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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441793/patterns-beliefs-norms-and-perceived-harms-of-hookah-smoking-in-north-iran
#1
Rahman Berdi Ozouni Davaji, Yousef Dadban Shahamat, Farshid Hajili Davaji, Kamal Mirkarimi, Abdurrahman Charkazi, Bagher Pahlavanzadeh, Navisa Sadat Seydghasemi, Gholamreza Sharifirad, Mitra Moodi, Ayoub Elahi
Introduction: Hookah smoking is considered as a public health threat around the globe. The aim of this study was to investigatethe hookah smoking patterns, beliefs, norms and perceived harms in Golestan province of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 395 hookah smokers using convenience sampling method in 2015. To collect data, Heinz’s hookah patternwas utilized. Ordinal regression models were used to exploring of covariates related to the odds of life time, last-30-day, and current hookah use...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441790/eradicating-breast-cancer-longevity-impact-on-kuwaiti-women
#2
Muhammad Ali Al Ramadhan
Objective: To explore salient trends in incidence and mortality from breast cancer among Kuwaiti females and to quantify the number of years that could be saved if breast cancer deaths were eliminated. Methods: Appling life table technique, the paper constructs a bridged, multiple decrement and cancer-elimination life tables for Kuwaiti females. Data sources include Kuwait Cancer Control Center Registry along with vital statistics on mortality by age groups, nationality, and causes of death according to ICD-10 revision...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441745/breast-cancer-screening-programmes-across-the-who-european-region-differences-among-countries-based-on-national-income-level
#3
Emma Altobelli, Leonardo Rapacchietta, Paolo Matteo Angeletti, Luca Barbante, Filippo Valerio Profeta, Roberto Fagnano
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent tumour affecting women all over the world. In low- and middle-income countries, where its incidence is expected to rise further, BC seems set to become a public health emergency. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic review of current BC screening programmes in WHO European Region to identify possible patterns. Multiple correspondence analysis was performed to evaluate the association among: measures of occurrence; GNI level; type of BC screening programme; organization of public information and awareness campaigns regarding primary prevention of modifiable risk factors; type of BC screening services; year of screening institution; screening coverage and data quality...
April 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441327/exclusive-breastfeeding-practice-and-its-association-among-mothers-of-under-5-children-in-kwango-district-dr-congo
#4
Sarita Dhakal, Tae Ho Lee, Eun Woo Nam
The benefit of the breastfeeding has been well-established. In comparison to partial breast feeding, exclusive breastfeeding has even more benefits. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in order to better target public health interventions in this community towards healthier infant nutrition and address child mortality in this population. A cross-sectional survey among 1145 random households was conducted in the Kwango district of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) during 2 November 2015 to 13 November 2015...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441324/designing-fit-for-purpose-health-and-social-services-for-ageing-populations
#5
Jean Woo
Population ageing is occurring in all countries, regardless of the level of economic development. While the rising burden of chronic diseases and disabilities as a consequence of this demographic transition is well recognized, the increasing prevalence of geriatric syndromes as a public health issue is not as well recognized. Recently the World Health Organization's World Health and Ageing Report emphasized functional ability as an important outcome for aging populations, highlighting the concept of raising intrinsic capacity throughout the life course...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441273/case-report-of-physiologic-phenibut-dependence-treated-with-a-phenobarbital-taper-in-a-patient-being-treated-with-buprenorphine
#6
Emily Brunner, Robert Levy
: This case report describes the development of dependence to phenibut, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-receptor type B agonist, in a patient concurrently being treated with buprenorphine. The patient experienced withdrawal symptoms which were successfully treated with a phenobarbital taper based on a protocol to treat sedative use disorder. This case report provided an example of the development of a phenibut use disorder and also brought up a public health question of whether phenibut should therefore be officially classified and monitored...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441175/acceptability-and-use-of-a-dapivirine-vaginal-ring-in-a-phase-iii-trial
#7
Elizabeth T Montgomery, Ariane van der Straten, Miria Chitukuta, Krishnaveni Reddy, Kubashni Woeber, Millicent Atujuna, Linda-Gail Bekker, Juliane Etima, Teopista Nakyanzi, Ashley J Mayo, Ariana Katz, Nicole Laborde, Cynthia I Grossman, Lydia Soto-Torres, Thesla Palanee-Phillips, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: The MTN-020/ASPIRE trial evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the dapivirine vaginal ring for prevention of HIV-1 infection among African women. A nested qualitative component was conducted at six of 15 study sites in Uganda, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa to evaluate acceptability of and adherence to the ring. METHOD: Qualitative study participants (n = 214) were interviewed with one of three modalities: single in-depth interview, up to three serial interviews or an exit Focus Group Discussion...
May 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441120/prevalence-of-trachoma-in-northern-benin-results-from-11-population-based-prevalence-surveys-covering-26-districts
#8
Amadou Alfa Bio, Pelagie M Boko, Yannelle A Dossou, Jean-Jacques Tougoue, Achille Kabore, Ignace Sounouvou, Jean-Eudes Biaou, Lionel Nizigama, Paul Courtright, Anthony W Solomon, Lisa Rotondo, Wilfrid Batcho, Dorothée Kinde-Gazard
AIMS: We sought to evaluate trachoma prevalence in all suspected-endemic areas of Benin. METHODS: We conducted population-based surveys covering 26 districts grouped into 11 evaluation units (EUs), using a two-stage, systematic and random, cluster sampling design powered at EU level. In each EU, 23 villages were systematically selected with population proportional to size; 30 households were selected from each village using compact segment sampling. In selected households, we examined all consenting residents aged one year or above for trichiasis, trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF), and trachomatous inflammation - intense...
April 25, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441061/precisely-where-are-we-going-charting-the-new-terrain-of-precision-prevention
#9
Karen M Meagher, Michelle L McGowan, Richard A Settersten, Jennifer R Fishman, Eric T Juengst
In addition to genetic data, precision medicine research gathers information about three factors that modulate gene expression: lifestyles, environments, and communities. The relevant research tools-epidemiology, environmental assessment, and socioeconomic analysis-are those of public health sciences rather than molecular biology. Because these methods are designed to support inferences and interventions addressing population health, the aspirations of this research are expanding from individualized treatment toward precision prevention in public health...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440974/risk-estimation-for-lung-cancer-in-libya-analysis-based-on-standardized-morbidity-ratio-poisson-gamma-model-bym-model-and-mixture-model
#10
Maryam Ahmed Alhdiri, Nor Azah Samat, Zulkifley Mohamed
Cancer is the most rapidly spreading disease in the world, especially in developing countries, including Libya. Cancer represents a significant burden on patients, families, and their societies. This disease can be controlled if detected early. Therefore, disease mapping has recently become an important method in the fields of public health research and disease epidemiology. The correct choice of statistical model is a very important step to producing a good map of a disease. Libya was selected to perform this work and to examine its geographical variation in the incidence of lung cancer...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440966/lead-levels-in-vegetables-from-artisanal-mining-sites-of-dilimi-river-bukuru-and-barkin-ladi-north-central-nigeria-cancer-and-non-cancer-risk-assessment
#11
Orish Ebere Orisakwe, Emmanuel Ayuba Dagur, Herbert Orji Chidi Mbagwu, Nnaemeka Arinze Udowelle
Lead (Pb) contamination of foods and especially of frequently consumed vegetables is a growing public health concern worldwide. Although levels of exposure in developed countries have declined over the past decades, the same cannot be said of developing countries. Health risk assessment has increasingly been employed to determine the potential hazard of heavy metal exposure to humans. In this study vegetable samples (tomatoes, red pepper, brown beans, lettuce, cabbage, Irish potatoes, onions, green beans and carrot), soil samples, irrigation water and sediment samples were collected from the Dilimi River, Bukuru and Barkin Ladi communities in north central Nigeria and analyzed for Pb content using atomic absorption spectroscopy...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440949/regulations-and-policies-regarding-e-cigarettes
#12
REVIEW
Leila F Barraza, Kim E Weidenaar, Livia T Cook, Andrea R Logue, Michael T Halpern
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a growing public health concern because of a dramatic increase in use by adolescents and the uncertainty of potential health impacts. These health concerns and lack of an established federal regulatory scheme have led many local and state governments to address the regulatory void for e-cigarettes by incorporating them into the statutory definition of tobacco or by passing laws specific to the use of e-cigarettes. In August 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a final rule deeming e-cigarettes within their authority; providing uniform requirements like premarket approval applications, Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents reporting, and warning labels; and establishing 18 years as a minimum age of purchase...
April 25, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440755/dysfunctional-immunometabolic-effects-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-increased-cardiometabolic-risk-potential-epidemiological-alert-in-america
#13
Martin Rosas-Peralta, Michael F Holick, Gabriela Borrayo-Sánchez, Alejandra Madrid-Miller, Erick Ramírez-Árias, Efrain Arizmendi-Uribe
Vitamin D deficiency is a serious public health problem worldwide that affects not only skeletal health, but also a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. However, there is still skepticism because of the lack of randomized, controlled trials to support association studies on the benefits of vitamin D for non-skeletal health. This review was based on articles published during the 1980-2015 obtained from the Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials, MEDLINE and PubMed, and focuses on recent challenges with regard to the definition of vitamin D deficiency and how to achieve optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels from dietary sources, supplements, and sun exposure...
March 2017: Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440679/cervical-cancer-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-preventable-noncommunicable-disease
#14
Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa, Thierry Prazuck, Thérèse Lethu, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Jean-François Meye, Laurent Bélec
Infections caused by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) are responsible for 7.7% of cancers in developing countries, mainly cervical cancer. This disease is steadily increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, with more than 75,000 new cases and 50,000 deaths yearly, further increased by HIV infection. Areas covered: The current status of cervical cancer associated with HPV in sub-Saharan Africa has been systematically revised. The main issues discussed here are related to the public health burden of cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and predictions for the coming decades, including molecular epidemiology and determinants of HPV infection in Africa, and promising prevention measures currently being evaluated in Africa...
April 25, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440550/political-drivers-of-epidemic-response-foreign-healthcare-workers-and-the-2014-ebola-outbreak
#15
Daniel Nohrstedt, Erik Baekkeskov
This study demonstrates that countries responded quite differently to calls for healthcare workers (HCWs) during the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014. Using a new dataset on the scale and timing of national pledges and the deployment of HCWs to states experiencing outbreaks of the virus disease (principally, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone), it shows that few foreign nations deployed HCWs early, some made pledges but then fulfilled them slowly, and most sent no HCWs at all. To aid understanding of such national responses, the paper reviews five theoretical perspectives that offer potentially competing or complementary explanations of foreign government medical assistance for international public health emergencies...
April 25, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440096/strategies-in-ebola-virus-disease-evd-diagnostics-at-the-point-of-care
#16
Chad T Coarsey, Nwadiuto Esiobu, Ramswamy Narayanan, Mirjana Pavlovic, Hadi Shafiee, Waseem Asghar
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a devastating, highly infectious illness with a high mortality rate. The disease is endemic to regions of Central and West Africa, where there is limited laboratory infrastructure and trained staff. The recent 2014 West African EVD outbreak has been unprecedented in case numbers and fatalities, and has proven that such regional outbreaks can become a potential threat to global public health, as it became the source for the subsequent transmission events in Spain and the USA. The urgent need for rapid and affordable means of detecting Ebola is crucial to control the spread of EVD and prevent devastating fatalities...
April 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439990/explaining-the-declining-rates-of-past-year-cannabis-use-in-australia-a-first-pass
#17
Alison Ritter, Oluwadamisola Sotade
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Cannabis use rates in Australia have declined since 2001. No research to date has examined possible reasons, despite evident policy interest in understanding such a positive public health outcome. In a 'first pass' examination, five possible reasons are explored: (i) attitudinal shifts regarding the acceptability of cannabis use; (ii) regulatory or policy changes; (iii) supply/market changes; (iv) changes in other drug use that may operate as substitutes or complements to cannabis; and (v) socio-cultural factors...
April 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439904/adaptation-and-validation-of-the-oral-health-literacy-instrument-for-the-chilean-population
#18
Ricardo A Cartes-Velásquez, Luis Luengo Machuca
OBJECTIVE: To report the adaptation and cultural validation of the Oral Health Literacy Instrument (OHLI) for the adult Chilean population attending public and university health services. STUDY DESIGN: The original OHLI in English was translated to Spanish and back-translated, then a preliminary version was obtained following review by four experts. A pilot study was carried out in 30 patients, who were asked to assess their understanding of the questionnaire. The following variables were included: sociodemographic factors (sex, age, average monthly income, education and marital status); oral health (history of caries, periodontal disease and oral hygiene); oral health-related quality of life; health literacy; oral health literacy; and psychometric properties (internal consistency, temporal stability, convergent validity and predictive validity)...
April 24, 2017: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439785/influence-of-environmental-conditions-on-norovirus-presence-in-mussels-harvested-in-montenegro
#19
Nevena Ilic, Branko Velebit, Vlado Teodorovic, Vesna Djordjevic, Nedjeljko Karabasil, Dragan Vasilev, Spomenka Djuric, Bojan Adzic, Mirjana Dimitrijevic
This study comprises the first systematic survey of the occurrence of Norovirus in Mediterranean mussels from harvesting areas in Montenegro coast of Adriatic Sea. Mussels may accumulate contaminants of public health concern, including pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Microbiological monitoring of harvesting areas is based on count of Escherichia coli in bivalve molluscs in the European Union. It is assumed that E. coli does not reflect contamination with enteric viruses. A structured field study was undertaken at six locations in Bay of Kotor, Montenegro, in order to investigate plausible influence of environmental factors on the variability of E...
April 24, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439755/what-do-key-stakeholders-think-about-hiv-self-testing-in-canada-results-from-a-cross-sectional-survey
#20
N Pant Pai, M Smallwood, D Gulati, N Lapczak, A Musten, C Gaydos, C Johnston, M Steben, T Wong, N Engel, J Kim
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-testing presents an empowering alternative to facility-based testing for reaching undiagnosed HIV infected individuals, but is not currently available in Canada. We surveyed stakeholders (clinical providers, public health professionals, researchers) engaged in HIV testing initiatives nationwide to identify the concerns, opportunities and challenges to implementing HIV self-testing in Canada. An online cross-sectional survey was disseminated by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Centre for REACH 2...
April 24, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
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