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acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222716/childhood-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-an-egyptian-pilot-study
#1
Hamed Ahmed Elkhayat, Omnia Fathy El-Rashidy, Iman Ali Elagouza, Raghda Zaitoun, Yasser Abdel Azeem Abbas
Describing the variable clinical features, laboratory findings, neuroimaging findings, and treatments given to children who presented with ADEM and following them up both clinically and radiologically. 21 patients were recruited: 14 new cases, and 7 old ones presenting over the preceding 5 years (retrospective review of existing data). 11 males and 10 females, with a mean age of 4.4 years ± 2.7 SD, were included. All new patients were subject to full history, examination and a panel of investigations including MRI of the brain...
December 8, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215409/imaging-of-acquired-demyelinating-syndrome-with-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#2
Caroline Malo-Pion, Raymond Lambert, Jean-Claude Décarie, Sophie Turpin
Acquired demyelinating syndromes include acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis and may progress to multiple sclerosis (MS). Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is characterized by impairment of level of consciousness and multifocal neurological deficits and transverse myelitis by back pain, weakness and sphincter dysfunction. Only a few cases of acquired demyelinating syndrome have been imaged with F-FDG PET/CT. We present two such cases.
December 5, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184769/diffuse-glioblastoma-resembling-acute-hemorrhagic-leukoencephalitis
#3
Carla Schettino, Ferdinando Caranci, Giacomo Lus, Elisabetta Signoriello, Marica Eoli, Elena Anghileri, Bianca Pollo, Mariarosa A B Melone, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Lorenzo Ugga, Enrico Tedeschi
We report the case of a young man with sudden onset of diplopia after an upper respiratory tract infection. Based on the first radiological findings acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis, a variant of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, was suspected and treatment with high dose intravenous dexamethasone was started but it was stopped for intolerance. The patient clinically worsened, developing gait instability, ataxia and ophthalmoplegia; brain MRI performed 20 days later showed severe progression of the disease with subependymal dissemination...
October 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167056/diffusion-tensor-imaging-as-a-biomarker-to-differentiate-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-from-multiple-sclerosis-at-first-demyelination
#4
Wint Yan Aung, Parinaz Massoumzadeh, Safa Najmi, Amber Salter, Jodi Heaps, Tammie L S Benzinger, Soe Mar
BACKGROUND: There are no clinical features or biomarkers that can reliably differentiate acute disseminated encephalomyelitis from multiple sclerosis at the first demyelination attack. Consequently, a final diagnosis is sometimes delayed by months and years of follow-up. Early treatment for multiple sclerosis is recommended to reduce long-term disability. Therefore, we intend to explore neuroimaging biomarkers that can reliably distinguish between the two diagnoses. METHODS: We reviewed prospectively collected clinical, standard MRI and diffusion tensor imaging data of 12 pediatric patients who presented with acute demyelination with and without encephalopathy...
September 28, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143589/biomarkers-in-the-evolution-of-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Thomas Berger
Nonimaging biomarkers can be applied in differential diagnosis, evaluation of disease progression and therapy monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS). Presence of oligoclonal IgG bands in cerebrospinal fluid is a diagnostic element and a negative predictor of MS evolution. AQP4 antibodies are pathogenic and diagnostic for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein develop in about 50% of predominantly pediatric patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, but their possible role in pathogenesis is unknown...
November 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142145/clinical-course-therapeutic-responses-and-outcomes-in-relapsing-mog-antibody-associated-demyelination
#6
Sudarshini Ramanathan, Shekeeb Mohammad, Esther Tantsis, Tina Kim Nguyen, Vera Merheb, Victor S C Fung, Owen Bruce White, Simon Broadley, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Steve Vucic, Andrew P D Henderson, Michael Harry Barnett, Stephen W Reddel, Fabienne Brilot, Russell C Dale
OBJECTIVE: We characterised the clinical course, treatment and outcomes in 59 patients with relapsing myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated demyelination. METHODS: We evaluated clinical phenotypes, annualised relapse rates (ARR) prior and on immunotherapy and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), in 218 demyelinating episodes from 33 paediatric and 26 adult patients. RESULTS: The most common initial presentation in the cohort was optic neuritis (ON) in 54% (bilateral (BON) 32%, unilateral (UON) 22%), followed by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (20%), which occurred exclusively in children...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141794/short-term-outcome-of-adem-results-from-a-retrospective-cohort-study-from-south-india
#7
Mary Iype, P A Mohammed Kunju, Geetha Saradakutty, T S Anish, Mini Sreedharan, Shahanaz M Ahamed
INTRODUCTION: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), an immune mediated inflammatory disease is common in children. The profile and immediate outcome of children hospitalized with ADEM is scarce in the available literature. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the clinical profile of children with ADEM and to look for prognostic factors for outcome at discharge from hospital METHODS: We chose a retrospective cohort study of all children diagnosed with ADEM at our institution between January 2006 and December 2015, and they were evaluated, after excluding other diagnoses when they were summoned for a follow up visit...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140242/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-and-encephalitis-associated-with-zika-virus-infection-in-brazil-detection-of-viral-rna-and-isolation-of-virus-during-late-infection
#8
Maria Lucia Brito Ferreira, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Álvaro José Porto Moreira, Maria Íris de Morais Machado, Adélia Henriques-Souza, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Ernesto Torres de Azevedo Marques, Lindomar José Pena
Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in Brazil in 2015, which was followed by an increase of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) cases. We report the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory findings of the first six neurological cases associated with ZIKV in Brazil seen in a reference neurology hospital in Pernambuco, Brazil. In all cases, ZIKV was detected in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. In this case series, four cases were defined as GBS, one as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and the other as encephalitis...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136091/clinical-presentation-and-prognosis-in-mog-antibody-disease-a-uk-study
#9
Maciej Jurynczyk, Silvia Messina, Mark R Woodhall, Naheed Raza, Rosie Everett, Adriana Roca-Fernandez, George Tackley, Shahd Hamid, Angela Sheard, Gavin Reynolds, Saleel Chandratre, Cheryl Hemingway, Anu Jacob, Angela Vincent, M Isabel Leite, Patrick Waters, Jacqueline Palace
A condition associated with an autoantibody against MOG has been recently recognized as a new inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, but the disease course and disability outcomes are largely unknown. In this study we investigated clinical characteristics of MOG-antibody disease on a large cohort of patients from the UK. We obtained demographic and clinical data on 252 UK patients positive for serum immunoglobulin G1 MOG antibodies as tested by the Autoimmune Neurology Group in Oxford. Disability outcomes and disease course were analysed in more detail in a cohort followed in the Neuromyelitis Optica Oxford Service (n = 75), and this included an incident cohort who were diagnosed at disease onset (n = 44)...
November 9, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136024/severe-oxidative-stress-in-an-acute-inflammatory-demyelinating-model-in-the-rhesus-monkey
#10
Jordon Dunham, Reinofke van de Vis, Jan Bauer, Jacqueline Wubben, Nikki van Driel, Jon D Laman, Bert A 't Hart, Yolanda S Kap
Oxidative stress is increasingly implicated as a co-factor of tissue injury in inflammatory/demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), such as multiple sclerosis (MS). While rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models diverge from human demyelinating disorders with respect to limited oxidative injury, we observed that in a non-human primate (NHP) model for MS, namely EAE in the common marmoset, key pathological features of the disease were recapitulated, including oxidative tissue injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108750/new-spectrum-of-the-neurologic-consequences-of-zika
#11
EDITORIAL
Marco T Medina, Marco Medina-Montoya
Zika virus infection represents a new neuropathological agent with association to a wide spectrum of neurological complications: a) Congenital Zika Syndrome by affecting the neural stem cells of the human fetal brain; b) Guillain-Barré Syndrome by an autoimmune response against peripheral myelin and/or axonal components or probable direct inflammatory reaction; c) Encephalitis/meningoencephalitis and myelitis by a direct viral inflammatory process on the central nervous system; d) Sensory neuropathy by infecting directly the peripheral neurons and causing substantial cell death and pathogenic transcriptional dysregulation; e) Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and optic neuropathy; f) Seizures and Epilepsy and g) childhood arterial ischemic stroke by probable inflammatory reaction and endothelial injury...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103426/the-spectrum-of-inflammatory-acquired-demyelinating-syndromes-in-children
#12
Rinze Neuteboom, Colin Wilbur, Danielle Van Pelt, Moses Rodriguez, Ann Yeh
Acquired demyelinating syndromes in childhood comprise a spectrum of monophasic and recurrent inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system. Examples of monophasic conditions include, clinically isolated syndromes such as optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, as well as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, whereas recurrent disorders include entities such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Knowledge about these disorders has expanded due to rigorously evaluated diagnostic criteria, magnetic resonance imaging features, outcomes, and serum biomarkers in these disorders...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093388/an-adult-case-of-recurrent-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-with-anti-galactocerebroside-antibodies
#13
Hisashi Takahashi, Tadashi Kimura, Natsuko Yuki, Akira Yoshioka
A 79-year-old woman with a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) developed somnolence and tetraparesis after pneumonia. Based on clinical and laboratory findings, she was diagnosed with complications of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Anti-galactocerebroside (Gal-C) IgG antibodies were detected in her serum. Cases of recurrent GBS in patients who are positive for this antibody are extremely rare. The anti-Gal-C IgG antibodies likely played an important role in the pathogenesis of the AIDP and ADEM...
November 1, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070756/a-case-of-anti-mog-antibody-positive-multiphasic-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-co-occurring-with-unilateral-cerebral-cortical-encephalitis
#14
Naoya Fukushima, Miki Suzuki, Ryo Ogawa, Kitami Hayashi, Jun-Ichi Takanashi, Takashi Ohashi
A 20-year-old woman first developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) at 11 years of age. At 17 years of age, she was hospitalized due to generalized seizure and diagnosed with encephalitis. Brain MRI revealed a FLAIR-hyperintense lesion in the unilateral cerebral cortex. At 18 years of age, serum anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody was detected. At 20 years of age, she was admitted to our hospital, diagnosed with multifocal disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM). MDEM has been observed in patients that are seropositive for the anti-MOG antibody...
October 26, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070051/human-antibodies-against-the-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-can-cause-complement-dependent-demyelination
#15
Patrick Peschl, Kathrin Schanda, Bleranda Zeka, Katherine Given, Denise Böhm, Klemens Ruprecht, Albert Saiz, Andreas Lutterotti, Kevin Rostásy, Romana Höftberger, Thomas Berger, Wendy Macklin, Hans Lassmann, Monika Bradl, Jeffrey L Bennett, Markus Reindl
BACKGROUND: Antibodies to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are associated with a subset of inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. However, whether human MOG antibodies are pathogenic or an epiphenomenon is still not completely clear. Although MOG is highly conserved within mammals, previous findings showed that not all human MOG antibodies bind to rodent MOG...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049805/health-related-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-patients-with-demyelinating-diseases-relevance-of-disability-relapsing-presentation-and-fatigue
#16
Mariella M Self, Aaron Fobian, Katherine Cutitta, Arianne Wallace, Timothy E Lotze
Decreased health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis is established, but little research has examined HRQOL in the broader pediatric demyelinating disease population, and predictors of reduced HRQOL are largely unexplored. We sought to (1) compare generic HRQOL and fatigue of pediatric patients with relapsing (i.e., multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica) versus monophasic demyelinating diseases (i.e., acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, clinically isolated syndrome) and (2) examine the extent to which disability, relapsing disease, and fatigue predict HRQOL...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033632/review-of-viral-encephalitis-cases-seen-at-a-tertiary-care-center-in-turkey-focus-on-herpes-simplex-type-1
#17
Beyza Çiftçi Kavaklioğlu, Eda Çoban, Aysu Şen, Elif Söylemezoğlu, Mehmet Ali Aldan, Dilek Atakli, Aysun Soysal
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), known as the most common, potentially mortal, and treatable cause of sporadic encephalitis, in a sample Turkish population. METHODS: The demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, electrophysiology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA results of patients examined with a pre-diagnosis of encephalitis were retrospectively examined. RESULTS: A total of 68 patients were included in the study...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025172/-anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-in-paediatric-patients-with-optic-neuritis
#18
Helmut Tegetmeyer, Andreas Merkenschlager
Background Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is located on the surface of oligodendrocytes and myelin in the central nervous system. MOG-IgG is associated with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), relapsing and bilateral optic neuritis (NNO), and transverse myelitis (TM) in both paediatric and adult patients. The combination of NNO and TM or other inflammatory brain lesions is a typical feature of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) which are associated with specific pathogenic autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG)...
October 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987175/inflammatory-demyelinating-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Romana Höftberger, Hans Lassmann
Inflammatory demyelinating diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders, which occur against the background of an acute or chronic inflammatory process. The pathologic hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) is the presence of focal demyelinated lesions with partial axonal preservation and reactive astrogliosis. Demyelinated plaques are present in the white as well as gray matter, such as the cerebral or cerebellar cortex and brainstem nuclei. Activity of the disease process is reflected by the presence of lesions with ongoing myelin destruction...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941527/pediatric-optic-neuritis
#20
Melinda Y Chang, Stacy L Pineles
Optic neuritis is rare in children in comparison to adults, but accounts for approximately 25% of pediatric acute demyelinating syndromes. Features of pediatric optic neuritis that differ from adults include a higher rate of bilaterality, poor visual acuity on presentation, and papillitis. Diagnostic work-up includes brain magnetic resonance imaging, lumbar puncture, and blood tests to exclude infectious and inflammatory disorders. Pediatric optic neuritis may occur following infection or vaccination, or in association with a systemic demyelinating process such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, or multiple sclerosis...
May 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
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