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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929198/differential-associations-of-walking-and-cycling-with-body-weight-body-fat-and-fat-distribution-the-acti-cit%C3%A3-s-project
#1
Mehdi Menai, Hélène Charreire, Pilar Galan, Chantal Simon, Julie-Anne Nazare, Camille Perchoux, Christiane Weber, Christophe Enaux, Serge Hercberg, Léopold Fezeu, Jean-Michel Oppert
BACKGROUND: Research on the associations between walking and cycling with obesity-related phenotypes is growing but relies mostly on the use of BMI. The purpose of this study was to analyze associations of walking and cycling behaviors assessed separately with various obesity markers in French adults. METHODS: In 12,776 adult participants (71.3% women) of the on-going NutriNet Santé web-cohort, we assessed by self-report past-month walking and cycling (for commuting, errands and leisure), and obesity measures were taken during a visit at a clinical center (weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat by bioimpedance)...
June 22, 2018: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929126/-how-do-you-know-those-particles-are-from-cigarettes-an-algorithm-to-help-differentiate-second-hand-tobacco-smoke-from-background-sources-of-household-fine-particulate-matter
#2
Ruaraidh Dobson, Sean Semple
BACKGROUND: Second-hand smoke (SHS) at home is a target for public health interventions, such as air quality feedback interventions using low-cost particle monitors. However, these monitors also detect fine particles generated from non-SHS sources. The Dylos DC1700 reports particle counts in the coarse and fine size ranges. As tobacco smoke produces far more fine particles than coarse ones, and tobacco is generally the greatest source of particulate pollution in a smoking home, the ratio of coarse to fine particles may provide a useful method to identify the presence of SHS in homes...
June 18, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929082/protective-factors-for-psychotic-experiences-amongst-adolescents-exposed-to-multiple-forms-of-victimization
#3
Eloise Crush, Louise Arseneault, Terrie E Moffitt, Andrea Danese, Avshalom Caspi, Sara R Jaffee, Timothy Matthews, Helen L Fisher
Experiencing multiple types of victimization (poly-victimization) during adolescence is associated with the onset of psychotic experiences (such as hearing voices, having visions, or being extremely paranoid). However, many poly-victimized adolescents will not develop such subclinical phenomena and the factors that protect them are unknown. This study investigated whether individual, family, or community-level characteristics were associated with an absence of psychotic experiences amongst poly-victimized adolescents...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929022/risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infection-following-operative-treatment-of-ankle-fractures-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Jiashen Shao, Huixin Zhang, Bing Yin, Jia Li, Yanbin Zhu, Yingze Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study aims to quantitatively summarize risk factors associated with surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures. METHODS: Relevant original studies were searched in Medline, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database and Cochrane central database (all through April 2018). Studies eligible had to meet the quality assessment criteria by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and to evaluate the risk factors for surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928943/co-occurrence-of-biofilm-formation-and-quinolone-resistance-in-salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhimurium-carrying-an-inchi2-type-oqxab-positive-plasmid
#5
Hongping Shi, Xueyan Zhou, Wencheng Zou, Yongxiang Wang, Changwei Lei, Rong Xiang, Long Zhou, Bihui Liu, Anyun Zhang, Hongning Wang
The objective of this study was to investigate the co-occurrence of biofilms and quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium mediated by IncHI2-type oqxAB-positive plasmids. Among the 40 Salmonella strains, we found that 27 isolates formed biofilms and displayed identical multidrug-resistance profiles to ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, ampicillin and streptomycin, based on biofilm formation assays and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In particular, a single S...
June 18, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928913/simultaneous-detection-and-quantification-of-19-diarrhea-related-pathogens-with-a-quantitative-real-time-pcr-panel-assay
#6
Warawan Wongboot, Kazuhisa Okada, Siriporn Chantaroj, Watcharaporn Kamjumphol, Shigeyuki Hamada
Acute diarrheal diseases are causes of global public health concern, especially in developing countries. A variety of diarrhea-associated microbial species, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, have been recognized. Simplified methods for detecting a wide range of diarrheagenic enteric microbes can clarify the etiology and aid in the diagnosis of diarrheal diseases. Here, we report a quantitative real-time (q)PCR-based method for simultaneous detection of 24 targets from 19 microbes suspected of causing diarrhea in stool specimens...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928886/chronic-sleep-restriction-increases-pain-sensitivity-over-time-in-a-periaqueductal-gray-and-nucleus-accumbens-dependent-manner
#7
Natalia Fantin Sardi, Mayla Ketlyn Lazzarim, Vinicius Augusto Guilhen, Renata Scuzziatto Marcílio, Priscila Shizue Natume, Thainá Caldeiras Watanabe, Marcelo de Meira Santos Lima, Glaucia Tobaldini, Luana Fischer
Painful conditions and sleep disturbances are major public health problems worldwide and one directly affects the other. Sleep loss increases pain prevalence and severity; while pain disturbs sleep. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we asked whether chronic sleep restriction for 6 h daily progressively increases pain sensitivity and if this increase is reversed after two days of free sleep. Also, whether the pronociceptive effect of chronic sleep restriction depends on the periaqueductal grey and on the nucleus accumbens, two key regions involved in the modulation of pain and sleep-wake cycle...
June 18, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928843/do-death-certificates-underestimate-the-burden-of-rare-diseases-the-example-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-mortality-sweden-2001-2013
#8
Titilola Falasinnu, Marios Rossides, Yashaar Chaichian, Julia F Simard
OBJECTIVES: Mortality due to rare diseases, which are substantial sources of premature mortality, is underreported in mortality studies. The objective of this study was to determine the completeness of reporting systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as a cause of death. METHODS: In 2017, we linked data on a Swedish population-based cohort (the Swedish Lupus Linkage, 2001-2013) comprising people with SLE (n = 8560) and their matched general population comparators (n = 37 717) to data from the Cause of Death Register...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928772/development-of-escherichia-coli-based-gene-expression-profiling-of-sewage-sludge-leachates
#9
Manish Goswami, Faisal Ahmad Khan, Admir Ibrisevic, Per-Erik Olsson, Jana Jass
AIMS: The impact of municipal waste on pathogenic microorganisms released into the environment is a public health concern. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of sewage sludge and antibiotic contaminants on stress response, virulence and antibiotic resistance in a pathogenic Escherichia coli. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of sewage sludge leachates on uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 were determined by monitoring the expression of 45 genes associated with antibiotic/metal resistance, stress response and virulence using RT-qPCR...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928745/modeling-the-role-of-public-health-education-in-ebola-virus-disease-outbreaks-in-sudan
#10
Benjamin Levy, Christina Edholm, Orou Gaoue, Roselyn Kaondera-Shava, Moatlhodi Kgosimore, Suzanne Lenhart, Benjamin Lephodisa, Edward Lungu, Theresia Marijani, Farai Nyabadza
Public involvement in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) prevention efforts is key to reducing disease outbreaks. Targeted education through practical health information to particular groups and sub-populations is crucial to controlling the disease. In this paper, we study the dynamics of Ebola virus disease in the presence of public health education with the aim of assessing the role of behavior change induced by health education to the dynamics of an outbreak. The power of behavior change is evident in two outbreaks of EVD that took place in Sudan only 3 years apart...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928742/spatiotemporal-epidemic-models-for-rabies-among-animals
#11
REVIEW
Shigui Ruan
Rabies is a serious concern to public health and wildlife management worldwide. Over the last three decades, various mathematical models have been proposed to study the transmission dynamics of rabies. In this paper we provide a mini-review on some reaction-diffusion models describing the spatial spread of rabies among animals. More specifically, we introduce the susceptible-exposed-infectious models for the spatial transmission of rabies among foxes (Murray et al., 1986), the spatiotemporal epidemic model for rabies among raccoons (Neilan and Lenhart, 2011), the diffusive rabies model for skunk and bat interactions (Bonchering et al...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928686/selection-in-utero-and-population-health-theory-and-typology-of-research
#12
REVIEW
Tim A Bruckner, Ralph Catalano
Public health researchers may assume, based on the fetal origins literature, that "scarring" of birth cohorts describes the population response to modern-day stressors. We contend, based on extensive literature concerned with selection in utero , that this assumption remains questionable. At least a third and likely many more of human conceptions fail to yield a live birth. Those that survive to birth, moreover, do not represent their conception cohort. Increasing data availability has led to an improved understanding of selection in utero and its implications for population health...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928541/the-art-of-building-bone-emerging-role-of-chondrocyte-to-osteoblast-transdifferentiation-in-endochondral-ossification
#13
Patrick Aghajanian, Subburaman Mohan
There is a worldwide epidemic of skeletal diseases causing not only a public health issue but also accounting for a sizable portion of healthcare expenditures. The vertebrate skeleton is known to be formed by mesenchymal cells condensing into tissue elements (patterning phase) followed by their differentiation into cartilage (chondrocytes) or bone (osteoblasts) cells within the condensations. During the growth and remodeling phase, bone is formed directly via intramembranous ossification or through a cartilage to bone conversion via endochondral ossification routes...
2018: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928297/uncovering-the-geographical-and-host-impacts-on-the-classification-of-vibrio-vulnificus
#14
Shoukai Yu
Vibrio vulnificus causes human sickness throughout the world via the consumption of undercooked seafood or exposure to contaminated water. Previous attempts at phylogenetic analyses of V. vulnificus have proven unsuccessful, mainly due to the poorly understood impact of factors on its divergence. In this study, we used advanced statistical and phylogenetic methods to strengthen the classification of V. vulnificus . This updated classification included the impact of geographical and host factors. The results demonstrate the existence of hierarchies and multidimensional effects in the classification of V...
July 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928187/-ascaris-lumbricoides-a-startling-discovery-during-screening-colonoscopy
#15
Jamil Shah, Abul Shahidullah
Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health issue across the world and particularly in rural and urban areas of tropical and subtropical countries. Those at increased risk include inhabitants of poor and disadvantaged regions, which are more likely to have inadequate environmental sanitation, insufficient water supply, greater contact rates with reservoirs of infection, limited health literacy, and socioeconomic disparities. Of the intestinal nematodes (roundworms) that parasitize the human gastrointestinal tract, Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest in terms of size...
May 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928115/a-cornerstone-of-healthy-aging-do-we-need-to-rethink-the-concept-of-adherence-in-the-elderly
#16
Anna Giardini, Marina Maffoni, Przemyslaw Kardas, Elisio Costa
Worldwide, the population is aging and this trend will increase in the future due to medical, technological and scientific advancements. To take care of the elderly is highly demanding and challenging for the health care system due to their frequent condition of chronicity, multimorbidity and the consequent complex management of polypharmacy. Nonadherence to medications and to medical plans is a well-recognized public health problem and a very urgent issue in this population. For this reason, some considerations to identify a new shared approach to integrated care of older people are described...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928055/risk-factors-for-the-presence-of-dengue-vector-mosquitoes-and-determinants-of-their-prevalence-and-larval-site-selection-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#17
Kishor Kumar Paul, Parnali Dhar-Chowdhury, C Emdad Haque, Hasan Mohammad Al-Amin, Doli Rani Goswami, Mohammad Abdullah Heel Kafi, Michael A Drebot, L Robbin Lindsay, Gias Uddin Ahsan, W Abdullah Brooks
Dengue viruses are responsible for over 100 million infections a year worldwide and are a public health concern in Bangladesh. Although risk of transmission is high, data on vector population characteristics are scanty in Bangladesh; therefore, a comprehensive prediction of the patterns of local virus transmission is not possible. Recognizing these gaps, multi-year entomological surveys were carried out in Dhaka, where the disease is most frequently reported. The specific objectives of the present study are threefold: i) to determine the risk factors for the presence of Aedes mosquitoes; ii) to identify the types of most productive and key containers; and iii) to estimate the effects of climatic factors on Aedes abundance in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928034/use-of-dietary-and-performance-enhancing-supplements-among-male-fitness-center-members-in-riyadh-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Yazed AlRuthia, Bander Balkhi, Marwan Alrasheed, Ahmed Altuwaijri, Mohammad Alarifi, Huda Alzahrani, Wael Mansy
This study aimed to explore the health beliefs and patterns of dietary supplement usage among fitness center members. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four large indoor fitness centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This study involved male fitness center members aged ≥18 years with no speech or hearing disabilities. In-person interviews were conducted with fitness center members who agreed to participate using a newly developed questionnaire. Information on participants' sociodemographics (e.g., age and education), smoking status, health status, exercise frequency, average time spent exercising, different supplements used, used supplements sources, and health beliefs regarding dietary supplements were obtained...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928006/the-long-term-costs-for-treating-multiple-sclerosis-in-a-16-year-retrospective-cohort-study-in-brazil
#19
Isabela Maia Diniz, Augusto Afonso Guerra, Livia Lovato Pires de Lemos, Kathiaja M Souza, Brian Godman, Marion Bennie, Björn Wettermark, Francisco de Assis Acurcio, Juliana Alvares, Eli Iola Gurgel Andrade, Mariangela Leal Cherchiglia, Vânia Eloisa de Araújo
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease that appreciably impacts on the quality of life of patients and is associated with high expenditure. MS is a chronic multifactorial disease, characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal loss. The Brazilian public health system provides pharmacological treatment as well as hospital and outpatient care for patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. However, we are not aware of any previous publications assessing total direct medical costs in patients with a long follow-up within the Brazilian healthcare system...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927980/time-to-sputum-culture-conversion-and-its-determinants-among-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-at-public-hospitals-of-the-amhara-regional-state-a-multicenter-retrospective-follow-up-study
#20
Temesgen Yihunie Akalu, Kindie Fentahun Muchie, Kassahun Alemu Gelaye
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, Multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is one of the major public health problems that need great attention. Time to sputum culture conversion is often used as an early predictive value for the final treatment outcome. Although guidelines for MDR-TB are frequently designed, medication freely provided, and centers for treatment duly expanded, studies on time to sputum culture conversion have been very limited in Ethiopia. This study was aimed at determining the time to sputum culture conversion and the determinants among MDR-TB patients at public Hospitals of the Amhara Regional State...
2018: PloS One
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