability." Focus was on smoking as a perceived rather than actual disability so that tobacco companies could maintain that smoking is not addictive...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165864/an-australian-hospital-s-training-program-and-referral-pathway-within-a-multi-disciplinary-health-justice-partnership-addressing-family-violence
#14
Kirsty Forsdike, Cathy Humphreys, Kristin Diemer, Stuart Ross, Linda Gyorki, Helena Maher, Penelope Vye, Fleur Llewelyn, Kelsey Hegarty
OBJECTIVE: An innovative health-justice partnership was established to deliver legal assistance to women experiencing family violence who attended an Australian hospital. This paper reports on a multifaceted response to build capacity and willingness of health professionals to identify signs of family violence and engage with referral pathways to on-site legal assistance. METHODS: A Realistic Evaluation analysed health professionals' knowledge and attitudes towards identification, response and referral for family violence before and after training; and use of referral pathways...
November 22, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161065/from-nuremberg-to-guantanamo-bay-uses-of-physicians-in-the-war-on-terror
#15
Sondra S Crosby, Gilbert Benavidez
Seventy years after the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial, health professionals and lawyers working together after 9/11 played a critical role in designing, justifying, and carrying out the US state-sponsored torture program in the CIA "Black Sites" and US military detention centers, including Abu Ghraib, Bagram, and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. We analyze the similarities between the Nazi doctors and health professionals in the War on Terror and address the question of how it happened that health professionals, including doctors, psychologists, physician assistants, and nurses, acted as agents of the state to utilize their medical and healing skills to cause harm and sanitize barbarous acts, similar to (though not on the scale of) how Nazi doctors were used by the Third Reich...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154565/exploring-the-idiographic-dynamics-of-mood-and-anxiety-via-network-analysis
#16
Aaron J Fisher, Jonathan W Reeves, Glenn Lawyer, John D Medaglia, Julian A Rubel
Individual variation is increasingly recognized as important to psychopathology research. Concurrently, new methods of analysis based on network models are bringing new perspectives on mental (dys)function. This current work analyzed idiographic multivariate time series data using a novel network methodology that incorporates contemporaneous and lagged associations in mood and anxiety symptomatology. Data were taken from 40 individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or comorbid GAD and MDD, who answered questions about 21 descriptors of mood and anxiety symptomatology 4 times a day over a period of approximately 30 days...
November 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145594/wellbeing-of-gay-fathers-with-children-born-through-surrogacy-a-comparison-with-lesbian-mother-families-and-heterosexual-ivf-parent-families
#17
L Van Rijn-van Gelderen, H W M Bos, T D Jorgensen, K Ellis-Davies, A Winstanley, S Golombok, B Rubio, M Gross, O Vecho, M E Lamb
STUDY QUESTION: Are there differences in levels of parental wellbeing (parental stress, psychological adjustment and partner relationship satisfaction) between gay-father families with infants born through surrogacy, lesbian-mother families with infants born through donor insemination, and heterosexual-parent families with infants born through IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: There were no differences in parental wellbeing. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The only other study of parental wellbeing in gay-father families formed through surrogacy (mean age children: 4 years old) found no difference in couple relationship satisfaction between these families and lesbian-mother families formed through donor insemination and heterosexual-parent families formed without assisted reproductive technologies...
January 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143674/the-role-of-human-rights-litigation-in-improving-access-to-reproductive-health-care-and-achieving-reductions-in-maternal-mortality
#18
Jennifer Templeton Dunn, Katherine Lesyna, Anna Zaret
BACKGROUND: Improving maternal health, reducing global maternal mortality, and working toward universal access to reproductive health care are global priorities for United Nations agencies, national governments, and civil society organizations. Human rights lawyers have joined this global movement, using international law and domestic constitutions to hold nations accountable for preventable maternal death and for failing to provide access to reproductive health care services. CASE PRESENTATION: This article discusses three decisions in which international treaty bodies find the nations of Brazil and Peru responsible for violations of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and also two domestic decisions alleging constitutional violations in India and Uganda...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141893/lawyers-for-guantanamo-bay-detainees-on-hunger-strike-will-fight-us-government-in-court
#19
Clare Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139377/laboratory-colonization-and-mass-rearing-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae
#20
Jérôme Depaquit, Bernard Pesson, Denis Augot, James Gordon Campbell Hamilton, Phillip Lawyer, Nicole Léger, Phillip Lawyer, Mireille Killick-Kendrick, Tobin Rowland, Edgar Rowton, Petr Volf
Laboratory colonies of phlebotomine sand flies are necessary for experimental study of their biology, behaviour and mutual relations with disease agents and for testing new methods of vector control. They are indispensable in genetic studies and controlled observations on the physiology and behaviour of sand flies, neglected subjects of high priority. Colonies are of particular value for screening insecticides. Colonized sand flies are used as live vector models in a diverse array of research projects, including xenodiagnosis, that are directed toward control of leishmaniasis and other sand fly-associated diseases...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
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