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Physical activity policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319858/identifying-adverse-effects-of-area-based-health-policy-an-ethnographic-study-of-a-deprived-neighbourhood-in-england
#1
Oli Williams
Health interventions commonly have adverse effects. Addressing these could significantly improve health outcomes. This paper addresses an adverse effect common in the promotion of health behaviours: exacerbation of health inequalities between low- and high-socioeconomic groups. Health behaviours - particularly, physical activity - are positioned within the context of social inequality and the inequitable spatial distribution of resources. Area-based health policy that targets deprived areas is assessed for its capacity to promote health behaviours without exacerbating inequality...
March 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318184/preventing-childhood-obesity-contributions-from-the-social-sciences-to-intervention
#2
Muriel Lamarque, Alicia Bibiana Orden
Programming and implementation of health policies for the prevention of overweight and obesity have traditionally focused on the dissemination of specific messages identifying healthy foods and pointing out the importance of physical activity. Despite recurrent efforts, the prevalence of obesity in both adult and children populations continues to rise. The configuration of preventive proposals seems to neglect the more complex reality of the eating phenomenon, whose nature goes beyond its biological basis. Behind the presence of overweight or obesity, there are factors that exceed individual behaviors, which are constituted as elements of social order...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292281/skipping-breakfast-is-detrimental-for-primary-school-children-cross-sectional-analysis-of-determinants-for-targeted-prevention
#3
Dorothea Kesztyüs, Meike Traub, Romy Lauer, Tibor Kesztyüs, Jürgen Michael Steinacker
BACKGROUND: Skipping breakfast was found to be associated with abdominal obesity in primary school children. The aim of this research was to examine factors associated with skipping breakfast in primary school children in order to develop targeted preventive measures. METHODS: Baseline data assessment (2010) of a cluster-randomized controlled trial for the evaluation of a school-based health promotion program in primary school children in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany...
March 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288966/timing-of-the-decline-in-physical-activity-in-childhood-and-adolescence-gateshead-millennium-cohort-study
#4
Mohammed Abdulaziz Farooq, Kathryn N Parkinson, Ashley J Adamson, Mark S Pearce, Jessica K Reilly, Adrienne R Hughes, Xanne Janssen, Laura Basterfield, John J Reilly
BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is a widely held and influential view that physical activity begins to decline at adolescence. This study aimed to identify the timing of changes in physical activity during childhood and adolescence. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study (Gateshead Millennium Study) with 8 years of follow-up, from North-East England. Cohort members comprise a socioeconomically representative sample studied at ages 7, 9, 12 and 15 years; 545 individuals provided physical activity data at two or more time points...
March 13, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286914/a-review-of-social-participation-interventions-for-people-with-mental-health-problems
#5
REVIEW
Martin Webber, Meredith Fendt-Newlin
PURPOSE: The association between social networks and improved mental and physical health is well documented in the literature, but mental health services rarely routinely intervene to improve an individual's social network. This review summarises social participation intervention models to illustrate different approaches which practitioners use, highlight gaps in the evidence base and suggest future directions for research. METHODS: A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted, and social participation interventions were grouped into six categories using a modified narrative synthesis approach...
March 12, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285468/progress-in-nurturing-human-well-being
#6
EDITORIAL
Anthony Biglan, Ronald Prinz
Substantial evidence in the behavioral and social sciences has accrued in support of numerous intervention programs and policies bearing on improving the lives of children and families. To this end, Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review features a special journal issue on "Evolving Toward a More Nurturing Society." The field has achieved numerous advances regarding how to create and promote nurturing environments that foster successful development and prevent psychological and behavioral problems in children and youth...
March 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284191/a-feasibility-study-with-process-evaluation-of-a-preschool-intervention-to-improve-child-and-family-lifestyle-behaviours
#7
Lorraine McSweeney, Vera Araújo-Soares, Tim Rapley, Ashley Adamson
BACKGROUND: Around a fifth of children starting school in England are now overweight/obese. There is a paucity of interventions with the aim of obesity prevention in preschool-age children in the UK. Previous research has demonstrated some positive results in changing specific health behaviours, however, positive trends in overall obesity rates are lacking. Preschool settings may provide valuable opportunities to access children and their families not only for promoting healthy lifestyles, but also to develop and evaluate behaviour-change interventions...
March 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280790/environmental-assessment-of-al-hammar-marsh-southern-iraq
#8
Hind Fadhil Abdullah Al-Gburi, Balsam Salim Al-Tawash, Hadi Salim Al-Lafta
AIM: (a) To determine the spatial distributions and levels of major and minor elements, as well as heavy metals, in water, sediment, and biota (plant and fish) in Al-Hammar Marsh, southern Iraq, and ultimately to supply more comprehensive information for policy-makers to manage the contaminants input into the marsh so that their concentrations do not reach toxic levels. (b) to characterize the seasonal changes in the marsh surface water quality. (c) to address the potential environmental risk of these elements by comparison with the historical levels and global quality guidelines (i...
February 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278003/participant-experiences-and-perceptions-of-physical-activity-enhancing-interventions-for-people-with-physical-impairments-and-mobility-limitations-a-meta-synthesis-of-qualitative-research-evidence
#9
Toni L Williams, Jasmin K Ma, Kathleen A Martin Ginis
Disabled people face multiple personal, environmental and social barriers that interfere with leading a physically active lifestyle. Thus, there is an urgent need for behaviour change interventions to increase physical activity (PA) by specifically addressing the situations of disabled people, and barriers to participation. This original meta-synthesis of qualitative research was undertaken to explore participants' experiences and perceptions of PA-enhancing interventions for adults with physical impairments resulting in mobility limitations...
March 13, 2017: Health Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274382/legal-priorities-for-prevention-of-non-communicable-diseases-innovations-from-who-s-eastern-mediterranean-region
#10
REVIEW
L O Gostin, H Abou-Taleb, S A Roache, A Alwan
OBJECTIVES: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death globally and in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). This paper reports on a research collaboration between the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Office (EMRO) and the O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University that aims to identify (1) regionally relevant, cost-effective and affordable legal interventions to prevent NCDs, and (2) methods to strengthen implementation and enforcement...
March 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272378/perception-of-policy-and-environmental-action-to-promote-healthy-behaviors-in-african-american-communities
#11
Clifton Addison, Brenda W Campbell Jenkins, Monique White, Frances Henderson, Dorothy J McGill, Donna Antoine-LaVigne, Marinelle Payton
The present study aimed to examine the perceptions of African American communities regarding the involvement of political leaders in facilitating policy and environmental change promoting healthy eating and physical activity. We selected the Metro Jackson Area comprised of Hinds, Madison and Rankin Counties because it is a combination of urban and rural communities. The sample consisted of 70 participants from seven sites. A total of seven focus groups were asked to respond to one question to assess political leaders' involvement in healthy living: "When you think about your political leaders that you have in the Jackson, Mississippi area, do any of them promote healthy eating and physical activity?" Focus groups consisted of six to 12 participants and were asked to comment on their participation in physical activity...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271804/exercise-and-cognition-2016
#12
Phillip D Tomporowski
Physical activity is purported to promote children's brain health and enhance mental development (1). Three studies were selected for review because of their focus on issues that challenge translational research applications in exercise pediatric science. While some disagreement exists concerning the definition of translational research, most suggest that translational interventions focus on the uptake, implementation, and sustainability of research findings within standard care (2). Translational researchers typically highlight differences that exist between efficacy experiments, which provide evidence that a specific intervention works, and effectiveness experiments, which show that the intervention will reap benefits under real-world conditions...
February 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267760/changes-in-diagnosed-diabetes-obesity-and-physical-inactivity-prevalence-in-us-counties-2004-2012
#13
Linda S Geiss, Karen Kirtland, Ji Lin, Sundar Shrestha, Ted Thompson, Ann Albright, Edward W Gregg
Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267154/natural-hazard-management-from-a-coevolutionary-perspective-exposure-and-policy-response-in-the-european-alps
#14
Sven Fuchs, Veronika Röthlisberger, Thomas Thaler, Andreas Zischg, Margreth Keiler
A coevolutionary perspective is adopted to understand the dynamics of exposure to mountain hazards in the European Alps. A spatially explicit, object-based temporal assessment of elements at risk to mountain hazards (river floods, torrential floods, and debris flows) in Austria and Switzerland is presented for the period from 1919 to 2012. The assessment is based on two different data sets: (1) hazard information adhering to legally binding land use planning restrictions and (2) information on building types combined from different national-level spatial data...
March 4, 2017: Annals of the American Association of Geographers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262079/assessment-of-nutrition-and-physical-activity-practices-using-self-report-and-observation-in-early-care-and-education-across-multiple-us-states
#15
Teresa M Smith, Casey Blaser, Cristy Geno Rasmussen, Julie Shuell, Catherine Plumlee, Amy L Yaroch
OBJECTIVE: The National Early Care and Education Learning Collaboratives (ECELC) Project aims to promote healthy physical activity and nutrition environments, policies and practices in early care and education (ECE) programmes across multiple states. The present pilot study sought to assess changes to the physical activity and nutrition practices in a sub-sample of ECE programmes participating in the ECELC using the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO). Additionally, it sought to compare results with the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC)...
March 6, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257123/unequal-distribution-of-overweight-adolescents-in-immigrant-rich-areas-analysis-of-disparities-among-public-and-private-school-students-in-shanghai-china
#16
Jianwei Shi, Duxun Tan, Huilin Xie, Beilei Yang, Rui Liu, Dehua Yu, Yuan Lu, Bing Mei, Zhaoxin Wang
Accelerated urbanization and rising immigration to the big cities in China has resulted in education policies that produce disparate treatment of immigrant and non-immigrant students. The two types of students frequently wind up in different types of junior high schools. However, there is little research on whether disparities exist between students in public and private schools with regard to overweight. This study aims to address this gap through a comparison of the overweight status of junior high school students in public and private schools in Shanghai and explore the possible reasons for the observed differences...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255653/season-dietary-factors-and-physical-activity-modify-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentration-during-pregnancy
#17
Helena H Hauta-Alus, Elisa M Holmlund-Suila, Hannu J Rita, Maria Enlund-Cerullo, Jenni Rosendahl, Saara M Valkama, Otto M Helve, Timo K Hytinantti, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Outi M Mäkitie, Sture Andersson, Heli T Viljakainen
PURPOSE: The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to define maternal and umbilical cord blood (UCB) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) to characterize maternal factors modifying 25(OH)D during pregnancy and predict UCB 25(OH)D in two subgroups with Declined [Δ25(OH)D <0 nmol/l] and Increased [Δ25(OH)D >0 nmol/l] 25(OH)D concentration. METHODS: A complete dataset was available from 584 women. 25(OH)D was determined at gestational weeks 6-13 and in UCB...
March 2, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252375/policy-at-play-the-implementation-of-healthy-eating-and-active-living-guidelines-in-municipal-child-care-settings
#18
Kelly McKay, Sherry Nigro
BACKGROUND: In 2012, Ottawa Public Health (OPH) partnered with the City of Ottawa Municipal Child Care (MCC) Services to develop Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) Guidelines. SETTING: The Guidelines aim to promote consistent standards of practice in child care settings related to healthy environments and food, physical activity, physical literacy, decreased sedentary behaviours, and positive role modeling by staff. The Guidelines targeted 498 children aged 18 months to 5 years, attending MCC centres...
March 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248782/occupational-exposures-of-home-healthcare-workers
#19
Noma Agbonifo, Beverly Hittle, Rassull Suarez, Kermit Davis
Population demographics in the United States are rapidly changing with increased dependence on home healthcare (HHC) by an aging population, patients suffering from chronic diseases, and inability to perform activities of daily living. Despite the occupational injury rates for HHC workers (HHCW) being higher than the national average, an understanding of the occupational safety and health experiences and exposures of HHCW is limited. The purpose of this study was to understand the health and safety risk factors for HHCW...
March 2017: Home Healthcare Now
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244555/identifying-frailty-levels-and-associated-factors-in-a-population-living-in-the-context-of-poverty-and-social-vulnerability
#20
M S Zazzetta, G A O Gomes, F S Orlandi, A C M Gratão, F A Vasilceac, K Gramani-Say, M A Ponti, P C Castro, S C I Pavarini, A L C Menezes, C M C Nascimento, M R Cominetti
This study aimed to investigate a vulnerable population living in the context of poverty in a Brazilian municipality, in order to identify the factors that are associated with frailty syndrome in elderly people. From the total population living in the area, a random sample of 363 community-dwelling people, 60 years and older, age and gender-stratified, was selected to participate in the research. After losses, a sample of 304 older adults was classified as non-frail, pre-frail and frail. According to the Fried frailty criteria, the prevalence was 12...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
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