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cryptococcus meningitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197141/the-human-blood-brain-barrier-internalizes-cryptococcus-neoformans-via-the-epha2-tyrosine-kinase-receptor
#1
Phylicia A Aaron, Mantana Jamklang, John P Uhrig, Angie Gelli
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening meningitis most commonly in populations with impaired immunity. Here we resolved the transcriptome of the human brain endothelium challenged with C. neoformans to establish whether C. neoformans invades the CNS by co-opting particular signaling pathways as a means to promote its own entry. Among the 5 major pathways targeted by C. neoformans, the EPH-EphrinA1 (EphA2) tyrosine kinase receptor-signaling pathway was examined further...
December 2, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187715/-a-silkworm-infection-model-to-evaluate-antifungal-drugs-for-cryptococcosis
#2
Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Masaki Ishii, Kiminori Shimizu, Susumu Kawamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
The development of effective drugs against fungal diseases involves performing infection experiments in animals to evaluate candidate therapeutic compounds. Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus that causes deep mycosis, resulting in respiratory illness and meningitis. Here we describe a silkworm system established to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic drugs against infection by Cryptococcus neoformans and the advantages of this system over other animal models. The silkworm assay system has two major advantages: 1) silkworms are less expensive to rear and their use is less problematic than that of mammals in terms of animal welfare, and 2) in vivo screenings for identifying candidate drugs can be easily performed using a large number of silkworms...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129578/cryptococcosis-in-an-infectious-diseases-hospital-of-buenos-aires-argentina-revision-of-2041-cases-diagnosis-clinical-features-and-therapeutics
#3
Alicia Arechavala, Ricardo Negroni, Fernando Messina, Mercedes Romero, Emmanuel Marín, Roxana Depardo, Laura Walker, Gabriela Santiso
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is still a life-threatening mycosis that continues to be of serious concern in Latin American countries, especially among HIV+positive population. However, there is not any reliable information about the prevalence of this disease in this region. AIMS: The aim of this study is to report data of 2041 patients with cryptococcosis that were attended at the Infectious Diseases Hospital F. J. Muñiz over a 30 year-period. METHODS: Information about demographic and clinical data, survival time and the applied treatment, was taken from the Mycology Unit database...
November 9, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127615/fungal-and-parasitic-cns-infections
#4
Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini
Central nervous system fungal infections can be broadly divided into those that infect a healthy host such as Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Sporothrix spp., and those that cause opportunistic infections in an immunocompromised host such as Candida, Aspergillus, Zygomycetes, Trichosporon spp. The clinical manifestations of central nervous system fungal infections commonly seen in children in clinical practice include a chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis syndrome, brain abscess, rhino-cerebral syndrome and rarely, a fungal ventriculitis...
November 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123908/a-case-of-disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-necrotizing-fasciitis-in-a-non-hiv-patient
#5
Tetsuya Hoshino, Kazuya Omura, Shinichi Kimura, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Katsuhiko Kamei, Misako Ohkusu
Case: Disseminated cryptococcosis is a well-recognized condition among HIV patients, but it also occurs in non-HIV patients. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by cryptococcus is rare. An 81-year-old man who had received steroid therapy presented with erythema and pain in his right thigh. After the rapid progression of symptoms and a failure to respond to antibiotic therapy, a clinical diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was made. We performed debridement, and yeasts were detected using a Gram stain of the fascia...
October 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116307/cryptococcoma-mimicking-a-brain-tumor-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-case-report-of-an-extremely-rare-presentation
#6
Aline Lariessy Campos Paiva, Guilherme Brasileiro de Aguiar, Renan Maximilian Lovato, Arthus Vilar Deolindo Zanetti, Alexandros Theodoros Panagopoulos, José Carlos Esteves Veiga
CONTEXT: Central nervous system (CNS) infectious diseases have high prevalence in developing countries and their proper diagnosis and treatment are very important for public health planning. Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that may cause several CNS manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common type of involvement. Mass-effect lesions are uncommon: they are described as cryptococcomas and their prevalence is even lower among immunocompetent patients...
November 6, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093251/-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-cryptococcus-infection-in-central-nervous-system-in-patients-with-aids
#7
Chuanjun Xu, Zhiliang Hu, Hongxia Wei, Yongfeng Yang, Chao Du, Jianping Gu
To investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Cryptococcus infection in central nervous system patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
 Methods: The retrospective study on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical data of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) was carried out between July 2011 and March 2017. These patients had not received anti-retroviral treatment. Patients with other specific or suspicious diseases in the central nervous system were not included in the analysis...
October 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089435/cryptococcus-neoformans-iron-sulfur-protein-biogenesis-machinery-is-a-novel-layer-of-protection-against-cu-stress
#8
Sarela Garcia-Santamarina, Marta A Uzarska, Richard A Festa, Roland Lill, Dennis J Thiele
Copper (Cu) ions serve as catalytic cofactors to drive key biochemical processes, and yet Cu levels that exceed cellular homeostatic control capacity are toxic. The underlying mechanisms for Cu toxicity are poorly understood. During pulmonary infection by the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, host alveolar macrophages compartmentalize Cu to the phagosome, and the ability to detoxify Cu is critical for its survival and virulence. Here, we report that iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are critical targets of Cu toxicity in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C...
October 31, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070785/asymptomatic-meningitis-and-lung-cavity-in-a-case-of-cryptococcosis
#9
Aixin Li, Qunhui Li, Caiping Guo, Yulin Zhang
BACKGROUND Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) infection is one of the most common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. C. neoformans usually infects the central nervous system (CNS) and/or lungs with typical clinical manifestation. CASE REPORT Here, we report the case of a 52-year-old HIV-1-infected man with disseminated cryptococcosis, including subacute meningitis, pulmonary, and cutaneous cryptococcosis, but only skin lesion served as the chief complaint. Moreover, the results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests and lung computed tomography (CT) scan were atypical...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069886/liquid-based-cytology-of-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-a-case-of-cryptococcal-meningitis
#10
Jiwoon Choi, Se Hoon Kim
Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common microorganism found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised hosts. Although its cytomorphologic features in conventional smear cytology have been well described, those in liquid-based cytology have rarely been. A 73-year-old woman with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presented with mental confusion and a spiking fever. To rule out infectious conditions, CSF examination was performed. A cytology slide that was prepared using the ThinPrep method showed numerous spherical yeast-form organisms with diameters of 4-11 μm and thick capsules...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046746/perspectives-on-non-neoformans-cryptococcal-opportunistic-infections
#11
REVIEW
Nichole Smith, Matthew Sehring, Jefferson Chambers, Preeti Patel
Non-neoformans Cryptococcus species, including C. laurentii and C. albidus, have historically been classified as exclusively saprophytic. However, recent studies have increasingly implicated these organisms as the causative agent of opportunistic infections in humans. Herein, the case is presented of C. laurentii meningitis in a critically ill patient receiving corticosteroids. C. laurentii has been implicated in an additional 18 cases of opportunistic infection, predominantly of the skin, bloodstream, and central nervous system...
October 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028998/high-cryptococcal-antigen-titers-in-blood-are-predictive-of-subclinical-cryptococcal-meningitis-among-hiv-infected-patients
#12
Rachel M Wake, Erika Britz, Charlotte Sriruttan, Ivy Rukasha, Tanvier Omar, David C Spencer, Jeremy S Nel, Sello Mashamaite, Adeboye Adelekan, Tom M Chiller, Joseph N Jarvis, Thomas S Harrison, Nelesh P Govender
Background: High mortality rates among asymptomatic cryptococcal antigen (CrAg)-positive patients identified through CrAg screening, despite pre-emptive fluconazole, may be due to undiagnosed cryptococcal meningitis. Methods: Symptoms were reviewed in CrAg-positive patients identified through screening 19,233 individuals with CD4 cell counts < 100 cells/µL at 17 clinics and 3 hospitals in Johannesburg from September 2012 until September 2015, and 2 of these hospitals until June 2016...
October 5, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021643/cryptococcal-cerebellitis-in-no-vih-patient
#13
Fabricio Andres Lasso, Tomas Omar Zamora Bastidas, Jorge Andrés Potosí García, Bairon Díaz Idrobo
INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection whose etiology is Cryptococcus neofromans / C. gattii, complex which affects immunocompromised patients mainly. Meningeal infection is one of the most common presentations, but cerebellar affection is rare. CASE DESCRIPTION: Male patient with 65 old years, from an area of subtropical climate with chronic exposure to poultry, without pathological antecedents, who presented clinical picture consistent with headache, fever, seizures and altered mental status...
June 30, 2017: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992308/relationship-between-intracranial-pressure-and-antifungal-agents-levels-in-the-csf-of-patients-with-cryptococcal-meningitis
#14
Fernanda Wirth, Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Carmen Pilla, Valério Rodrigues Aquino, Gustavo Wissmann Neto, Luciano Zubaran Goldani
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of intracranial hypertension in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amphotericin B and fluconazole levels of patients with cryptococcal meningitis. CSF samples and intracranial pressure were obtained by means of routine punctures performed at days 1, 7, and 14 of therapy, respectively. Amphotericin B and fluconazole CSF levels were measured by HPLC method as previously described. The minimum inhibitory concentration for amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5΄flucytosine, and voriconazole of each Cryptococcus isolate was performed according to CLSI...
August 2, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934415/first-report-of-urease-activity-in-the-novel-systemic-fungal-pathogen-emergomyces-africanus-a-comparison-with-the-neurotrope-cryptococcus-neoformans
#15
Barbra Lerm, Chris Kenyon, Ilan S Schwartz, Heinrich Kroukamp, Riaan de Witt, Nelesh P Govender, G Sybren de Hoog, Alfred Botha
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for the AIDS-defining illness, cryptococcal meningitis. During the disease process, entry of cryptococcal cells into the brain is facilitated by virulence factors that include urease enzyme activity. A novel species of an Emmonsia-like fungus, recently named Emergomyces africanus, was identified as a cause of disseminated mycosis in HIV-infected persons in South Africa. However, in contrast to C. neoformans, the enzymes produced by this fungus, some of which may be involved in pathogenesis, have not been described...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928997/neurosyphilis-with-concomitant-cryptococcal-and-tuberculous-meningitis-in-a-patient-with-aids-report-of-a-unique-case
#16
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora, Luis Alberto Espinoza, Rita N Nwanyanwu
Meningitis in individuals living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is most frequently infectious in origin and usually due to opportunistic infections. The most common pathogens are Cryptococcus neoformans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Treponema pallidum causes neurosyphilis and can complicate HIV infections at any time after the initial infection. Simultaneous infections of the central nervous system caused by these pathogens are very uncommon even in the setting of severe immunosuppression...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857298/cryptococcosis-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-ii-in-mainland-china-1993-2015
#17
Yingfang Li, Wenjie Fang, Weiwei Jiang, Ferry Hagen, Jia Liu, Lei Zhang, Nan Hong, Yu Zhu, Xiaoguang Xu, Xia Lei, Danqi Deng, Jianping Xu, Wanqing Liao, Teun Boekhout, Min Chen, Weihua Pan
Diabetes mellitus II (DM II) is a newly defined independent factor contributing to the morbidity and mortality of cryptococcosis. This retrospective case analysis aims to explore the epidemiology, clinical profile and strain characteristics of cryptococcosis in Chinese DM II patients. This study included 30 cases of cryptococcosis with DM II occurring from 1993 to 2015 in mainland China. The hospital-based prevalence of cryptococcosis in DM II was 0.21%. The mean age of the patients was 56.1 years (95% confidence interval: 51...
August 30, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830348/evaluation-of-trypan-blue-stain-in-a-haemocytometer-for-rapid-detection-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-sterility-in-hiv-patients-with-cryptococcal-meningitis
#18
Richard Kwizera, Andrew Akampurira, Tadeo K Kandole, Kirsten Nielsen, Andrew Kambugu, David B Meya, David R Boulware, Joshua Rhein
BACKGROUND: Quantitative culture is the most common method to determine the fungal burden and sterility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) among persons with cryptococcal meningitis. A major drawback of cultures is a long turnaround-time. Recent evidence demonstrates that live and dead Cryptococcus yeasts can be distinguished using trypan blue staining. We hypothesized that trypan blue staining combined with haemocytometer counting may provide a rapid estimation of quantitative culture count and detection of CSF sterility...
August 22, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793019/cryptococcus-neoformans-and-c-gattii-isolates-from-both-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-patients-antifungal-susceptibility-and-outcome-of-cryptococcal-disease
#19
Erika Nascimento, Lucia Helena Vitali, Marcia Regina von Zeska Kress, Roberto Martinez
One of the factors causing treatment failure in cryptococcosis is the resistance of Cryptococcus spp. to antifungal drugs, which has motivated the susceptibility assessment of isolates from patients with cryptococcosis, different clinical conditions and infections outcomes. Clinical isolates of Cryptococcus spp. from three different groups of patients were studied in the present investigation: 19 HIV-positive patients with relapsing and/or refractory meningitis (Group 1), 30 HIV-positive patients who experienced a single and limited episode of cryptococcosis (Group 2), and 19 HIV-negative patients with cryptococcosis (Group 3)...
2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775082/disseminated-cryptococcal-infection-in-a-patient-who-had-kidney-transplant-discrepancy-between-clinical-symptoms-and-microbiological-findings
#20
Suzan Dahdal, Robert Kalicki, Niklaus Von Steiger, Parham Sendi
A 29-year-old man complained of a 2-day history of frontal headache and new-onset fever but no other symptoms. Two months prior to admission, he underwent his third kidney transplantation. Clinical and laboratory examinations were unremarkable. Brain MRI showed a meningeal irritation consistent with viral meningitis. A diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis and fungaemia was made after detection of a remarkably high and visible load of Cryptococcus neoformans in the cerebrospinal fluid.
August 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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