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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095231/%C3%AE-solanine-as-potential-therapeutic-target-in-pulmonary-artery-hypertension
#1
Xianwu Cheng, Megumi Narisawa, Enze Jin, Xueqi Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754839/a-dioxygenase-catalyzes-steroid-16%C3%AE-hydroxylation-in-steroidal-glycoalkaloid-biosynthesis
#2
Masaru Nakayasu, Naoyuki Umemoto, Kiyoshi Ohyama, Yoshinori Fujimoto, Hyoung Jae Lee, Bunta Watanabe, Toshiya Muranaka, Kazuki Saito, Yukihiro Sugimoto, Masaharu Mizutani
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are toxic specialized metabolites that are found in the Solanaceae. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) contains the SGAs α-solanine and α-chaconine, while tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains α-tomatine, all of which are biosynthesized from cholesterol. However, although two cytochrome P450 monooxygenases that catalyze the 22- and 26-hydroxylation of cholesterol have been identified, the 16-hydroxylase remains unknown. Feeding with deuterium-labeled cholesterol indicated that the 16α- and 16β-hydrogen atoms of cholesterol were eliminated to form α-solanine and α-chaconine in potato, while only the 16α-hydrogen atom was eliminated in α-tomatine biosynthesis, suggesting that a single oxidation at C-16 takes place during tomato SGA biosynthesis while a two-step oxidation occurs in potato...
September 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704260/%C3%AE-solanine-reverses-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-and-vascular-angiogenesis-in-experimental-pulmonary-artery-hypertension
#3
Xiaowei Nie, Youai Dai, Jianxin Tan, Yuan Chen, Guowei Qin, Wenjun Mao, Jian Zou, Yanhua Chang, Qian Wang, Jingyu Chen
OBJECTIVE: Similar to cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by vascular remodeling, which leads to obliteration of the small pulmonary arteriole, with marked proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and/or endothelial cells dysfunction. Aberrant expression of tumor suppressor genes is closely associated with susceptibility to PAH. We hypothesized that α-solanine, a glycoalkaloid found in members of the nightshade family known to have antitumor activity in different cancers, reverses experimental PAH by activating the tumor suppressor-axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626486/solanum-paranense-extracts-and-solanine-present-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-an-acute-skin-inflammation-model-in-mice
#4
Mariana Piana, Camila Camponogara, Aline Augusti Boligon, Sara Marchesan Oliveira
The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the S. paranense crude extract, S. paranense alkaloid fraction, and solanine alkaloid. These samples reduce the croton oil-induced ear edema in a dose-dependent manner and a maximum inhibition of 81%, 98%, and 80% in the doses of 1.0, 0.73, and 0.37 mg/ear, respectively. Moreover, the samples inhibit the MPO activity with an inhibition maximum of 51%, 40%, and 46% in the doses of 1.0, 0.73, and 0.37 mg/ear, respectively. Similar results were found for dexamethasone 0...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576466/are-additive-effects-of-dietary-surfactants-on-intestinal-tight-junction-integrity-an-overlooked-human-health-risk-a-mixture-study-on-caco-2-monolayers
#5
Anders Glynn, Annachiara Malin Igra, Salomon Sand, Nils Gunnar Ilbäck, Karl Erik Hellenäs, Johan Rosén, Bitte Aspenström-Fagerlund
Surfactants may cause dysfunction of intestinal tight junctions (TJs), which is a common feature of intestinal autoimmune diseases. Effects of dietary surfactants on TJ integrity, measured as trans-epithelial resistance (TEER), were studied in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Cytotoxicity was assessed as apical LDH leakage. Monolayers were apically exposed for 60 min to the dietary surfactants solanine and chaconine (SC, potato glycoalkaloids, 0-0.25 mM), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS, industrial contaminant, 0-0...
August 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510502/the-impact-of-steroidal-glycoalkaloids-on-the-physiology-of-phytophthora-infestans-the-causative-agent-of-potato-late-blight
#6
Paul Dahlin, Marion C Müller, Sophia Ekengren, Lauren S McKee, Vincent Bulone
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are plant secondary metabolites known to be toxic to animals and humans and that have putative roles in defense against pests. The proposed mechanisms of SGA toxicity are sterol-mediated disruption of membranes and inhibition of cholinesterase activity in neurons. It has been suggested that phytopathogenic microorganisms can overcome SGA toxicity by enzymatic deglycosylation of SGAs. Here, we have explored SGA-mediated toxicity toward the invasive oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causative agent of the late blight disease in potato and tomato, as well as the potential for SGA deglycosylation by this species...
July 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984164/timeline-and-bibliography-of-early-isolations-of-plant-metabolites-1770-1820-and-their-impact-to-pharmacy-a-critical-study
#7
Jacek Drobnik, Elżbieta Drobnik
Plant metabolites became objects of chemical research for pharmaceutical and medicinal reasons. The period of pure plant substances in chemistry started 1770 with isolation of tartaric acid from wine (wine in pharmacy is a plant-derived preparation). Carl Scheele isolated 7 plant acids: tartaric, benzoic, citric, oxalic, malic, glucuronic and gallic. The era of alkaloids started 1803 when narcotine was discovered and published. Since that time, pharmacists and toxicologists began to recognize alkaloids (or substances regarded as such) as highly active principles responsible for their powerful, thus easily-observed actions to humans and test animals...
October 27, 2016: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979237/densitometric-tlc-analysis-for-the-control-of-tropane-and-steroidal-alkaloids-in-lycium-barbarum
#8
A Kokotkiewicz, P Migas, J Stefanowicz, M Luczkiewicz, M Krauze-Baranowska
Thin layer chromatographic methods for quantitative determination of nightshade-specific tropane (l-hyoscyamine, scopolamine) and steroidal alkaloids (α-solanine, α-chaconine) in goji berries (L. barbarum L., Solanaceae) were developed. The analysis of tropane derivatives included separation on silica gel-coated HPTLC plates using mobile phase consisted of chloroform:methanol:acetone:25% ammonium hydroxide (75:15:10:1.6 v/v/v/v), derivatization with Dragendorff reagent and scanning densitometry at λ - 520nm in reflectance/absorption mode...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855898/isolation-and-chemoenzymatic-treatment-of-glycoalkaloids-from-green-sprouting-and-rotting-solanum-tuberosum-potatoes-for-solanidine-recovery
#9
Grokoré Yvonne Koffi, Magali Remaud-Simeon, Ahipo Edmond Due, Didier Combes
The estimation of glycoalkaloids in the flesh of different types of decayed potatoes was evaluated. The results showed that turned green and also sprouting or rotting potato flesh contain high amounts of toxic solanine and chaconine, exceeding by 2-5-fold the recommended limit, and ranging from 2578±86mg/kg to 5063±230mg/kg of dry weight potato flesh. For safety consideration, these decayed potatoes should be systematically set aside. To avoid a net economic loss and encourage the removal of this hazardous food, a recycling process was investigated to generate added-value compounds from the toxic glycoalkaloids...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726305/inhibition-of-prostate-cancer-growth-by-solanine-requires-the-suppression-of-cell-cycle-proteins-and-the-activation-of-ros-p38-signaling-pathway
#10
Bin Pan, Weifeng Zhong, Zhihai Deng, Caiyong Lai, Jing Chu, Genlong Jiao, Junfeng Liu, Qizhao Zhou
Solanine, a naturally steroidal glycoalkaloid in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.), can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of solanine-suppressing prostate cancer cell growth remains to be elucidated. This study investigates the inhibition mechanism of solanine on cancer development in vivo and in cultured human prostate cancer cell DU145 in vitro. Results show that solanine injection significantly suppresses the tumor cell growth in xenograft athymic nude mice...
November 2016: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588073/inhibitory-effect-of-%C3%AE-solanine-on-esophageal-carcinoma-in-vitro
#11
Lei Wang, Qian-Qian Sun, Shi-Jie Zhang, Yu-Wen Du, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Wen-Qiao Zang, Xiao-Nan Chen, Guo-Qiang Zhao
α-solanine, a bioactive component and one of the major steroidal glycoalkaloids in potatoes, has been observed to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the antitumor efficacy of α-solanine on esophageal carcinoma has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the antitumor efficacy of α-solanine against human esophageal carcinoma cells was investigated. It was determined that α-solanine inhibited the growth and proliferation of human esophageal EC9706 and Eca109 cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as the cell migration and invasion...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563218/elicitation-based-enhancement-of-secondary-metabolites-in-rauwolfia-serpentina-and-solanum-khasianum-hairy-root-cultures
#12
Mrinalini Srivastava, Swati Sharma, Pratibha Misra
BACKGROUND: Rauwolfia serpentina and Solanum khasianum are well-known medicinally important plants contained important alkaloids in their different parts. Elicitation of these alkaloids is important because of associated pharmaceutical properties. Targeted metabolites were ajmaline and ajmalicine in R. serpentina; solasodine and α-solanine in S. khasianum. OBJECTIVE: Enhancement of secondary metabolites through biotic and abiotic elicitors in hairy root cultures of R...
May 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536892/%C3%AE-solanine-modulates-the-radiosensitivity-of-esophageal-cancer-cells-by-inducing-microrna-138-expression
#13
Yuanyuan Wang, Jianbo Wu, Wei Guo, Qianqian Sun, Xiaonan Chen, Wenqiao Zang, Ziming Dong, Guoqiang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. Due to difficulties with performing the operation, most patients choose to have palliative treatment instead. Radiotherapy is one of the main palliative treatments of EC. However, the clinical efficacy of radiotherapy is not satisfactory α-Solanine is a bioactive component of steroidal glycoalkaloids which has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-metastasis activity in different cancers. In the present study, we determined the effect of α-solanine on the radiosensitivity of EC cells and priliminarily explored the underlying molecular mechanisms...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307258/two-cytochrome-p450-monooxygenases-catalyze-early-hydroxylation-steps-in-the-potato-steroid-glycoalkaloid-biosynthetic-pathway
#14
Naoyuki Umemoto, Masaru Nakayasu, Kiyoshi Ohyama, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Masaharu Mizutani, Hikaru Seki, Kazuki Saito, Toshiya Muranaka
α-Solanine and α-chaconine, steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) found in potato (Solanum tuberosum), are among the best-known secondary metabolites in food crops. At low concentrations in potato tubers, SGAs are distasteful; however, at high concentrations, SGAs are harmful to humans and animals. Here, we show that POTATO GLYCOALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PGA1) and PGA2, two genes that encode cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP72A208 and CYP72A188), are involved in the SGA biosynthetic pathway, respectively. The knockdown plants of either PGA1 or PGA2 contained very little SGA, yet vegetative growth and tuber production were not affected...
August 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27258320/efficient-virus-induced-gene-silencing-in-solanum-rostratum
#15
Lan-Huan Meng, Rui-Heng Wang, Ben-Zhong Zhu, Hong-Liang Zhu, Yun-Bo Luo, Da-Qi Fu
Solanum rostratum is a "super weed" that grows fast, is widespread, and produces the toxin solanine, which is harmful to both humans and other animals. To our knowledge, no study has focused on its molecular biology owing to the lack of available transgenic methods and sequence information for S. rostratum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in plants; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to establish tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-derived VIGS in S. rostratum...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222182/-solanine-inhibits-prostate-cancer-du145-xenograft-growth-in-nude-mice-by-inducing-cell-cycle-arrest-in-g1-s-phase
#16
Wei-Feng Zhong, Si-Ping Liu, Bin Pan, Zhao-Feng Tang, Jin-Guang Zhong, Fang-Jian Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of solanine on the growth of human prostate cancer cell xenograft in nude mice. METHODS: Human prostate cancer Du145 cells were injected into the subcutaneous layers on the back of nude mice. After a week, the mice bearing subcutaneous tumor graft were randomly divided into solanine treatment group and saline control group for treatment for 3 weeks. The tumor grafts were then harvested to evaluate the inhibition rate. The mRNA and protein expressions of cell cycle-related genes in the tumors were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, and tumor cell apoptosis was detected using TUNEL method...
May 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213896/solanum-tuberosum-and-lycopersicon-esculentum-leaf-extracts-and-single-metabolites-affect-development-and-reproduction-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Emanuela Ventrella, Zbigniew Adamski, Ewa Chudzińska, Mariola Miądowicz-Kobielska, Paweł Marciniak, Ender Büyükgüzel, Kemal Büyükgüzel, Meltem Erdem, Patrizia Falabella, Laura Scrano, Sabino Aurelio Bufo
Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147449/potato-tuber-herbivory-increases-resistance-to-aboveground-lepidopteran-herbivores
#18
Pavan Kumar, Erandi Vargas Ortiz, Etzel Garrido, Katja Poveda, Georg Jander
Plants mediate interactions between aboveground and belowground herbivores. Although effects of root herbivory on foliar herbivores have been documented in several plant species, interactions between tuber-feeding herbivores and foliar herbivores are rarely investigated. We report that localized tuber damage by Tecia solanivora (Guatemalan tuber moth) larvae reduced aboveground Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) performance on Solanum tuberosum (potato). Conversely, S...
September 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023503/effect-of-drying-methods-on-the-steroidal-alkaloid-content-of-potato-peels-shoots-and-berries
#19
Mohammad B Hossain, Nigel P Brunton, Dilip K Rai
The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries) than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries)...
March 25, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26998139/solanine-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-inhibit-the-growth-of-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hepg2-cells
#20
Xue-Qin Meng, Wei Zhang, Feng Zhang, Sheng-Yong Yin, Hai-Yang Xie, Lin Zhou, Shu-Sen Zheng
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of solanine on promoting human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the molecular mechanisms leading to tumor cell apoptosis. Solanine was administered to HepG2 cells in vitro. A selection of probes targeting various cellular localizations of ROS were used to detect ROS expression using flow cytometry. The expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins, including apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and thioredoxin binding protein 2 (TBP-2), and proliferation-associated proteins, including histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), were detected using western blotting...
March 2016: Oncology Letters
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