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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040826/maintenance-on-naltrexone-amphetamine-decreases-cocaine-vs-food-choice-in-male-rhesus-monkeys
#1
Megan J Moerke, Matthew L Banks, Kejun Cheng, Kenner C Rice, S Stevens Negus
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use disorder remains a significant public health issue for which there are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies. Amphetamine maintenance reduces cocaine use in preclinical and clinical studies, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. Previous studies indicate a role for endogenous opioid release and subsequent opioid receptor activation in some amphetamine effects; therefore, the current study examined the role of mu-opioid receptor activation in d-amphetamine treatment effects in an assay of cocaine-vs-food choice...
October 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040574/integrating-children-s-physical-activity-enjoyment-into-public-health-dialogue-united-states
#2
Elizabeth Y Barnett, Paul M Ridker, Cassandra A Okechukwu, Steven L Gortmaker
children, physical activity, public health.
October 5, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040565/refugees-migrants-and-displaced-populations-the-united-nations-new-york-declaration-and-the-who-international-health-regulations
#3
Richard Seifman
The World Health Assembly approved the International Health Regulations (IHR) committing countries to strengthen their capacity to address public health emergencies of international concern. A mechanism to assess a country's capacity, the Joint External Evaluation (JEE), is a means to assist countries to assess their health system preparedness. The assessment teams include public health and veterinary experts, but include those with specialized knowledge about refugee, immigrant, and internally displaced persons situations...
October 5, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040504/implementing-multiple-intervention-strategies-in-dutch-public-health-related-policy-networks
#4
Janneke Harting, Dorothee Peters, Kimberly Grêaux, Patricia van Assema, Stefan Verweij, Karien Stronks, Erik-Hans Klijn
Improving public health requires multiple intervention strategies. Implementing such an intervention mix is supposed to require a multisectoral policy network. As evidence to support this assumption is scarce, we examined under which conditions public health-related policy networks were able to implement an intervention mix. Data were collected (2009-14) from 29 Dutch public health policy networks. Surveys were used to identify the number of policy sectors, participation of actors, level of trust, networking by the project leader, and intervention strategies implemented...
October 13, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040395/human-genome-sequencing-at-the-population-scale-a-primer-on-high-throughput-dna-sequencing-and-analysis
#5
Rachel L Goldfeder, Dennis P Wall, Muin J Khoury, John P A Ioannidis, Euan A Ashley
Most human diseases have underlying genetic causes. To better understand the impact of genes on disease and its implications for medicine and public health, researchers have pursued methods for determining the sequences of individual genes, then all genes, and now complete human genomes. Massively parallel high-throughput sequencing technology, where DNA is sheared into smaller pieces, sequenced, and then computationally reordered and analyzed, enables fast and affordable sequencing of full human genomes. As the price of sequencing continues to decline, more and more individuals are having their genomes sequenced...
October 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040286/human-babesiosis-indication-of-a-molecular-mimicry-between-thrombospondin-domains-from-a-novel-babesia-microti-bmp53-protein-and-host-platelets-molecules
#6
Ahmed Abdelmoniem Mousa, Daniel Barry Roche, Mohamad Alaa Terkawi, Kyohko Kameyama, Ketsarin Kamyingkird, Patrick Vudriko, Akram Salama, Shinuo Cao, Sahar Orabi, Hanem Khalifa, Mohamed Ahmed, Mabrouk Attia, Ahmed Elkirdasy, Yoshifumi Nishikawa, Xuenan Xuan, Emmanuel Cornillot
Human babesiosis is caused by the apicomplexan parasite Babesia microti, which is of major public health concern in the United States and elsewhere, resulting in malaise and fatigue, followed by a fever and hemolytic anemia. In this paper we focus on the characterization of a novel B. microti thrombospondin domain (TSP1)-containing protein (BmP53) from the new annotation of the B. microti genome (locus 'BmR1_04g09041'). This novel protein (BmP53) had a single TSP1 and a transmembrane domain, with a short cytoplasmic tail containing a sub-terminal glutamine residue, but no signal peptide and Von Willebrand factor type A domains (VWA), which are found in classical thrombospondin-related adhesive proteins (TRAP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040086/compliance-of-brown-mussel-perna-perna-production-areas-in-the-south-of-brazil-with-the-bacteriological-criteria-of-the-shellfish-hygiene-systems-in-the-european-union-and-united-states-of-america-assessing-the-impacts-on-consumer-safety
#7
Robson Ventura de Souza, Carlos José Alexandre de Campos, Luis Hamilton Pospissil Garbossa, Walter Quadros Seiffert
Levels of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) monitored in surface water and brown mussels collected at 28 production areas in Brazil from August 2012 to October 2013 were used to assess compliance with the bacteriological standards of the shellfish hygiene classification systems used in the European Union (EU) and USA. This classification determines the level of post-harvesting purification needed to reduce the risk of illness in consumers. The results indicate that 36% of production areas would be class A under the EU system and 75% would be 'Approved' under the US system...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040072/enterococci-populations-of-a-metropolitan-river-after-an-extreme-flood-event-prevalence-persistence-and-virulence-determinants
#8
Nicole M Masters, Aaron Wiegand, Jasmin M Thompson, Tara L Vollmerhausen, Eva Hatje, Mohammad Katouli
We investigated the prevalence, persistence and virulence determinants of enterococci populations in water samples collected over three rounds following an extreme flood event in a metropolitan river. Enterococci (n = 482) were typed using the high resolution biochemical fingerprinting method (PhP typing) and grouped into common (C) or single (S) biochemical phenotypes (BPTs). In all, 23 C-BPTs (72.6% of isolates) were found across the sites. A representative isolate of each C-BPT was identified to the species level and tested for the presence of seven virulence genes (VGs), biofilm formation and resistance to 14 antibiotics...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039993/physical-activity-pre-and-post-dementia-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#9
Mira Soni, Martin Orrell, Stephan Bandelow, Andrew Steptoe, Snorri Rafnsson, Eleonora d'Orsi, Andre Xavier, Eef Hogervorst
BACKGROUND: To inform public health interventions, further investigation is needed to identify: (1) frequency/intensity of everyday physical activity (PA) needed to reduce dementia risk; (2) whether post-diagnosis reduction in PA is associated with cognitive outcomes in people with dementia. METHODS: Data from 11,391 men and women (aged ≥50) were obtained from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing cohort. Assessments were carried out at baseline (2002-2003) and at biannual follow-ups (2004-2013)...
October 17, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039967/central-obesity-and-the-mediterranean-diet-a-systematic-review-of-intervention-trials
#10
C L Bendall, H L Mayr, R S Opie, M Bes-Rastrollo, C Itsiopoulos, C J Thomas
Central obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, and is a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome. The Mediterranean diet pattern has a convincing evidence-base for improving cardiometabolic health. This review investigated the impact of Mediterranean diet interventions on central obesity, specifically. A systematic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases. Search terms included: 'Mediterranean Diet', 'Mediterranean dietary pattern', 'central obesity' and 'visceral fat'...
October 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036922/microrna-and-mrna-dysregulation-in-astrocytes-infected-with-zika-virus
#11
Robert A Kozak, Anna Majer, Mia J Biondi, Sarah J Medina, Lee W Goneau, Babu V Sajesh, Jessy A Slota, Vanessa Zubach, Alberto Severini, David Safronetz, Shannon L Hiebert, Daniel R Beniac, Timothy F Booth, Stephanie A Booth, Gary P Kobinger
The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is an ongoing public health concern. ZIKV is a flavivirus reported to be associated with microcephaly, and recent work in animal models demonstrates the ability of the virus to cross the placenta and affect fetal brain development. Recent findings suggest that the virus preferentially infects neural stem cells and thereby deregulates gene expression, cell cycle progression, and increases cell death. However, neuronal stem cells are not the only brain cells that are susceptible to ZIKV and infection of other brain cells may contribute to disease progression...
October 14, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036797/effects-of-venotonic-drugs-on-the%C3%A2-microcirculation-comparison-between-ruscus-extract-and-micronized-diosmine1
#12
Fatima Zely Garcia de Almeida Cyrino, Daniela Signorelli Balthazar, Fernando Lencastre Sicuro, Eliete Bouskela
BACKGROUND: Chronic venous disease of the lower limbs is a common public health problem worldwide with negative impact on quality of life and results with drugs used to treat it are sparse, probably due to lack of good experimental models. OBJECTIVE: In this investigation we have tested the effects of two commonly used venotonic substances, Ruscus extract and micronized diosmine, on the microcirculation in vivo. METHODS: These substances were given orally, by gavage, during two weeks, twice daily and observations were made using the hamster cheek pouch preparation...
October 7, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036678/country-of-residence-gender-equality-and-victim-blaming-attitudes-about-partner-violence-a-multilevel-analysis-in-eu
#13
Anna-Karin Ivert, Juan Merlo, Enrique Gracia
Background: Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is a global and preventable public health problem. Public attitudes, such as victim-blaming, are important for our understanding of differences in the occurrence of IPVAW, as they contribute to its justification. In this paper, we focus on victim-blaming attitudes regarding IPVAW within the EU and we apply multilevel analyses to identify contextual determinants of victim-blaming attitudes. We investigate both the general contextual effect of the country and the specific association between country level of gender equality and individual victim-blaming attitudes, as well as to what extend a possible general contextual effect was explained by county level gender equality...
September 27, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036569/opportunities-for-epidemiologists-in-implementation-science-a-primer
#14
Gila Neta, Ross C Brownson, David A Chambers
The field of epidemiology has been defined as the study of the spread and control of disease. However, epidemiology frequently focuses on studies of etiology and distribution of disease at the cost of understanding the best ways to control disease. Moreover, only a small fraction of scientific discoveries is translated into public health practice, and the process from discovery to translation is exceedingly slow. Given the importance of translational science, the future of epidemiologic training should include competency in implementation science, whose goal is to rapidly move evidence into practice...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036489/training-community-health-workers-to-promote-breast-cancer-screening-in-brazil
#15
Lorna Bittencourt, Isabel C Scarinci
Although it has been show that early detection through mammograms is the most effective way to reduce breast cancer mortality, breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide with survival rates being even lower in low- and middle-income countries as compared to high-income countries. Despite the availability of breast cancer screening programs in Brazil through the public health system, some women do not participate in these programs due to structural and/or inter/intrapersonal barriers...
September 26, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036475/quantitative-health-risk-assessment-of-indoor-radon-a-systematic-review
#16
R Ajrouche, G Ielsch, E Cléro, C Roudier, D Gay, J Guillevic, D Laurier, A Le Tertre
Exposure to radon is a well-established cause of lung cancer in the general population. The aim of the present work is to identify and summarize the results of studies that have assessed the risk of lung cancer due to indoor radon, based on a systematic review of relevant published studies. Sixteen studies from 12 different countries met eligibility criteria. Large differences in radon concentrations were noted between and within individual countries, and variety of risk models used to estimate the attributable fraction...
September 19, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036453/heath-sector-network-governance-and-state-building-in-south-kivu-democratic-republic-of-congo
#17
Aembe Bwimana
Longstanding patterns of interaction exist between state and non-state actors seeking to improve public health in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). DRC is a weak state, and, in many cases, private actors have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of state health care provision. However, the role of these interactions in creating a governance network in the health sector has been underexplored. Using data from 18 months of qualitative field research, this study aimed to explore governance networks in DRC's health sector, examining how multiple stakeholders work to manage the health system and how the resulting governance network has been relevant for the state-building process...
October 5, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036392/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#18
Sean T O'Leary, David W Kimberlin
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, and each member's term is 4 years. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics (Carrie L...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036291/phylotyper-in-silico-predictor-of-gene-subtypes
#19
Matthew D Whiteside, Victor P J Gannon, Chad R Laing
Summary: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is being adopted in public health for improved surveillance and outbreak analysis. In public health, subtyping has been used to infer phenotypes and distinguish bacterial strain groups. In silico tools that predict subtypes from sequences data are needed to transition historical data to WGS-based protocols. Phylotyper is a novel solution for in silico subtype prediction from gene sequences. Designed for incorporation into WGS pipelines, it is a general prediction tool that can be applied to different subtype schemes...
July 18, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036206/risk-characterization-of-hospitalizations-for-mental-illness-and-or-behavioral-disorders-with-concurrent-heat-related-illness
#20
Michael T Schmeltz, Janet L Gamble
BACKGROUND: Many studies have found significant associations between high ambient temperatures and increases in heat-related morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that increases in heat-related hospitalizations are elevated among individuals with diagnosed mental illnesses and/or behavioral disorders (MBD). However, there are a limited number of studies regarding risk factors associated with specific mental illnesses that contribute, at least in part, to heat-related illnesses (HRI) in the United States...
2017: PloS One
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