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Comprehensive School Community Health

Birgit Babitsch, Raimund Geene, Holger Hassel, Thomas Kliche, Britta Bacchetta, Simon Baltes, Sandra Nold, Daniel Rosenfeldt
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are serious health risks for children and adolescents. Hence, various prevention projects have been initiated and implemented. Until now, a systematic overview of interventions in different settings has been lacking. AIM(S)/RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of the "Prevention of child overweight" project (SkAP-project) is to prepare a systematic overview of the conceptual approaches used in universal prevention of overweight among children and adolescents...
October 18, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Paul Worley, Ian Couper, Roger Strasser, Lisa Graves, Beth-Ann Cummings, Richard Woodman, Pamela Stagg, David Hirsh
CONTEXT: Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) represent a model of the structural redesign of clinical education that is growing in the USA, Canada, Australia and South Africa. By contrast with time-limited traditional block rotations, medical students in LICs provide comprehensive care of patients and populations in continuing learning relationships over time and across disciplines and venues. The evidence base for LICs reveals transformational professional and workforce outcomes derived from a number of small institution-specific studies...
September 2016: Medical Education
J Mwai, S Njenga, M Barasa
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in Kenya. Inadequate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on causative factors are some of the critical factors for the increased prevalence. The study assessed KAP on the control and prevention of schistosomiasis infection in Mwea division, Kirinyaga County-Kenya. Four hundred and sixty five house-hold heads were enrolled in this study by use of simple random sampling technique. METHODS: The study employed an analytical descriptive cross sectional design utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods...
2016: BMC Public Health
O Mukamana, M Johri
Schools can play an important role in health promotion mainly by improving students' health literacy, behaviors and academic achievements. School-based health promotion can be particularly valuable in developing countries facing the challenges of low health literacy and high burden of disease. We conducted a scoping review of the published literature focusing on school-based interventions for health promotion and their impact in developing countries. We included 30 studies meeting specific criteria: (i) studies mainly targeted school going children or adolescents; (ii) admissible designs were randomized controlled trials, controlled before-after studies or interrupted time series; (iii) studies included at least one measure of impact and (iv) were primary studies or systematic reviews...
October 2016: Health Education Research
(no author information available yet)
: Reports an error in "Resilience in Palestinian Adolescents Living in Gaza" by Rozanna J. Aitcheson, Soleman H. Abu-Bader, Mary K. Howell, Deena Khalil and Salman Elbedour (Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Advanced Online Publication, May 30, 2016, np). In the original article, there were grammatical errors to the Method section of the abstract and the Method subsection Participants. Corrections are provided in the erratum. All versions of this article have been corrected...
July 25, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Igor Belyaev, Amy Dean, Horst Eger, Gerhard Hubmann, Reinhold Jandrisovits, Markus Kern, Michael Kundi, Hanns Moshammer, Piero Lercher, Kurt Müller, Gerd Oberfeld, Peter Ohnsorge, Peter Pelzmann, Claus Scheingraber, Roby Thill
Chronic diseases and illnesses associated with non-specific symptoms are on the rise. In addition to chronic stress in social and work environments, physical and chemical exposures at home, at work, and during leisure activities are causal or contributing environmental stressors that deserve attention by the general practitioner as well as by all other members of the health care community. It seems necessary now to take "new exposures" like electromagnetic fields (EMF) into account. Physicians are increasingly confronted with health problems from unidentified causes...
September 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Anne Mutunda Lahme, Ruth Stern, Diana Cooper
BACKGROUND: In the lives of women, puberty is marked by the onset of menarche. From this stage onwards until menopause, reproductive health and menstrual hygiene are important aspects of women's lives. In Zambia's Western Province, the natural process of menstruation is a taboo and dealt with secretly. Information and knowledge about menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls is inadequate. This paper explores the factors influencing the understanding, experiences and practices of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in Mongu District, Western Province of Zambia...
July 5, 2016: Global Health Promotion
John Fayyad, C Cordahi-Tabet, J Yeretzian, M Salamoun, C Najm, E G Karam
Studies of war-exposed children have not investigated a comprehensive array of resilience-promoting factors, nor representative samples of children and adolescents. A representative sample of N = 710 adolescents was randomly selected from communities recently exposed to war. All those who had experienced war trauma were administered questionnaires measuring war exposure, family violence, availability of leisure activities, school-related problems, interpersonal and peer problems, socialization, daily routine problems, displacement, availability of parental supervision and contact and medical needs as well as coping skills related to religious coping, denial, self-control, avoidance and problem solving...
June 16, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Siyun Liu, Ming Hu, Yan Chang, Hui Chen, Jiao Tu
OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively evaluate the interventional effect on unexpected injury among children and adolescents in China, and to provide scientific basis for the injury control strategy.
 METHODS: Meta analysis was utilized to analyze the selected literatures. After heterogeneity test of the data, a relevant model was chosen to estimate the combined effect values relative risk (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Subgroup analysis were performed based on the intervention measures, objects and places...
May 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Rozanna J Aitcheson, Soleman H Abu-Bader, Mary K Howell, Deena Khalil, Salman Elbedour
: [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported online in on Jul 25 2016 (see record ). In the original article, there were grammatical errors to the Method section of the abstract and the Method subsection Participants. Corrections are provided in the erratum. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Objective: The pathogenic impact of ongoing political conflict on children and adolescents has been well-documented in the literature. The present study, by contrast, examined the factors that support adolescent health and utilized a salutogenic model to examine prevalence of depression and anxiety and predictors of resilience in a group of adolescents attending secondary school in Gaza...
May 30, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Emily J Tomayko, Ronald J Prince, Kate A Cronin, Alexandra K Adams
OBJECTIVE: American Indian children of pre-school age have disproportionally high obesity rates and consequent risk for related diseases. Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based randomized trial assessing the efficacy of an obesity prevention toolkit delivered by a mentor v. mailed delivery that was designed and administered using community-based participatory research approaches. DESIGN: During Year 1, twelve healthy behaviour toolkit lessons were delivered by either a community-based home mentor or monthly mailings...
October 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Elizabeth M Glowacki, Erin E Centeio, Daniel J Van Dongen, Russell L Carson, Darla M Castelli
BACKGROUND: Implementing a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) effectively addresses public health issues by providing opportunities for physical activity (PA). Grounded in the Diffusion of Innovations model, the purpose of this study was to identify how health promotion efforts facilitate opportunities for PA. METHODS: Physical and health education teachers (N = 256) nationwide were surveyed using a CSPAP Index to identify teacher's efforts for providing opportunities for PA within a school setting...
June 2016: Journal of School Health
J K Krugu, F E F Mevissen, A Prinsen, R A C Ruiter
BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancy remains a public health concern, with diverse serious consequences, including increased health risk for mother and child, lost opportunities for personal development, social exclusion, and low socioeconomic attainments. Especially in Africa, teenage pregnancy rates are high. It is important to find out how girls without pregnancy experience differ in their contraceptive decision-making processes as compared with their previously studied peers with pregnancy experience to address the high rate of teenage pregnancies...
2016: Reproductive Health
Kathleen Rice, Braden Te Hiwi, Merrick Zwarenstein, Barry Lavallee, Douglas Edward Barre, Stewart B Harris
OBJECTIVES: To carry out a systematic review of interventions that have aimed at improving screening, treatment, prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and obesity-related chronic disease in Indigenous communities in Canada from 2008 to 2014, with the aim of identifying current best practices. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was carried out through an electronic database search using Medline, EMBASE, PubMED and Google scholar. RESULTS: We identified 17 publications, comprising 13 evaluated interventions...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
David R Holtgrave, Cathy Maulsby, J Janet Kim, Hope Cassidy-Stewart, Heather Hauck
PROBLEM: In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the "Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning" initiative, which targeted funding to the 12 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with the most severe epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus infection to a) develop a plan to align each MSA's HIV prevention plan with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) and b) identify and implement the optimal combination of prevention services to reduce new infections...
2016: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
Dennis E Carey, Neville H Golden
Osteoporosis occurs during childhood and adolescence as a heritable condition such as OI, with acquired disease (eg, IBD), or iatrogenically as a result of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. However, the number of children affected by osteoporosis during youth is small compared to the numbers who will develop osteoporosis in adulthood. Prevention of adult osteoporosis requires that an optimal environment for the achievement of peak bone mass be established during the growing years. Detection of low BMD can be achieved using modalities such as DXA and pQCT...
August 2015: Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews
Camila B Lyon, Amina I Merchant, Teresa Schwalbach, Emilia F V Pinto, Emilia C Jeque, K A Kelly McQueen
BACKGROUND: The World Bank and Lancet Commission in 2015 have prioritized surgery in Low-Income Countries (LIC) and Lower-Middle Income Countries (LMICs). This is consistent with the shift in the global burden of disease from communicable to noncommunicable diseases over the past 20 years. Essential surgery must be performed safely, with adequate anesthesia monitoring and intervention. Unfortunately, a huge barrier to providing safe surgery includes the paucity of an anesthesia workforce...
May 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Sharon Stephan, Nancy Lever, Larraine Bernstein, Sarah Edwards, David Pruitt
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the potential and limits of school telemental health (TMH) to support a full continuum from mental health promotion to intervention, particularly for students less likely to access community care. METHODS: A review of school TMH literature and model programs, and of data from focus groups with child psychiatry fellows, was undertaken to inform best practices and future directions for TMH in schools. RESULTS: Existing data suggest that TMH with children and adolescents is promising and well received...
April 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Sangeeta Kansal, Sweta Singh, Alok Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that is, 2, 3 4,5, and 5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative)...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Pascal James Imperato, Denise M Bruno, M Monica Sweeney
Global health electives based in resource-poor countries have become extremely popular with medical students from resource rich ones. As the number of such programs and participants increase, so too do the absolute health and safety risks. It is clear from a number of published reports that many institutions provide little or no meaningful preparedness for students and do little to ensure their health and safety. These deficiencies together can affect students, their foreign hosts, and sponsoring institutions...
April 2016: Journal of Community Health
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