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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735523/histochemistry-and-immunolocalisation-of-glucokinin-in-antidiabetic-plants-used-in-traditional-mexican-medicine
#1
Guillermo Laguna-Hernández, Carlos A Rio-Zamorano, Itzel G Meneses-Ochoa, Alicia E Brechú-Franco
Mexico is a megadiverse country that has 3,600 to 4,000 species of medicinal plants, of which approximately 800 are used to treat conditions related to diabetes mellitus (DM). DM is a chronic degenerative disease of energy metabolism that exists as two types: type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2). DM is considered a public health problem that affects 7% of the Mexican population older than 20 years. DM is clinically controlled with hypoglycaemic drugs, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, insulin secretion stimulants or the direct application of insulin...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735455/examining-the-role-of-income-inequality-and-neighborhood-walkability-on-obesity-and-physical-activity-among-low-income-hispanic-adults
#2
Samuel D Towne, Michael L Lopez, Yajuan Li, Matthew Lee Smith, Judith L Warren, Alexandra E Evans, Marcia G Ory
Obesity is a major public health issue affecting rising medical costs and contributing to morbidity and premature mortality. We aimed to identify factors that may play a role in obesity and physical activity at the individual and environmental/neighborhood levels. We analyzed data from an adult sample who were parents of students enrolled in a school-based health and wellness program. The sample was restricted to those who were Hispanic and whose children were on free/reduced lunch (n = 377). Dependent variables: body mass index (BMI); neighborhood walkability...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735445/characterizing-prolonged-heat-effects-on-mortality-in-a-sub-tropical-high-density-city-hong-kong
#3
Hung Chak Ho, Kevin Ka-Lun Lau, Chao Ren, Edward Ng
Extreme hot weather events are likely to increase under future climate change, and it is exacerbated in urban areas due to the complex urban settings. It causes excess mortality due to prolonged exposure to such extreme heat. However, there is lack of universal definition of prolonged heat or heat wave, which leads to inadequacies of associated risk preparedness. Previous studies focused on estimating temperature-mortality relationship based on temperature thresholds for assessing heat-related health risks but only several studies investigated the association between types of prolonged heat and excess mortality...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735357/promoting-and-protecting-public-health-how-the-european-union-pharmacovigilance-system-works
#4
Aniello Santoro, Georgy Genov, Almath Spooner, June Raine, Peter Arlett
This article provides an overview of the European Union pharmacovigilance system resulting from the rationalisation and strengthening delivered through the implementation of the revised pharmacovigilance legislation. It outlines the system aims, underlying principles, components and drivers for future change. At its core, the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee is responsible for assessing all aspects of the risk management of medicinal products, thus ensuring that medicines approved for the European Union market are optimally used by maximising their benefits and minimising risks...
July 22, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735297/regulating-the-advertising-of-genetic-tests-in-europe-a-balancing-act
#5
REVIEW
Louiza Kalokairinou, Pascal Borry, Heidi Carmen Howard
Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests (GT) have provoked criticism over their potential adverse impact on public health. The European Parliament called for a ban on DTC advertising of GT during the debate for the adoption of a European Regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices. This proposal, however, was not ultimately retained in the final text. Instead, the regulation includes an article prohibiting misleading claims for this kind of advertising. These two different approaches raise questions about the optimal degree of regulation...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735247/can-nurses-rise-to-the-public-health-challenge-how-a-novel-solution-in-nurse-education-can-address-this-contemporary-question
#6
EDITORIAL
Angela L Turner-Wilson, Anne M Mills, Karen Rees
This paper raises the problem of how improvements in health outcomes, a key component in many governments' strategies, can be achieved. The work highlights a novel undergraduate educational approach which offers solutions to public health challenges within nursing. Against the backdrop of one UK university institution it discusses approaches that can guide nursing students towards a deeper understanding and engagement within the principles of public health. It then proposes how nurses can use their learning to become leaders of health improvement...
July 12, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735231/exploring-the-association-between-heat-and-mortality-in-switzerland-between-1995-and-2013
#7
Martina S Ragettli, Ana M Vicedo-Cabrera, Christian Schindler, Martin Röösli
Designing effective public health strategies to prevent adverse health effect of hot weather is crucial in the context of global warming. In Switzerland, the 2003 heat have caused an estimated 7% increase in all-cause mortality. As a consequence, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health developed an information campaign to raise public awareness on heat threats. For a better understanding on how hot weather affects daily mortality in Switzerland, we assessed the effect of heat on daily mortality in eight Swiss cities and population subgroups from 1995 to 2013 using different temperature metrics (daily mean (Tmean), maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax)), and aimed to evaluate variations of the heat effect after 2003 (1995-2002 versus 2004-2013)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735055/molecular-analysis-of-virulence-genes-and-the-accessory-gene-regulator-agr-types-among-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-strains
#8
Sara Cheraghi, Leyla Pourgholi, Maryam Shafaati, Shirinsadat Hashemi Fesharaki, Arash Jalali, Rahim Nosrati, MohammadAli Boroumand
OBJECTIVES: Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains are a main cause of hospital-acquired infections and are considered as a serious public-health concern. MRSA isolates have plenty of virulence factors, which are the basis for its pathogenicity. The controlling and coordination of the expression of these genes perform by the accessory gene regulator (agr). The aim of this study was to determine the rate of some virulence genes encoding the enterotoxin, exfoliative toxin genes (eta), the adhesin genes and identification of agr specificity groups in MRSA isolates...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735039/frequency-and-correlates-of-sleep-disturbance-in-methadone-and-buprenorphine-maintained-patients
#9
Kelly E Dunn, Patrick H Finan, D Andrew Tompkins, Eric C Strain
BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a significant public health problem, and opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) on methadone or buprenorphine is a common approach. This study characterized sleep impairment in patients maintained on methadone or buprenorphine, and evaluated its association with psychiatric and medical comorbidities. METHODS: Participants (N=185) maintained on methadone (N=125) or buprenorphine (N=60) for OUD completed the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS) to provide a point-prevalence assessment of sleep impairment...
July 14, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735037/injection-drug-use-and-overdose-among-young-adults-who-use-prescription-opioids-non-medically
#10
Elliott J Liebling, Traci C Green, Scott E Hadland, Brandon D L Marshall
INTRODUCTION: Non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) use is a critical public health problem in the United States, with 2.1 million new initiates annually. Young adult NMPO users are at high risk for initiating injection drug use. We assessed correlates of injection drug use among young adult NMPO users in Rhode Island, a state heavily impacted by opioid overdose. METHODS: We used data from the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS), which recruited 199 residents aged 18-29 who reported past-30-day NMPO use (65...
July 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734981/apigenin-attenuates-patulin-induced-apoptosis-in-hek293-cells-by-modulating-ros-mediated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-caspase-signal-pathway
#11
Yujie Zhong, Chengni Jin, Jing Gan, Xiaorui Wang, Zhenqiang Shi, Xiaodong Xia, Xiaoli Peng
Mycotoxins like patulin (PAT) are among the most significant food contaminant with regard to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of apigenin (API), one of the most bioactive flavonoids in plant-derived food, on PAT-induced apoptosis in HEK293 cells. Cells were treated under basic conditions, 8 μM PAT without or with API (2.5, 5 and 10 μM) concomitantly for 10 h. API exerted renoprotective effect by inhibiting intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, modulating oxidative phosphorylation especially elevating the expression of ATP synthase, re-establishing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and maintaining higher intracellular ATP level, accompanied by p53, Bax downregulation and Bcl-2 upregulation...
July 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734939/public-health-acetaminophen-apap-hepatotoxicity-isn-t-it-time-for-apap-to-go-away
#12
REVIEW
William M Lee
Acetaminophen (APAP) is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of pain and fever around the world. At the same time, APAP is capable of causing dose-related hepatocellular necrosis, responsible for nearly 500 deaths annually in the U.S. alone, as well as 100,000 calls to US Poison Control Centers, 50,000 emergency room visits and 10,000 hospitalizations per year. As an over-the-counter and prescription product (with opioids), APAP toxicity dwarfs all other prescription drugs as a cause for acute liver failure in the United States and Europe, but is not regulated in any significant way...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734736/analysis-of-medication-adherence-related-notes-from-a-service-oriented-community-pharmacy
#13
Matthew Witry, Rachel Parry, Randal McDonough, Michael Deninger
BACKGROUND: Medication nonadherence is a significant public health problem. Community pharmacists are positioned to intervene, however, the process is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To classify and quantify the reasons for nonadherence documented by community pharmacists. METHODS: A retrospective content analysis of pharmacist notes related to nonadherence at a service oriented community pharmacy in the Midwest United States. Notes from the site's dispensing custom documentation software were obtained from September 1, 2014 through February 28, 2015 that were labeled "compliance", either prompted by proportion of days covered calculations or entered as a drug therapy problem...
July 15, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734617/epidemiology-evolution-and-pathogenesis-of-h7n9-influenza-viruses-in-five-epidemic-waves-since-2013-in-china
#14
REVIEW
Shuo Su, Min Gu, Di Liu, Jie Cui, George F Gao, Jiyong Zhou, Xiufan Liu
H7N9 influenza viruses were first isolated in 2013 and continue to cause human infections. H7N9 infections represent an ongoing public health threat that has resulted in 1344 cases with 511 deaths as of April 9, 2017. This highlights the continued threat posed by the current poultry trade and live poultry market system in China. Until now, there have been five H7N9 influenza epidemic waves in China; however, the steep increase in the number of humans infected with H7N9 viruses observed in the fifth wave, beginning in October 2016, the spread into western provinces, and the emergence of highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 influenza outbreaks in chickens and infection in humans have caused domestic and international concern...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734599/short-communication-survival-of-vaccinia-virus-in-inoculated-cheeses-during-60-day-ripening
#15
Izabelle S Rehfeld, Ana Luiza S Fraiha, Ana Carolina D Matos, Maria Isabel M C Guedes, Erica A Costa, Marcelo R de Souza, Luigi F L Cavalcante, Zélia I P Lobato
Bovine vaccinia is a neglected zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV) and has a major economic and public health effect in Brazil. Previous studies showed infectious VACV particles in milk from either experimentally or naturally infected cows and in fresh cheeses prepared with experimentally contaminated milk. Ripening is a process that leads to major changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of cheese, reducing contamination by spoilage, pathogenic microorganisms, or both. However, it is not known if VACV infectious particles persist after the ripening process...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734510/neonatal-and-perinatal-infections
#16
REVIEW
Amira M Khan, Shaun K Morris, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Lack of success in achieving considerable reductions in neonatal mortality is a contributory factor in failing to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4.2.6 million neonates still die each year, with preterm birth and infections the two leading causes. Maternal infections and environmental and infant factors influence acquisition of viral and bacterial infections in the perinatal and neonatal period. Scaling up evidence-based interventions addressing maternal risk factors and underlying causes could reduce neonatal infections by 84%...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734318/-public-health-and-political-will-convergence-and-divergence
#17
EDITORIAL
Stéphane Vignot, Gilles L'Allemain, Jacques-Olivier Bay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734255/use-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-public-and-private-settings-in-barcelona-spain
#18
Nuria Matilla-Santander, Marcela Fu, Montse Ballbè, Kailey Bunch, Cristina Lidón-Moyano, Juan Carlos Martín-Sánchez, Esteve Fernández, Jose M Martínez-Sánchez
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of e-cigarette users who use them in selected indoor public and workplaces, and private venues in Barcelona (Spain) in 2015. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of a sample of e-cigarette users (≥ 18 years) from Barcelona (n = 600). We calculated the proportion of e-cigarette users who used the device in public and private settings (in the last 30 days). We fit multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for sex and age to calculate the odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) of e-cigarette use by socio-demographic factors, dual use and nicotine-containing e-cigarettes...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734107/extended-release-naltrexone-for-methamphetamine-dependence-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Phillip O Coffin, Glenn-Milo Santos, Jaclyn Hern, Eric Vittinghoff, Deirdre Santos, Tim Matheson, Grant Colfax, Steven L Batki
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Methamphetamine use is increasingly prevalent and associated with HIV transmission. Early phase human studies suggested naltrexone reduced amphetamine use among dependent individuals. We tested if extended-release naltrexone (XRNTX) reduces methamphetamine use and associated sexual risk behaviors among high-risk methamphetamine-dependent men who have sex with men (MSM). DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of XRTNX versus placebo over 12 weeks from 2012-2015...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734043/enabling-reduction-of-low-grade-inflammation-in-seniors-pilot-study-concept-rationale-and-design
#20
Todd M Manini, Stephen D Anton, Daniel P Beavers, Jane A Cauley, Mark A Espeland, Roger A Fielding, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Kristina H Lewis, Christine Liu, Mary M McDermott, Michael E Miller, Russell P Tracy, Jeremy D Walston, Barbara Radziszewska, Jane Lu, Cindy Stowe, Samuel Wu, Anne B Newman, Walter T Ambrosius, Marco Pahor
OBJECTIVES: To test two interventions to reduce interleukin (IL)-6 levels, an indicator of low-grade chronic inflammation and an independent risk factor for impaired mobility and slow walking speed in older adults. DESIGN: The ENabling Reduction of low-Grade Inflammation in SEniors (ENRGISE) Pilot Study was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial of two interventions to reduce IL-6 levels. SETTING: Five university-based research centers...
July 22, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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