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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245081/safety-in-stigmatizing-instrumental-stigma-beliefs-and-protective-sexual-behavior-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
David A Cort, Hsin Fei Tu
How are people's expression of HIV stigma beliefs connected to their own personal decisions concerning safe sexual practices? Does this relationship vary across countries and by the national context in which people reside? To answer these questions, we develop and test individual, contextual, and cross-level interactional hypotheses of the impact of instrumental HIV stigma attitudes on several measures of protective sexual behavior. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 467,656 unpartnered individuals across 34 sub-Saharan African countries, we first find that counterintuitively, conservative HIV stigma attitudes are associated with lower likelihoods of participating in all types of protective sexual behaviors...
December 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244991/cancer-trends-in-mexico-essential-data-for-the-creation-and-follow-up-of-public-policies
#2
Alejandro Mohar-Betancourt, Nancy Reynoso-Noverón, Daniel Armas-Texta, Cristina Gutiérrez-Delgado, Juan A Torres-Domínguez
Purpose Cancer in a country like Mexico is a challenge for the current health system and for public health. However, the statistics about cancer in Mexico are scarce, so epidemiologic surveillance needs to be improved. The objectives of this article were to describe the extent of cancer and to estimate the national burden of cancer through 2020. Materials and Methods To meet this objective, an analysis of secondary official sources was performed. The cancer cases through 2020 were estimated on the basis of trends in mortality and the projection of incident cases reported by GLOBOCAN...
December 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244832/productivity-impact-and-collaboration-differences-between-transdisciplinary-and-traditionally-trained-doctoral-students-a-comparison-of-publication-patterns
#3
Anna-Sigrid Keck, Stephanie Sloane, Janet M Liechty, Barbara H Fiese, Sharon M Donovan
Transdisciplinary (TD) approaches are increasingly used to address complex public health problems such as childhood obesity. Compared to traditional grant-funded scientific projects among established scientists, those designed around a TD, team-based approach yielded greater publication output after three to five years. However, little is known about how a TD focus throughout graduate school training may affect students' publication-related productivity, impact, and collaboration. The objective of this study was to compare the publication patterns of students in traditional versus TD doctoral training programs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244815/analysis-of-the-efficacy-of-taiwanese-freeze-dried-neurotoxic-antivenom-against-naja-kaouthia-naja-siamensis-and-ophiophagus-hannah-through-proteomics-and-animal-model-approaches
#4
Chien-Chun Liu, Chen-Hsien You, Po-Jung Wang, Jau-Song Yu, Guo-Jen Huang, Chien-Hsin Liu, Wen-Chin Hsieh, Chih-Chuan Lin
In Southeast Asia, envenoming resulting from cobra snakebites is an important public health issue in many regions, and antivenom therapy is the standard treatment for the snakebite. Because these cobras share a close evolutionary history, the amino acid sequences of major venom components in different snakes are very similar. Therefore, either monovalent or polyvalent antivenoms may offer paraspecific protection against envenomation of humans by several different snakes. In Taiwan, a bivalent antivenom-freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenom (FNAV)-against Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra is available...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244811/impact-of-increased-influenza-vaccination-in-2-3-year-old-children-on-disease-burden-within-the-general-population-a-bayesian-model-based-approach
#5
Sankarasubramanian Rajaram, Witold Wiecek, Richard Lawson, Betina T Blak, Yanli Zhao, Judith Hackett, Robert Brody, Vishal Patel, Billy Amzal
INTRODUCTION: During the 2013-2014 influenza season, Public Health England extended routine influenza vaccination to all 2- and 3-year-old children in England. To estimate the impact of this change in policy on influenza-related morbidity and mortality, we developed a disease transmission and surveillance model informed by real-world data. METHODS: We combined real-world and literature data sources to construct a model of influenza transmission and surveillance in England...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244005/ghost-global-hepatitis-outbreak-and-surveillance-technology
#6
Atkinson G Longmire, Seth Sims, Inna Rytsareva, David S Campo, Pavel Skums, Zoya Dimitrova, Sumathi Ramachandran, Magdalena Medrzycki, Hong Thai, Lilia Ganova-Raeva, Yulin Lin, Lili T Punkova, Amanda Sue, Massimo Mirabito, Silver Wang, Robin Tracy, Victor Bolet, Thom Sukalac, Chris Lynberg, Yury Khudyakov
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections associated with unsafe injection practices, drug diversion, and other exposures to blood are difficult to detect and investigate. Effective HCV outbreak investigation requires comprehensive surveillance and robust case investigation. We previously developed and validated a methodology for the rapid and cost-effective identification of HCV transmission clusters...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244000/identification-of-recent-cases-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-using-physical-chemical-properties-of-hypervariable-region-1-and-a-radial-basis-function-neural-network-classifier
#7
James Lara, Mahder Teka, Yury Khudyakov
BACKGROUND: Identification of acute or recent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is important for detecting outbreaks and devising timely public health interventions for interruption of transmission. Epidemiological investigations and chemistry-based laboratory tests are 2 main approaches that are available for identification of acute HCV infection. However, owing to complexity, both approaches are not efficient. Here, we describe a new sequence alignment-free method to discriminate between recent (R) and chronic (C) HCV infection using next-generation sequencing (NGS) data derived from the HCV hypervariable region 1 (HVR1)...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243962/reconceptualizing-the-link-between-screen-time-when-gaming-with-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior
#8
Linda K Kaye, Andrew R Levy
With public health concerns surrounding rates of sedentary behavior (SB), there is often speculation on the role of screen time (in which "computer gaming" is commonly encompassed) as a key contributor to this epidemic. We argue that these assertions are based upon a number of problematic assumptions. Particularly, the notion that screen time necessitates inactivity or SB can be refuted based on the empirical literature. In addition, digital gaming as one so-called problematic screen-time behavior consists of a failed assumption that all games proffer equivalent physical affordances...
December 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243816/two-decades-of-persisting-income-disparities-in-dental-caries-among-u-s-children-and-adolescents
#9
Gary Douglas Slade, Anne Elizabeth Sanders
OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in income disparities in dental caries among U.S. children and adolescents during two decades of fluctuating economic growth. METHODS: Data were from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in 1988-1994, 1999-2004, and 2011-2014. The number of tooth surfaces with dental caries experience per child was computed for three age groups: 2-5, 6-11, and 12-17 years. Absolute and relative measures of inequality compared caries experience in families below the poverty level with families where income was at least three times the poverty threshold...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243562/measurement-and-outcomes-of-the-perceived-risk-of-stroke-a-review
#10
Dawn M Aycock, Patricia C Clark, Semere Araya
Stroke continues to be a public health problem, and risk perceptions are key to understanding people's thoughts about stroke risk and their preventive health behaviors. This review identifies how the perceived risk of stroke has been measured and outcomes in terms of levels, predictors, accuracy, and intervention results. Sixteen studies were included. The perceived risk of stroke has primarily been assessed with single-item measures; no multi-item surveys were found. In general, people tend to perceive a low-moderate risk of stroke; the most common predictors of higher stroke risk perceptions were having risk factors for stroke (hypertension, diabetes) and a higher number of risk factors...
December 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243555/philanthropy-and-the-nation-state-in-global-health-the-gates-foundation-in-india
#11
Manjari Mahajan
In recent years, philanthropic actors such as the Gates Foundation have been understood as commanding sweeping influence in global health. They have been associated with the outsourcing of public health services, shifting of policy priorities, and the eventual sidelining of national governments. This article makes a different argument about the impact of global philanthropic actors. It focuses on the work of the Gates Foundation in India over the last decade and a half, tracing how the foundation initially circumvented the national government but then moved on to a discourse of partnership...
December 15, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243549/how-primary-care-reforms-influenced-health-indicators-in-manisa-district-in-turkey-lessons-for-general-practitioners
#12
Celalettin Cevik, Kaan Sozmen, Bulent Kilic
BACKGROUND: Turkish health reforms began in 2003 and brought some significant changes in primary care services. Few studies in Turkey compare the shift from health centres (HC) to family physicians (FP) approach, which was initiated by reforms. OBJECTIVES: This study compares health status indicators during the HC period before reforms (2003-2007) and the FP period after reforms (2008-2012) in Turkey. METHODS: This study encompasses time series data consisting of the results of a 10-year assessment (2003-2012) in Manisa district...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of General Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243503/women-s-beliefs-about-what-causes-obesity-variation-by-race-ethnicity-and-acculturation-in-a-washington-state-sample
#13
Sarah Knerr, Rachel M Ceballos, Kwun Chuen Gary Chan, Shirley A A Beresford, Deborah J Bowen
OBJECTIVE: Individuals' beliefs about the causes of multifactorial health conditions (causal attributions) shape how they conceptualize and respond to health threats and are therefore important for health promotion. Studies of racial/ethnic and cultural variation in obesity causal beliefs, however, are scarce. To address this gap, this study described beliefs about the underlying causes of obesity (genetic inheritance, diet, and physical activity) in Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women participating in a longitudinal cohort study in South King County, Washington State (n = 1,002)...
December 15, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243461/physicians-working-conditions-health-and-working-capacity
#14
Marko Elovainio, Marianna Virtanen, Tuula Oksanen
Changes in the working environment will also influence the work of physicians. The greatest of these changes on the Finnish scale, the SOTE reform (the reform in social welfare and public health services), still lies ahead. Labor shortage, on-call duties and patient record systems providing little support to work add to the burden. In surveys related to psychosocial working conditions, physicians' greatest work load factors have been rush, forced working pace and poor communication despite the fact that, on average, they consider their working conditions to be good, frequently better than those of other professional groups, and are committed to carry on with their work until retirement age...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243338/a-partially-linear-additive-model-for-clustered-proportion-data
#15
Weihua Zhao, Heng Lian, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay
Proportion data with support lying in the interval [0,1] are a commonplace in various domains of medicine and public health. When these data are available as clusters, it is important to correctly incorporate the within-cluster correlation to improve the estimation efficiency while conducting regression-based risk evaluation. Furthermore, covariates may exhibit a nonlinear relationship with the (proportion) responses while quantifying disease status. As an alternative to various existing classical methods for modeling proportion data (such as augmented Beta regression) that uses maximum likelihood, or generalized estimating equations, we develop a partially linear additive model based on the quadratic inference function...
December 15, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243272/chronic-kidney-disease-and-coronary-artery-calcification-in-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health-elsa-brasil
#16
Cheng Suh-Chiou, Rosa M Moysés, Marcio S Bittencourt, Isabela M Bensenor, Paulo A Lotufo
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health concern due to the increased prevalence the high fatalities related to heart disease in this population. Among novel cardiovascular risk markers, the coronary artery calcification score (CAC) emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to test if glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria are independently associated with coronary calcification. METHODS: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health is a cohort of men and women aged 35 to 74 years old addressing cardiovascular diseases...
December 15, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243242/cross-sectional-survey-of-health-management-and-prevalence-of-vector-borne-diseases-endoparasites-and-ectoparasites-in-samoan-dogs
#17
R J Carslake, K E Hill, K Sjölander, S F Hii, D Prattley, E Acke
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of selected canine vector-borne diseases (Leishmania infantum, Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis) and endo- and ectoparasites in Samoan dogs presenting for surgical sterilisation and to report on the general health management of the dogs. METHODS: This study was a prospective serological cross-sectional survey. Management data were obtained for 242 dogs by interview with their owners...
December 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243225/review-current-priorities-in-the-zika-response
#18
REVIEW
Danillo Lucas Alves Esposito, Jonathan Ballico de Moraes, Benedito Antonio Lopes da Fonseca
Zika virus (ZIKV), a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, is an arbovirus (viruses transmitted by arthropods) transmitted to humans and non-human primates through the bites of infected female Aedes sp. mosquitoes. Although first isolated in 1947, only recently it emerged as a global threat, present in several countries resulting in a pandemic scenario. ZIKV infections may result in severe outcomes, such as neurological impairment, and with the intrinsic ability of inducing microcephaly in fetuses of infected pregnant women, the virus has become a major public health problem...
December 15, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243104/skepticism-regarding-vaccine-and-gluten-free-food-safety-among-patients-with-celiac-disease-and-non-celiac-gluten-sensitivity
#19
Loren G Rabinowitz, Haley M Zylberberg, Alan Levinovitz, Melissa S Stockwell, Peter H R Green, Benjamin Lebwohl
BACKGROUND: There has been a marked increase in the adoption of the gluten-free (GF) diet. AIMS: To query individuals with celiac disease (CD) and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) on their beliefs toward the health effects of gluten, and safety of vaccines and GF food products. METHODS: We distributed a Web-based survey to individuals with CD and NCGS on a CD center e-mail list. We used univariate and multivariate analysis to compare responses of respondents with CD and NCGS...
December 14, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243016/health-status-and-experience-of-the-migrant-workers-returned-from-spain-to-colombia-a-qualitative-approach
#20
Carolina Zapata-Villa, Andrés A Agudelo-Suárez, Doris Cardona-Arango, Elena Ronda-Pérez
This study aims to understand the migratory experience and the employment, work and health conditions of the returned migrants from Spain to Colombia. A qualitative study was conducted by means of 23 semi-structured interviews with Colombian returned migrant workers. Qualitative narrative content analysis was performed using Atlas.Ti software. Main findings are represented by nine categories emerged from the participants' discourses: (1) impact of the economic crisis on work and employment conditions in Spain, (2) economic crisis and return, (3) characteristics of returnees, (4) perception of the returnees about Colombia, (5) the role of social support networks, (6) employment and working conditions in Colombia, (7) health and wellbeing, (8) future plans and expectations, (9) the experience of being immigrant...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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