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Solanine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735370/generation-of-%C3%AE-solanine-free-hairy-roots-of-potato-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-of-the-st16dox-gene
#1
Masaru Nakayasu, Ryota Akiyama, Hyoung Jae Lee, Keishi Osakabe, Yuriko Osakabe, Bunta Watanabe, Yukihiro Sugimoto, Naoyuki Umemoto, Kazuki Saito, Toshiya Muranaka, Masaharu Mizutani
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major food crop, while the most tissues of potato accumulates steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) α-solanine and α-chaconine. Since SGAs confer a bitter taste on human and show the toxicity against various organisms, reducing the SGA content in the tubers is requisite for potato breeding. However, generation of SGA-free potato has not been achieved yet, although silencing of several SGA biosynthetic genes led a decrease in SGAs. Here, we show that the knockout of St16DOX encoding a steroid 16α-hydroxylase in SGA biosynthesis causes the complete abolition of the SGA accumulation in potato hairy roots...
April 24, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731890/solanine-induced-apoptosis-and-increased-chemosensitivity-to-adriamycin-in-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells
#2
Ying-Jie Yi, Xiu-Hong Jia, Jian-Yong Wang, Jie-Ru Chen, Hong Wang, You-Jie Li
Solanine is an alkaloid and is the main extract of the traditional Chinese herb, Solanum nigrum Linn . It has been reported that Solanine has anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor effect of Solanine in Jurkat cells and demonstrate the molecular mechanism of antitumor activity of Solanine. A Cell Counting Kit-8 assay demonstrated that Solanine inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728958/comparative-compositional-analysis-of-transgenic-potato-resistant-to-potato-tuber-moth-ptm-and-its-non-transformed-counterpart
#3
Hassan Rahnama, Amir Bahram Moradi, Seyed Hamid Mirrokni, Foad Moradi, Mohammad Reza Shams, Mohammad Hossein Fotokian
In this study, the compositions of transgenic potatoes (TPs) resistant to potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) were compared with those of its non-transgenic (NTP) counterparts. The light inducible promoter, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase led to the expression of Cry1Ab only in the leaves and light-treated tubers of the TPs. No significant differences were found in the moisture, ash, dry weight, total soluble protein, carbohydrate, starch, fiber, ascorbate, cations, anions, fatty acids, and glycoalkaloids contents of TP and NTP...
May 4, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720141/solamargine-a-bioactive-steroidal-alkaloid-isolated-from-solanum-aculeastrum-induces-non-selective-cytotoxicity-and-p-glycoprotein-inhibition
#4
Trevor Burger, Tsholofelo Mokoka, Gerda Fouché, Paul Steenkamp, Vanessa Steenkamp, Werner Cordier
BACKGROUND: Solanum aculeastrum fruits are used by some cancer sufferers as a form of alternative treatment. Scientific literature is scarce concerning its anticancer activity, and thus the aim of the study was to assess the in vitro anticancer and P-glycoprotein inhibitory potential of extracts of S. aculeastrum fruits. Furthermore, assessment of the combinational effect with doxorubicin was also done. METHODS: The crude extract was prepared by ultrasonic maceration...
May 2, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688507/plant-resistance-to-colorado-potato-beetle-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-in-diploid-f2-families-derived-from-crosses-between-cultivated-and-wild-potato
#5
Michael S Crossley, Sean D Schoville, Darrin M Haagenson, Shelley H Jansky
Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious global pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Management of L. decemlineata has relied heavily on insecticides, but repeated evolution of insecticide resistance has motivated the exploration and development of alternative strategies, such as plant resistance. The recent development of two diploid potato families derived from crosses between cultivated and wild potato species (S. chacoense and S. berthaultii) has provided a unique opportunity to reexamine plant traits for resistance breeding...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600769/anti-cancer-effect-of-%C3%A9-solanine-mainly-by-down-regulating-s100p-expression-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#6
Xiaofen Ni, Jiajun Chen, Fengying Lu, Zhengzhong Yuan, Xiaofeng Xu, Zhen Hu, Lei Jiang
BACKGROUND: ɑ-Solanine, the most important and active component of Solanum nigrum, was found to have anti-cancer activity on multiple cancer cells. However, its effects on colorectal cancer (CRC) and associated molecular mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of ɑ-solanine against CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. METHOD: Cell viability was measured using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay; cell cycle was analyzed with a Cycletest Plus DNA Reagent Kit; cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry; cell migration and invasive ability was determined by Transwell assays; S100P protein expression was also analyzed by western blotting; lentiviral vectors expressing shRNA targeting the S100P gene...
March 29, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565461/the-effect-of-%C3%AE-solanine-on-the-activity-gene-expression-and-kinetics-of-arylamine-n-acetyltransferase-in-hepg2-cells
#7
Shiyong Gao, Huixin Tan, Lang Lang, Jing Bai, Yubin Ji
α-solanine is one of the major components of Solanum nigrum Linn., the fruits of which are used in China for food. In the present study, α-solanine was selected to assess the inhibition of arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity and mRNA expression of NAT and kinetics in HepG2 cells. NAT activity was examined by HPLC. The double-reciprocal plot was contrived to yield a regression equation to calculate Km and Vmax. NAT mRNA expression was determined by PCR. The results revealed that α-solanine could significantly decrease NAT activity in intact HepG2 cells or the cytoplasm...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328459/%C3%AE-solanine-enhances-the-chemosensitivity-of-esophageal-cancer-cells-by-inducing-microrna%C3%A2-138-expression
#8
Jianbo Wu, Li Wang, Xinhui Du, Qianqian Sun, Yuanyuan Wang, Min Li, Wenqiao Zang, Kangdong Liu, Guoqiang Zhao
Esophageal cancer is a common malignant tumor worldwide. Inherent and acquired drug resistance are the major challenges faced in anticancer chemotherapy. This study aimed to explore the effects of α-solanine in regards to the chemosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells. We found that α-solanine enhanced the sensitivity of EC9706 and KYSE30 cells to 5-flurouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (Cis) by promoting drug-induced apoptosis. qRT-PCR and western blotting results showed that α-solanine treatment promoted miR-138 expression and decreased survivin expression in EC9706 and KYSE30 cells...
March 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306798/bioactive-steroidal-alkaloids-from-the-fruits-of-solanum-nigrum
#9
Xin-Yue Gu, Xiao-Fei Shen, Lun Wang, Zhou-Wei Wu, Fu Li, Bin Chen, Guo-Lin Zhang, Ming-Kui Wang
The investigation of the fruits of Solanum nigrum led to the isolation of four previously undescribed steroidal alkaloids, named solanine A, 7α-OH khasianine, 7α-OH solamargine and 7α-OH solasonine, together with six known ones. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated unambiguously by spectroscopic data analyses and chemical methods. Solanine A represents an unusual steroidal alkaloid with an unprecedented 6/5/6/5/5/6 hexacyclic ring system, and its structure was confirmed by X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis...
March 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247839/%C3%AE-solanine-impairs-oocyte-maturation-and-quality-by-inducing-autophagy-and-apoptosis-and-changing-histone-modifications-in-a-pig-model
#10
Tao Lin, Reza K Oqani, Jae Eun Lee, Jeong Won Kang, So Yeon Kim, Eun Seok Cho, Yong Dae Jeong, Jun Jong Baek, Dong Il Jin
In this study, we used a pig model to investigate the effects of α-solanine (a natural toxin found mainly in potato sprouts) on oocyte maturation, quality and subsequent embryonic development. We found that α-solanine (10 μM) disturbed meiotic resumption and increased abnormal spindle formation and altered the cortical granule (CG) distribution compared with the untreated group. α-Solanine triggered autophagy and apoptosis by increasing the expressions of autophagy-related genes (LC3, ATG7, and LAMP2) and apoptotic related genes (BAX and CASP3)...
January 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201465/a-reliable-and-reproducible-model-for-assessing-the-effect-of-different-concentrations-of-%C3%AE-solanine-on-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
Adriana Ordóñez-Vásquez, Lorenza Jaramillo-Gómez, Camilo Duran-Correa, Erandi Escamilla-García, Myriam Angélica De la Garza-Ramos, Fernando Suárez-Obando
Αlpha-solanine ( α -solanine) is a glycoalkaloid present in potato (Solanum tuberosum) . It has been of particular interest because of its toxicity and potential teratogenic effects that include abnormalities of the central nervous system, such as exencephaly, encephalocele, and anophthalmia. Various types of cell culture have been used as experimental models to determine the effect of α -solanine on cell physiology. The morphological changes in the mesenchymal stem cell upon exposure to α -solanine have not been established...
2017: Bone Marrow Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095231/%C3%AE-solanine-as-potential-therapeutic-target-in-pulmonary-artery-hypertension
#12
Xianwu Cheng, Megumi Narisawa, Enze Jin, Xueqi Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754839/a-dioxygenase-catalyzes-steroid-16%C3%AE-hydroxylation-in-steroidal-glycoalkaloid-biosynthesis
#13
Masaru Nakayasu, Naoyuki Umemoto, Kiyoshi Ohyama, Yoshinori Fujimoto, Hyoung Jae Lee, Bunta Watanabe, Toshiya Muranaka, Kazuki Saito, Yukihiro Sugimoto, Masaharu Mizutani
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are toxic specialized metabolites that are found in the Solanaceae. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) contains the SGAs α-solanine and α-chaconine, while tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains α-tomatine, all of which are biosynthesized from cholesterol. However, although two cytochrome P450 monooxygenases that catalyze the 22- and 26-hydroxylation of cholesterol have been identified, the 16-hydroxylase remains unknown. Feeding with deuterium-labeled cholesterol indicated that the 16α- and 16β-hydrogen atoms of cholesterol were eliminated to form α-solanine and α-chaconine in potato, while only the 16α-hydrogen atom was eliminated in α-tomatine biosynthesis, suggesting that a single oxidation at C-16 takes place during tomato SGA biosynthesis while a two-step oxidation occurs in potato...
September 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704260/%C3%AE-solanine-reverses-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-and-vascular-angiogenesis-in-experimental-pulmonary-artery-hypertension
#14
Xiaowei Nie, Youai Dai, Jianxin Tan, Yuan Chen, Guowei Qin, Wenjun Mao, Jian Zou, Yanhua Chang, Qian Wang, Jingyu Chen
OBJECTIVE: Similar to cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by vascular remodeling, which leads to obliteration of the small pulmonary arteriole, with marked proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and/or endothelial cells dysfunction. Aberrant expression of tumor suppressor genes is closely associated with susceptibility to PAH. We hypothesized that α-solanine, a glycoalkaloid found in members of the nightshade family known to have antitumor activity in different cancers, reverses experimental PAH by activating the tumor suppressor-axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626486/solanum-paranense-extracts-and-solanine-present-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-an-acute-skin-inflammation-model-in-mice
#15
Mariana Piana, Camila Camponogara, Aline Augusti Boligon, Sara Marchesan Oliveira
The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the S. paranense crude extract, S. paranense alkaloid fraction, and solanine alkaloid. These samples reduce the croton oil-induced ear edema in a dose-dependent manner and a maximum inhibition of 81%, 98%, and 80% in the doses of 1.0, 0.73, and 0.37 mg/ear, respectively. Moreover, the samples inhibit the MPO activity with an inhibition maximum of 51%, 40%, and 46% in the doses of 1.0, 0.73, and 0.37 mg/ear, respectively. Similar results were found for dexamethasone 0...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576466/are-additive-effects-of-dietary-surfactants-on-intestinal-tight-junction-integrity-an-overlooked-human-health-risk-a-mixture-study-on-caco-2-monolayers
#16
Anders Glynn, Annachiara Malin Igra, Salomon Sand, Nils Gunnar Ilbäck, Karl Erik Hellenäs, Johan Rosén, Bitte Aspenström-Fagerlund
Surfactants may cause dysfunction of intestinal tight junctions (TJs), which is a common feature of intestinal autoimmune diseases. Effects of dietary surfactants on TJ integrity, measured as trans-epithelial resistance (TEER), were studied in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Cytotoxicity was assessed as apical LDH leakage. Monolayers were apically exposed for 60 min to the dietary surfactants solanine and chaconine (SC, potato glycoalkaloids, 0-0.25 mM), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS, industrial contaminant, 0-0...
August 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510502/the-impact-of-steroidal-glycoalkaloids-on-the-physiology-of-phytophthora-infestans-the-causative-agent-of-potato-late-blight
#17
Paul Dahlin, Marion C Müller, Sophia Ekengren, Lauren S McKee, Vincent Bulone
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are plant secondary metabolites known to be toxic to animals and humans and that have putative roles in defense against pests. The proposed mechanisms of SGA toxicity are sterol-mediated disruption of membranes and inhibition of cholinesterase activity in neurons. It has been suggested that phytopathogenic microorganisms can overcome SGA toxicity by enzymatic deglycosylation of SGAs. Here, we have explored SGA-mediated toxicity toward the invasive oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causative agent of the late blight disease in potato and tomato, as well as the potential for SGA deglycosylation by this species...
July 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984164/timeline-and-bibliography-of-early-isolations-of-plant-metabolites-1770-1820-and-their-impact-to-pharmacy-a-critical-study
#18
Jacek Drobnik, Elżbieta Drobnik
Plant metabolites became objects of chemical research for pharmaceutical and medicinal reasons. The period of pure plant substances in chemistry started 1770 with isolation of tartaric acid from wine (wine in pharmacy is a plant-derived preparation). Carl Scheele isolated 7 plant acids: tartaric, benzoic, citric, oxalic, malic, glucuronic and gallic. The era of alkaloids started 1803 when narcotine was discovered and published. Since that time, pharmacists and toxicologists began to recognize alkaloids (or substances regarded as such) as highly active principles responsible for their powerful, thus easily-observed actions to humans and test animals...
October 27, 2016: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979237/densitometric-tlc-analysis-for-the-control-of-tropane-and-steroidal-alkaloids-in-lycium-barbarum
#19
A Kokotkiewicz, P Migas, J Stefanowicz, M Luczkiewicz, M Krauze-Baranowska
Thin layer chromatographic methods for quantitative determination of nightshade-specific tropane (l-hyoscyamine, scopolamine) and steroidal alkaloids (α-solanine, α-chaconine) in goji berries (L. barbarum L., Solanaceae) were developed. The analysis of tropane derivatives included separation on silica gel-coated HPTLC plates using mobile phase consisted of chloroform:methanol:acetone:25% ammonium hydroxide (75:15:10:1.6 v/v/v/v), derivatization with Dragendorff reagent and scanning densitometry at λ - 520nm in reflectance/absorption mode...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855898/isolation-and-chemoenzymatic-treatment-of-glycoalkaloids-from-green-sprouting-and-rotting-solanum-tuberosum-potatoes-for-solanidine-recovery
#20
Grokoré Yvonne Koffi, Magali Remaud-Simeon, Ahipo Edmond Due, Didier Combes
The estimation of glycoalkaloids in the flesh of different types of decayed potatoes was evaluated. The results showed that turned green and also sprouting or rotting potato flesh contain high amounts of toxic solanine and chaconine, exceeding by 2-5-fold the recommended limit, and ranging from 2578±86mg/kg to 5063±230mg/kg of dry weight potato flesh. For safety consideration, these decayed potatoes should be systematically set aside. To avoid a net economic loss and encourage the removal of this hazardous food, a recycling process was investigated to generate added-value compounds from the toxic glycoalkaloids...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
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