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Physical activity policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531149/changes-in-objectively-determined-walkability-and-physical-activity-in-adults-a-quasi-longitudinal-residential-relocation-study
#1
Gavin R McCormack, Lindsay McLaren, Grazia Salvo, Anita Blackstaffe
Causal evidence for the built environment's role in supporting physical activity is needed to inform land use and transportation policies. This quasi-longitudinal residential relocation study compared within-person changes in self-reported transportation walking, transportation cycling, and overall physical activity during the past 12 months among adults who did and did not move to a different neighbourhood. In 2014, a random sample of adults from 12 neighbourhoods (Calgary, AB, Canada) with varying urban form and socioeconomic status provided complete self-administered questionnaire data (n = 915)...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530342/-behavioral-physiological-and-morphological-characteristics-associated-with-post-traumatic-response-to-continuous-exposure-versus-alternate-exposure-in-an-animal-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#2
Ishay Ostfeld, Zeev Kaplan, Hagit Cohen
AIMS: The aim of this study was to approximate these conditions in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). More specifically, the neurobiological basis of these conditions, focusing on stress-related behavioral changes, HPA-axis and morphological were evaluated. The intention was to employ this well-validated, reproducible and reliable model for PTSD, to elicit data which will provide some guidance in the planning of a prospective study involving military personal. BACKGROUND: Combat personnel are exposed to significant stress and hardship, both physical and emotional, during their service and especially during active combat...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529332/adiposity-and-grip-strength-as-long-term-predictors-of-objectively-measured-physical-activity-in-93-015-adults-the-uk-biobank-study
#3
Y Kim, T White, K Wijndaele, S J Sharp, N J Wareham, S Brage
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fatness and fitness are associated with physical activity (PA) but less is known about the prospective associations of adiposity and muscle strength with PA. This study aimed to determine longitudinal associations of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and grip strength (GS) with objectively measured PA. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data are from the UK Biobank study. At baseline (2006-2010), BMI, WC and GS were objectively measured. At follow-up (2013-2015), a sub-sample of 93 015 participants (52 161 women) wore a tri-axial accelerometer on the dominant wrist for 7 days...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528173/school-wellness-team-best-practices-to-promote-wellness-policy-implementation
#4
Erika Profili, Diana S Rubio, Hannah G Lane, Lea H Jaspers, Megan S Lopes, Maureen M Black, Erin R Hager
Schools with wellness teams are more likely to implement federally mandated Local Wellness Policies (LWPs, Local Education Agency-level policies for healthy eating/physical activity). Best practices have been developed for wellness teams based on minimal empirical evidence. The purpose of this study is to determine, among schools with wellness teams, associations between LWP implementation and six wellness team best practices (individually and as a sum score). An online survey targeting Maryland school wellness leaders/administrators (52...
May 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525612/an-effectiveness-hierarchy-of-preventive-interventions-neglected-paradigm-or-self-evident-truth
#5
Simon Capewell, Ann Capewell
Non-communicable disease prevention strategies usually target the four major risk factors of poor diet, tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity. Yet, the most effective approaches remain disputed. However, increasing evidence supports the concept of an effectiveness hierarchy. Thus, 'downstream' preventive activities targeting individuals (such as 1:1 personal advice, health education, 'nudge' or primary prevention medications) consistently achieve a smaller population health impact than interventions aimed further 'upstream' (for instance, smoke-free legislation, alcohol minimum pricing or regulations eliminating dietary transfats)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524803/maternal-and-early-life-nutrition-and-physical-activity-setting-the-research-and-intervention-agenda-for-addressing-the-double-burden-of-malnutrition-in-south-african-children
#6
A Prioreschi, S Wrottesley, C E Draper, S A Tomaz, C J Cook, E D Watson, M N M Van Poppel, R Said-Mohamed, S A Norris, E V Lambert, L K Micklesfield
Early life is important for later health outcomes, yet there are few studies which adequately address all of the potential early life insults that may affect later life health and growth trajectories. This is particularly evident in low- to middle-income countries such as South Africa, where women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to high levels of physical inactivity, malnutrition, and obesity. Pregnancy may therefore be an opportune time to change behaviours and improve maternal and offspring health outcomes, and decrease the inter-generational transfer of risk...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524726/objectively-measured-physical-activity-in-brazilians-with-visual-impairment-description-and-associated-factors
#7
Rafael Barbosa Porcellis da Silva, Alexandre Carriconde Marques, Felipe Fossati Reichert
BACKGROUND: Low level of physical activity is a serious health issue in individuals with visual impairment. Few studies have objectively measured physical activity in this population group, particularly outside high-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe physical activity measured by accelerometry and its associated factors in Brazilian adults with visual impairment. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, 90 adults (18-95 years old) answered a questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for at least 3 days (including one weekend day) to measure physical activity (min/day)...
May 19, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524615/correlates-of-sedentary-behaviour-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
S A Prince, J L Reed, C McFetridge, M S Tremblay, R D Reid
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to systematically review evidence to identify intrapersonal, social environmental, physical environmental and policy correlates of sedentary behaviour (SB) among adults. METHODS: Six databases were searched to identify studies that reported on intrapersonal, social, physical environmental and/or policy correlates of SB across domains (i.e. occupational, leisure and transportation) in adults (mean ≥ 18 years old). Subgroup differences (sex, age, disease status, publication status and date, weekdays vs...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521831/the-sitless-project-exercise-referral-schemes-enhanced-by-self-management-strategies-to-battle-sedentary-behaviour-in-older-adults-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Maria Giné-Garriga, Laura Coll-Planas, Míriam Guerra, Àlex Domingo, Marta Roqué, Paolo Caserotti, Michael Denkinger, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Mark A Tully, Frank Kee, Emma McIntosh, Carme Martín-Borràs, Guillermo R Oviedo, Javier Jerez-Roig, Marta Santiago, Oriol Sansano, Guillermo Varela, Mathias Skjødt, Katharina Wirth, Dhayana Dallmeier, Jochen Klenk, Jason J Wilson, Nicole E Blackburn, Manuela Deidda, Guillaume Lefebvre, Denise González, Antoni Salvà
BACKGROUND: Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world's population. Recent evidence indicates that excessive sitting time is harmful to health, independent of meeting the recommended moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) guidelines. The SITLESS project aims to determine whether exercise referral schemes (ERS) can be enhanced by self-management strategies (SMSs) to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB), increase PA and improve health, quality of life and function in the long term, as well as psychosocial outcomes in community-dwelling older European citizens from four countries, within a three-armed pragmatic randomised controlled trial, compared with ERS alone and also with general recommendations about PA...
May 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520104/use-of-time-and-adolescent-health-related-quality-of-life-wellbeing-a-scoping-review
#10
REVIEW
Monica Wong, Kate Lycett, Tim Olds, Lisa Gold, Melissa Wake
Time use could profoundly affect adolescents' health-related quality of life (HRQL). Ideally, overall time use patterns would be considered, because activities within a 24-hour day are inherently correlated (more in one activity means less in another). This review focused on the associations of 1) overall time use patterns and 2) components of time use patterns with HRQL in adolescents. CONCLUSION: More physical activity, less screen time and more/adequate sleep, in isolation, are associated with better profile-based HRQL subscales...
May 18, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515831/the-relationship-of-living-environment-with-behavioral-and-fitness-outcomes-by-sex-an-exploratory-study-in-college-aged-students
#11
Kaelah Shaffer, Melissa Bopp, Zack Papalia, Dangaia Sims, Christopher M Bopp
Although physical activity (PA) is associated with several health benefits, there is a marked decline during college years, which is an influential period for the development of health behaviors. This study examined the relationship of neighborhood and living environment with behavioral (PA and sedentary behavior) and fitness outcomes by sex. Participants were college students that participated in a fitness assessment, followed by a survey that measured self-reported exercise and perception of one's environment (sidewalks, crime, traffic, access to PA resources in their neighborhood and/or apartment complex)...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513338/worldwide-surveillance-policy-and-research-on-physical-activity-and-health-the-global-observatory-for-physical-activity-gopa
#12
Andrea Ramirez Varela, Michael Pratt, Kenneth Powell, I-Min Lee, Adrian Bauman, Gregory Heath, Rafaela Costa Martins, Harold Kohl, Pedro C Hallal
BACKGROUND: The Global Observatory for Physical Activity-GoPA! was launched in response to the physical inactivity pandemic. The aim of this article is to present current information about surveillance, policy, and research on physical activity (PA) and health worldwide. METHODS: Information was collected for 217 countries. For 139 of these nations we identified a contact who confirmed information's accuracy and completeness. Associations were calculated among surveillance, policy and research categories...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510694/exploring-the-interrelationship-between-sport-health-and-social-outcomes-in-the-uk-implications-for-health-policy
#13
Paul Downward, Kirstin Hallmann, Simona Rasciute
Policy agencies are now re-visiting early aspirations that sport, as a form of physical activity, can be an instrument to foster general health and also subjective well-being (SWB). Both of these concepts capture physical and mental health states. SWB also encompasses broader psychological and life satisfaction as well as mood and affect. Past and current policies also identify a link between sport, social capital and SWB. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is undertaken on data from the UK's Taking Part survey to investigate the interrelationships between sport, general health, social capital and SWB...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506666/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-body-mass-index-in-children-aged-9-11-years
#14
Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari, Victor Matsudo, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Mauro Fisberg
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with body mass index (BMI) in children aged 9-11 years. METHODS: The study is part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). Body composition was determined using the bipolar bioimpedance technique. The mean BMI value was categorized as recommended by the World Health Organization. For seven consecutive days, participants used an accelerometer to objectively monitor sedentary behavior (SB) and moderate to vigorous physical activity...
May 12, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492446/five-community-wide-approaches-to-physical-activity-promotion-a-cluster-analysis-of-these-activities-in-local-health-jurisdictions-in-6-states
#15
Betty Bekemeier, Michelle Pui-Yan Yip, Abraham D Flaxman, Wendy Barrington
OBJECTIVE: Local health departments (LHDs) have essential roles to play in ensuring the promotion of physical activity (PA) in their communities in order to reduce obesity. Little research exists, however, regarding the existence of these PA interventions across communities and how these interventions may impact community health. DESIGN: In this exploratory study, we used cluster analysis to identify the structure of co-occurring PA interventions, followed by regression analysis to quantify the association between the patterns of PA interventions and prevalence of PA and obesity at a population level...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491235/a-systematic-review-of-physical-activity-policy-recommendations-and-interventions-for-people-with-mental-health-problems-in-sub-saharan-african-countries
#16
Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Marc De Hert, Christy du Plessis, Caleb Ademola Omuwa Gbiri, Jepkemoi Kibet, Nancy Wanyonyi, James Mugisha
INTRODUCTION: There is a need for interventions to address the escalating mental health burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Implementation of physical activity (PA) within the rehabilitation of people with mental health problems (PMHP) could reduce the burden and facilitate recovery. The objective of the current review was to explore (1) the role of PA within mental health policies of SSA countries, and (2) the current research evidence for PA to improve mental health in SSA. METHODS: We screened the Mental Health Atlas and MiNDbank for mental health policies in SSA countries and searched PubMed for relevant studies on PA in PMHP in SSA...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486584/comparison-of-health-examination-survey-methods-in-brazil-chile-colombia-mexico-england-scotland-and-the-usa
#17
Jennifer S Mindell, Alison Moody, Andres I Vecino-Ortiz, Tania Alfaro, Patricia Frenz, Shaun Scholes, Silvia A Gonzalez, Paula Margozzini, Cesar de Oliveira, Luz Maria Sanchez Romero, Andres Alvarado, Sebastián Cabrera, Olga L Sarmiento, Camilo A Triana, Simón Barquera
Comparability of population surveys across countries is key to appraising trends in population health. Achieving this requires deep understanding of the methods used in these surveys to examine the extent to which the measurements are comparable. In this paper, we obtained detailed protocols of eight nationally representative surveys in seven countries from Latin America, the United Kingdom and the United States of America 2007-2013 that differ in economic and inequity indicators. Data on sampling frame, sample selection procedures, recruitment, data collection methods, content of interview and examination modules, and measurement protocols were collected...
May 9, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483889/bridging-the-gaps-between-patients-and-primary-care-in-china-a-nationwide-representative-survey
#18
William C W Wong, Sunfang Jiang, Jason J Ong, Minghui Peng, Eric Wan, Shanzhu Zhu, Cindy L K Lam, Michael R Kidd, Martin Roland
PURPOSE: China introduced a national policy of developing primary care in 2009, establishing 8,669 community health centers (CHCs) by 2014 that employed more than 300,000 staff. These facilities have been underused, however, because of public mistrust of physicians and overreliance on specialist care. METHODS: We selected a stratified random sample of CHCs throughout China based on geographic distribution and urban-suburban ratios between September and December 2015...
May 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483176/-sexual-abuse-and-neglect-situations-as-risk-factors-for-adolescent-pregnancy
#19
Miguel Restrepo Martínez, Laura Trujillo Numa, Diana Restrepo Bernal, Yolanda Torres de Galvis, Gloria Sierra
BACKGROUND: In Colombia, one out of five women between the ages of 15 and 19 years have been pregnant. Almost two-thirds (64%) of these pregnancies were unplanned. OBJECTIVES: To examine the socio-demographic, psychosocial and clinical risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy. METHODS: An analytical prevalence study was performed using secondary data from the First Demographic Study of Mental Health in Medellin, Colombia. Female adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age were included in the study...
April 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481814/the-effects-of-quality-of-life-and-ability-to-perform-activities-of-daily-living-on-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-older-people-living-in-publicly-managed-congregate-housing
#20
Chun-Feng Chang, Rea-Jeng Yang, Shu-Fang Chang, Yuan Hwa Chou, Ean-Wen Huang
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by a decrease in cognitive abilities that does not affect the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). Therefore, this condition is easily overlooked. The prevalence and factors of influence for MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing are currently unknown. PURPOSE: This study investigated the prevalence and distribution of MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing and assessed the correlations among quality of life (QoL), ADL, and MCI...
June 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
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