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Jacek Drobnik, Elżbieta Drobnik
Plant metabolites became objects of chemical research for pharmaceutical and medicinal reasons. The period of pure plant substances in chemistry started 1770 with isolation of tartaric acid from wine (wine in pharmacy is a plant-derived preparation). Carl Scheele isolated 7 plant acids: tartaric, benzoic, citric, oxalic, malic, glucuronic and gallic. The era of alkaloids started 1803 when narcotine was discovered and published. Since that time, pharmacists and toxicologists began to recognize alkaloids (or substances regarded as such) as highly active principles responsible for their powerful, thus easily-observed actions to humans and test animals...
October 27, 2016: Fitoterapia
A Kokotkiewicz, P Migas, J Stefanowicz, M Luczkiewicz, M Krauze-Baranowska
Thin layer chromatographic methods for quantitative determination of nightshade-specific tropane (l-hyoscyamine, scopolamine) and steroidal alkaloids (α-solanine, α-chaconine) in goji berries (L. barbarum L., Solanaceae) were developed. The analysis of tropane derivatives included separation on silica gel-coated HPTLC plates using mobile phase consisted of chloroform:methanol:acetone:25% ammonium hydroxide (75:15:10:1.6 v/v/v/v), derivatization with Dragendorff reagent and scanning densitometry at λ - 520nm in reflectance/absorption mode...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Grokoré Yvonne Koffi, Magali Remaud-Simeon, Ahipo Edmond Due, Didier Combes
The estimation of glycoalkaloids in the flesh of different types of decayed potatoes was evaluated. The results showed that turned green and also sprouting or rotting potato flesh contain high amounts of toxic solanine and chaconine, exceeding by 2-5-fold the recommended limit, and ranging from 2578±86mg/kg to 5063±230mg/kg of dry weight potato flesh. For safety consideration, these decayed potatoes should be systematically set aside. To avoid a net economic loss and encourage the removal of this hazardous food, a recycling process was investigated to generate added-value compounds from the toxic glycoalkaloids...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Bin Pan, Weifeng Zhong, Zhihai Deng, Caiyong Lai, Jing Chu, Genlong Jiao, Junfeng Liu, Qizhao Zhou
Solanine, a naturally steroidal glycoalkaloid in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.), can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of solanine-suppressing prostate cancer cell growth remains to be elucidated. This study investigates the inhibition mechanism of solanine on cancer development in vivo and in cultured human prostate cancer cell DU145 in vitro. Results show that solanine injection significantly suppresses the tumor cell growth in xenograft athymic nude mice...
November 2016: Cancer Medicine
Lei Wang, Qian-Qian Sun, Shi-Jie Zhang, Yu-Wen Du, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Wen-Qiao Zang, Xiao-Nan Chen, Guo-Qiang Zhao
α-solanine, a bioactive component and one of the major steroidal glycoalkaloids in potatoes, has been observed to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the antitumor efficacy of α-solanine on esophageal carcinoma has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the antitumor efficacy of α-solanine against human esophageal carcinoma cells was investigated. It was determined that α-solanine inhibited the growth and proliferation of human esophageal EC9706 and Eca109 cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as the cell migration and invasion...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Mrinalini Srivastava, Swati Sharma, Pratibha Misra
BACKGROUND: Rauwolfia serpentina and Solanum khasianum are well-known medicinally important plants contained important alkaloids in their different parts. Elicitation of these alkaloids is important because of associated pharmaceutical properties. Targeted metabolites were ajmaline and ajmalicine in R. serpentina; solasodine and α-solanine in S. khasianum. OBJECTIVE: Enhancement of secondary metabolites through biotic and abiotic elicitors in hairy root cultures of R...
May 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Yuanyuan Wang, Jianbo Wu, Wei Guo, Qianqian Sun, Xiaonan Chen, Wenqiao Zang, Ziming Dong, Guoqiang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. Due to difficulties with performing the operation, most patients choose to have palliative treatment instead. Radiotherapy is one of the main palliative treatments of EC. However, the clinical efficacy of radiotherapy is not satisfactory α-Solanine is a bioactive component of steroidal glycoalkaloids which has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-metastasis activity in different cancers. In the present study, we determined the effect of α-solanine on the radiosensitivity of EC cells and priliminarily explored the underlying molecular mechanisms...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Naoyuki Umemoto, Masaru Nakayasu, Kiyoshi Ohyama, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Masaharu Mizutani, Hikaru Seki, Kazuki Saito, Toshiya Muranaka
α-Solanine and α-chaconine, steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) found in potato (Solanum tuberosum), are among the best-known secondary metabolites in food crops. At low concentrations in potato tubers, SGAs are distasteful; however, at high concentrations, SGAs are harmful to humans and animals. Here, we show that POTATO GLYCOALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PGA1) and PGA2, two genes that encode cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP72A208 and CYP72A188), are involved in the SGA biosynthetic pathway, respectively. The knockdown plants of either PGA1 or PGA2 contained very little SGA, yet vegetative growth and tuber production were not affected...
August 2016: Plant Physiology
Lan-Huan Meng, Rui-Heng Wang, Ben-Zhong Zhu, Hong-Liang Zhu, Yun-Bo Luo, Da-Qi Fu
Solanum rostratum is a "super weed" that grows fast, is widespread, and produces the toxin solanine, which is harmful to both humans and other animals. To our knowledge, no study has focused on its molecular biology owing to the lack of available transgenic methods and sequence information for S. rostratum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in plants; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to establish tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-derived VIGS in S. rostratum...
2016: PloS One
Wei-Feng Zhong, Si-Ping Liu, Bin Pan, Zhao-Feng Tang, Jin-Guang Zhong, Fang-Jian Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of solanine on the growth of human prostate cancer cell xenograft in nude mice. METHODS: Human prostate cancer Du145 cells were injected into the subcutaneous layers on the back of nude mice. After a week, the mice bearing subcutaneous tumor graft were randomly divided into solanine treatment group and saline control group for treatment for 3 weeks. The tumor grafts were then harvested to evaluate the inhibition rate. The mRNA and protein expressions of cell cycle-related genes in the tumors were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, and tumor cell apoptosis was detected using TUNEL method...
May 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Emanuela Ventrella, Zbigniew Adamski, Ewa Chudzińska, Mariola Miądowicz-Kobielska, Paweł Marciniak, Ender Büyükgüzel, Kemal Büyükgüzel, Meltem Erdem, Patrizia Falabella, Laura Scrano, Sabino Aurelio Bufo
Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation...
2016: PloS One
Pavan Kumar, Erandi Vargas Ortiz, Etzel Garrido, Katja Poveda, Georg Jander
Plants mediate interactions between aboveground and belowground herbivores. Although effects of root herbivory on foliar herbivores have been documented in several plant species, interactions between tuber-feeding herbivores and foliar herbivores are rarely investigated. We report that localized tuber damage by Tecia solanivora (Guatemalan tuber moth) larvae reduced aboveground Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) performance on Solanum tuberosum (potato). Conversely, S...
September 2016: Oecologia
Mohammad B Hossain, Nigel P Brunton, Dilip K Rai
The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries) than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries)...
March 25, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xue-Qin Meng, Wei Zhang, Feng Zhang, Sheng-Yong Yin, Hai-Yang Xie, Lin Zhou, Shu-Sen Zheng
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of solanine on promoting human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the molecular mechanisms leading to tumor cell apoptosis. Solanine was administered to HepG2 cells in vitro. A selection of probes targeting various cellular localizations of ROS were used to detect ROS expression using flow cytometry. The expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins, including apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and thioredoxin binding protein 2 (TBP-2), and proliferation-associated proteins, including histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), were detected using western blotting...
March 2016: Oncology Letters
Ji-Sun Shin, Kyoung-Goo Lee, Hwi-Ho Lee, Hae Jun Lee, Hyo-Jin An, Jung-Hwan Nam, Dae Sik Jang, Kyung-Tae Lee
α-Solanine, a trisaccharide glycoalkaloid, has been reported to possess anti-cancer effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of α-solanine isolated from "Jayoung" a dark purple-fleshed potato by examining its in vitro inhibitory effects on inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and its in vivo effects on LPS-induced septic shock in a mouse model. α-Solanine suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 both at protein and mRNA levels and consequently inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) production in LPS-induced RAW 264...
October 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Maryam Mohsenikia, Baharak Farhangi, Ali Mohammad Alizadeh, Hamid Khodayari, Saeed Khodayari, Vahid Khori, Yasaman Arjmand Abbassi, Milica Vesovic, Ali Soleymani, Farhood Najafi
AIMS: Our previous studies showed that alpha-solanine can inhibit tumor growth in cell culture and animal models of breast cancer. However, solanine is insoluble in common solvents; therefore, we developed a special nanoparticle with high-capacity solubility. The present study is aimed to deliberate the therapeutic effects of dendrosomal solanine (DNS) on a metastatic breast tumor in vitro and in vivo. MAIN METHODS: After DNS preparation and dosing procedures, forty-five mice were equally divided into five groups to investigate the anti-metastatic effects of DNS on mammary tumor-bearing mice...
March 1, 2016: Life Sciences
Louise Vida Traill Shepherd, Christine Anne Hackett, Colin James Alexander, James William McNicol, Julia Anne Sungurtas, Diane McRae, Kent Frank McCue, William Richardson Belknap, Howard Vivian Davies
Metabolite profiling (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography (GC-MS)) was used to assess the impact of light on the composition of transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) with reduced glycoalkaloid content via the down-regulation of the SGT1 gene. Transgenic tubers exhibited an almost complete knock-out of α-solanine production and light had little impact on its accumulation. Levels of α-chaconine increased significantly in the peel of both the control and transgenic lines when exposed to light, particularly in the transgenic line...
June 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
A F Sánchez-Maldonado, A Schieber, M G Gänzle
AIMS: To study the antifungal effects of the potato secondary metabolites α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and caffeic acid, alone or combined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Resistance to glycoalkaloids varied among the fungal species tested, as derived from minimum inhibitory concentrations assays. Synergistic antifungal activity between glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds was found. Changes in the fluidity of fungal membranes caused by potato secondary plant metabolites were determined by calculation of the generalized polarization values...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Zhengde Wen, Chaohao Huang, Yaya Xu, Yuwu Xiao, Lili Tang, Juji Dai, Hongwei Sun, Bicheng Chen, Mengtao Zhou
In tumors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contributes to angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and tumorigenesis. In our previous study, we found that α-solanine, which is widespread in solanaceae, has a strong anti-cancer effect under normoxia. However, it is unknown whether α-solanine has a similar effect under hypoxia. We used cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to mimic hypoxia in vitro. HIF-1α, which is almost undetectable under normoxia, was significantly increased. Simultaneously, another regulator of VEGF, STAT3, was also significantly activated by CoCl2...
January 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Furui Zhang, Rui Yang, Guojun Zhang, Ruirui Cheng, Yong Bai, Huasi Zhao, Xinhua Lu, Hui Li, Shanshan Chen, Juan Li, Shujun Wu, Ping Li, Xiaonan Chen, Qianqian Sun, Guoqiang Zhao
Currently, lung cancer is still a main cause of malignancy-associated death worldwide. Even though various methods for prevention and treatment of lung cancer have been improved in recent decades, the 5-year survival rate has remained very low. Insights into the anticancer function of small-molecule anticancer compounds have opened our visual field about cancer therapy. α-Solanine has been well studied for its antitumor properties, but its effect in lung cancer and associated molecular mechanisms have not yet been evaluated...
May 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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