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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645064/heroin-and-saccharin-demand-and-preference-in-rats
#1
Lindsay P Schwartz, Jung S Kim, Alan Silberberg, David N Kearns
BACKGROUND: Several recent studies have investigated the choice between heroin and a non-drug alternative reinforcer in rats. A common finding in these studies is that there are large individual differences in preference, with some rats preferring heroin and some preferring the non-drug alternative. The primary goal of the present study was to determine whether individual differences in how heroin or saccharin is valued, based on demand analysis, predicts choice. METHODS: Rats lever-pressed for heroin infusions and saccharin reinforcers on fixed-ratio schedules...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645051/enantioselective-disturbance-of-chiral-herbicide-dichlorprop-to-nitrogen-metabolism-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-regular-analysis-and-stable-isotope-attempt
#2
Zunwei Chen, Jia Wang, Siyu Chen, Yuezhong Wen
As the most essential element, nitrogen play a pivotal role in plant physiological process, which is susceptible to contaminants. However, the enantioselective effects of chiral herbicides on nitrogen metabolism have not been comprehensively understood. In this study, effects of chiral herbicide dichlorprop (DCPP) on the nitrogen behaviors in Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated. The results revealed that the uptakes of inorganic nitrogen (NO3(-) and NH4(+)) were preferentially impacted by herbicidal active (R)-DCPP, where the transportation of beneficial NO3(-) was inhibited but the toxic NH4(+) was accumulated...
June 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645018/take-over-performance-in-evasive-manoeuvres
#3
Riender Happee, Christian Gold, Jonas Radlmayr, Sebastian Hergeth, Klaus Bengler
We investigated after effects of automation in take-over scenarios in a high-end moving-base driving simulator. Drivers performed evasive manoeuvres encountering a blocked lane in highway driving. We compared the performance of drivers 1) during manual driving, 2) after automated driving with eyes on the road while performing the cognitively demanding n-back task, and 3) after automated driving with eyes off the road performing the visually demanding SuRT task. Both minimum time to collision (TTC) and minimum clearance towards the obstacle disclosed a substantial number of near miss events and are regarded as valuable surrogate safety metrics in evasive manoeuvres...
June 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644877/patient-experienced-burden-of-treatment-in-patients-with-multimorbidity-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-data
#4
Michael Rosbach, John Sahl Andersen
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize existing qualitative literature on patient-experienced burden of treatment in multimorbid patients. METHODS: A literature search identified available qualitative studies on the topic of burden of treatment in multimorbidity and meta-ethnography was applied as method. The authors' original findings were preserved, but also synthesized to new interpretations to investigate the concept of the burden of treatment using the Cumulative Complexity Model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644841/low-dimensional-spike-rate-models-derived-from-networks-of-adaptive-integrate-and-fire-neurons-comparison-and-implementation
#5
Moritz Augustin, Josef Ladenbauer, Fabian Baumann, Klaus Obermayer
The spiking activity of single neurons can be well described by a nonlinear integrate-and-fire model that includes somatic adaptation. When exposed to fluctuating inputs sparsely coupled populations of these model neurons exhibit stochastic collective dynamics that can be effectively characterized using the Fokker-Planck equation. This approach, however, leads to a model with an infinite-dimensional state space and non-standard boundary conditions. Here we derive from that description four simple models for the spike rate dynamics in terms of low-dimensional ordinary differential equations using two different reduction techniques: one uses the spectral decomposition of the Fokker-Planck operator, the other is based on a cascade of two linear filters and a nonlinearity, which are determined from the Fokker-Planck equation and semi-analytically approximated...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644789/what-is-the-role-of-ethics-consultation-in-the-moral-habitability-of-health-care-environments
#6
Wendy Austin
Ethics consultation has traditionally focused on the provision of expert guidance to health care professionals when challenging quandaries arise in clinical cases. Its role, however, is expanding as demands on health care organizations are negatively impacting their moral habitability. A sign of this impact can be seen in the moral distress experienced by staff and administrators, such that some leave their positions and their organizations. Ethics consultation, more broadly conceived, can be a major asset in ensuring that ethical practice is meaningfully supported, that moral distress is mitigated, and that the organizational environment is morally habitable...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644785/what-should-physicians-do-when-they-disagree-clinically-and-ethically-with-a-surrogate-s-wishes
#7
Terri Traudt, Joan Liaschenko
When patients' surrogates and physicians disagree about the appropriateness of aggressive treatment in intensive care units (ICUs), physicians can experience surrogates' demands as sources of moral distress. This article addresses the virtues and communication strategies needed to respond appropriately in such situations. Specifically, we offer a framework and language that rely on moral community to facilitate common ground and alleviate moral distress.
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644738/national-survey-and-analysis-of-barriers-to-the-utilisation-of-the-2005-mental-capacity-act-by-people-with-bipolar-disorder-in-england-and-wales
#8
Richard Morriss, Mohan Mudigonda, Peter Bartlett, Arun Chopra, Steven Jones
BACKGROUND: The Mental Capacity Act (2005) (MCA) provides a legal framework for advance planning for both health and welfare in England and Wales for people if they lose mental capacity, for example, through mania or severe depression. AIMS: To determine the proportion of people with bipolar disorder (BD) who utilise advance planning, their experience of using it and barriers to its implementation. METHODS: National survey of people with clinical diagnosis of BD of their knowledge, use and experience of the MCA...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644486/use-of-work-life-balance-benefits-guaranteed-by-law-in-poland-do-size-of-the-enterprise-and-gender-matter
#9
Dorota Merecz-Kot, Marcin Drabek, Aleksander Stańczak, Aleksandra Andysz, Aleksandra Jacukowicz
BACKGROUND: The paper is aimed at indicating the similarities and differences in use of benefits supporting work-life balance (WLB) between women and men working in Polish small/medium and large enterprises. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample included 556 workers (311 women, 245 men), aged 20-68 years old employed on the basis of employment contracts for at least a year in Polish enterprises. The respondents completed a questionnaire on the use of benefits guaranteed by the Polish Labour Code, referring to their current workplaces...
June 22, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644381/an-efficient-user-authentication-and-user-anonymity-scheme-with-provably-security-for-iot-based-medical-care-system
#10
Chun-Ta Li, Tsu-Yang Wu, Chin-Ling Chen, Cheng-Chi Lee, Chien-Ming Chen
In recent years, with the increase in degenerative diseases and the aging population in advanced countries, demands for medical care of older or solitary people have increased continually in hospitals and healthcare institutions. Applying wireless sensor networks for the IoT-based telemedicine system enables doctors, caregivers or families to monitor patients' physiological conditions at anytime and anyplace according to the acquired information. However, transmitting physiological data through the Internet concerns the personal privacy of patients...
June 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644221/physician-assistant-dual-employment
#11
Colette Jeffery, Dawn Morton-Rias, Mary Rittle, James Cannon, Roderick S Hooker
National health workforce supply and demand models help predict requirements built on individual annual productivity assumptions. Dual employment rarely is addressed, yet in 2015, about 13.5% of certified physician assistants (PAs) reported two or more clinical positions. Of PAs working two positions, 44% reported the main reason was to supplement earnings, followed by role variety. The mean number of hours worked by all certified PAs was 40.7 per week and the average number of patients was 75. Dual-employed PAs averaged more than 51 hours and 97 patients per week...
July 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644096/comparisons-between-commercial-salivary-testosterone-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-kits
#12
Christoffer R Andersson, Jonas Bergquist, Elvar Theodorsson, Jakob O Ström
INTRODUCTION: Measuring testosterone concentrations is of interest both in clinical situations and for research, the latter expanding rapidly during recent years. An increased demand for convenient methods has prompted a number of companies to develop enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits to measure testosterone concentrations in saliva. However, the inter-comparability of kits from different manufacturers have yet to be determined. AIM OF STUDY: The aim of this study was to compare commercially available ELISA kits from four different manufacturers (Salimetrics, IBL, DRG and Demeditec)...
June 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643874/2-6-bis-diazaboryl-pyridine-a-superbasic-sterically-demanding-pyridine-ligand
#13
Tobias Böttcher, Daniel Himmel, Jan Schröder
Herein we present a convenient one-pot route to a sterically demanding superbasic pyridine. Functionalization of the 2,6-positions with the highly sigma-donating boryl-groups shifts the calculated gas phase basicity of the pyridine's nitrogen atom to 1012 kJ mol-1, which outperforms the 'proton sponge' 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (996 kJ mol-1). The diazaboryl groups are oriented orthogonal to the pyridine ring and do not block the N-position, resembling the geometry of commonly used N-heterocyclic carbenes...
June 23, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643868/the-potassium-battery-a-mobile-energy-source-for-transport-processes-in-plant-vascular-tissues
#14
REVIEW
Ingo Dreyer, Judith Lucia Gomez-Porras, Janin Riedelsberger
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: Plant roots absorb potassium ions from the soil and transport them in the xylem via the transpiration stream to the shoots. There, in source tissues where sufficient chemical energy (ATP) is available, K(+) is loaded into the phloem and then transported with the phloem stream to other parts of the plant; in part, transport is also back to the roots. This, at first sight, futile cycling of K(+) has been uncovered to be part of a sophisticated mechanism that (1) enables the shoot to communicate its nutrient demand to the root, (2) contributes to the K(+) nutrition of transport phloem tissues and (3) transports energy stored in the K(+) gradient between phloem cytosol and the apoplast...
June 23, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643736/the-pitfalls-in-cytology-diagnosis-of-poorly-differentiated-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-lung-and-their-treatment-response
#15
Debarshi Saha, Ankit Kumar, Sourjya Banerjee, M Nirupama, H B Sridevi, Priya Garg, Flora D Lobo
CONTEXT: Lung is the most common site of small cell carcinoma (SCLC) - a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (PDNEC). SCLC comprises 15-20% of the invasive cancers of the lung. AIM: This study was conducted to appraise the accuracy and pitfalls of the diagnosis of PDNEC on cytology along with treatment responses if available. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective study for 2 years yielded 21 cases on cytology. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Slides of fine-needle aspiration of lymph nodes, the tumor, bronchial brush, and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were used...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643578/coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-in-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Aleksandar Kibel, Kristina Selthofer-Relatic, Ines Drenjancevic, Tatjana Bacun, Ivica Bosnjak, Dijana Kibel, Mario Gros
The significance, mechanisms and consequences of coronary microvascular dysfunction associated with diabetes mellitus are topics into which we have insufficient insight at this time. It is widely recognized that endothelial dysfunction that is caused by diabetes in various vascular beds contributes to a wide range of complications and exerts unfavorable effects on microcirculatory regulation. The coronary microcirculation is precisely regulated through a number of interconnected physiological processes with the purpose of matching local blood flow to myocardial metabolic demands...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643568/process-mining-based-method-of-designing-and-optimizing-the-layouts-of-emergency-departments-in-hospitals
#17
Farhood Rismanchian, Young Hoon Lee
OBJECTIVE: This article proposes an approach to help designers analyze complex care processes and identify the optimal layout of an emergency department (ED) considering several objectives simultaneously. These objectives include minimizing the distances traveled by patients, maximizing design preferences, and minimizing the relocation costs. BACKGROUND: Rising demand for healthcare services leads to increasing demand for new hospital buildings as well as renovating existing ones...
July 2017: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643560/design-quality-in-the-context-of-healthcare-environments-a-scoping-review
#18
Anna Anåker, Ann Heylighen, Susanna Nordin, Marie Elf
OBJECTIVE: We explored the concept of design quality in relation to healthcare environments. In addition, we present a taxonomy that illustrates the wide range of terms used in connection with design quality in healthcare. BACKGROUND: High-quality physical environments can promote health and well-being. Developments in healthcare technology and methodology put high demands on the design quality of care environments, coupled with increasing expectations and demands from patients and staff that care environments be person centered, welcoming, and accessible while also supporting privacy and security...
July 2017: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643428/mechanical-circulatory-support-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-heart-failure
#19
Amanda W Cai, Sabrina Islam, Shelley R Hankins, Wade Fischer, Howard J Eisen
According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), heart failure (HF) remains a pervasive condition with high morbidity and mortality, affecting 5.8 million people in the United States (US) and 23 million worldwide. For patients with refractory end-stage HF, heart transplantation is the gold standard for definitive treatment. However, the demand for heart transplantation has consistently exceeded the availability of donor hearts, with approximately 2,331 orthotopic heart transplantations performed in the US in 2015 despite an estimated 100,000 to 250,000 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IIIB or IV symptoms that are refractory to medical treatment and potential transplant candidates...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643345/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-the-regulation-of-neurogenesis-from-development-to-the-adult-brain
#20
REVIEW
Mireille Khacho, Ruth S Slack
Mitochondria are classically known to be the cellular energy producers, but a renewed appreciation for these organelles has developed with the accumulating discoveries of additional functions. The importance of mitochondria within the brain has been long known, particularly given the high-energy demanding nature of neurons. The energy demands imposed by neurons require the well-orchestrated morphological adaptation and distribution of mitochondria. Recent studies now reveal the importance of mitochondrial dynamics not only in mature neurons but also during neural development, particularly during the process of neurogenesis and neural stem cell fate decisions...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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