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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918582/investigating-conservation-of-the-cell-cycle-regulated-transcriptional-program-in-the-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#1
Christina M Kelliher, Adam R Leman, Crystal S Sierra, Steven B Haase
The pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans causes fungal meningitis in immune-compromised patients. Cell proliferation in the budding yeast form is required for C. neoformans to infect human hosts, and virulence factors such as capsule formation and melanin production are affected by cell-cycle perturbation. Thus, understanding cell-cycle regulation is critical for a full understanding of virulence factors for disease. Our group and others have demonstrated that a large fraction of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is expressed periodically during the cell cycle, and that proper regulation of this transcriptional program is important for proper cell division...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906037/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-cryptococcosis
#2
REVIEW
Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Cryptococcosis has been one of the most common opportunistic infections and causes of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common form of cryptococcosis. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcosis includes direct microscopic examination, isolation of Cryptococcus from a clinical specimen, and detection of cryptococcal antigen. Without appropriate treatment, cryptococcosis is fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to treatment success...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866167/rewiring-of-signaling-networks-modulating-thermotolerance-in-the-human-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#3
Dong-Hoon Yang, Kwang-Woo Jung, Soohyun Bang, Jang-Won Lee, Min-Hee Song, Anna Floyd-Averette, Richard A Festa, Giuseppe Ianiri, Alexander Idnurm, Dennis J Thiele, Joseph Heitman, Yong-Sun Bahn
Thermotolerance is a crucial virulence attribute for human pathogens, including the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans that causes fatal meningitis in humans. Loss of the protein kinase Sch9 increases C. neoformans thermotolerance, but its regulatory mechanism has remained unknown. Here, we studied the Sch9-dependent and Sch9-independent signaling networks modulating C. neoformans thermotolerance by using genome-wide transcriptome analysis and reverse genetic approaches. During temperature upshift, genes encoding for molecular chaperones and heat shock proteins were upregulated, whereas those for translation, transcription, and sterol biosynthesis were highly suppressed...
November 18, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862555/genomic-epidemiology-of-cryptococcus-yeasts-identifies-adaptation-to-environmental-niches-underpinning-infection-across-an-african-hiv-aids-cohort
#4
Mathieu Vanhove, Mathew A Beale, Johanna Rhodes, Duncan Chanda, Shabir Lakhi, Geoffrey Kwenda, Sile Molloy, Natasha Karunaharan, Neil Stone, Thomas S Harrison, Tihana Bicanic, Matthew C Fisher
Emerging infections caused by fungi have become a widely recognized global phenomenon and are causing an increasing burden of disease. Genomic techniques are providing new insights into the structure of fungal populations, revealing hitherto undescribed fine-scale adaptations to environments and hosts that govern their emergence as infections. Cryptococcal meningitis is a neglected tropical disease that is responsible for a large proportion of AIDS-related deaths across Africa; however, the ecological determinants that underlie a patient's risk of infection remain largely unexplored...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852678/disseminated-cryptococcosis-in-an-immunocompetent-child
#5
Noora Saeed, Hena A Ansari, Nazoora Khan, Mohsin Aijaz
Cryptococcus is a ubiquitous fungus and is known for causing meningitis and cutaneous infections in immunocompromised individuals. Disseminated cryptococcal infection is very rare and almost always found to occur in immunocompromised individuals especially in persons infected with HIV. This is particularly attributed to its capsulated spores. But there are few reported cases in which it has been found to cause disseminated infections even in immunocompetent individuals. We report a similar case of disseminated cryptococcal infection in an immunocompetent host...
November 16, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818191/corticosteroids-for-the-management-of-severe-intracranial-hypertension-in-meningoencephalitis-caused-by-cryptococcus-gattii-a-case-report-and-review
#6
R-A Maciel, L-S Ferreira, F Wirth, P-D Rosa, M Aves, E Turra, L-Z Goldani
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in meningitis caused by Cryptococcus gattii in immunocompetent patients after initiation of antifungal therapy appears to be the result of paradoxical antifungal treatment-induced clinical deterioration due to improved local immune responses to cryptococcal organisms. Recent anecdotal reports have suggested a favorable clinical response to corticosteroids in select patients with C. gattii central nervous system (CNS) infections. In this report, we describe a 65-year-old patient with meningoencephalitis caused by C...
November 3, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760140/estimated-prevalence-of-cryptococcus-antigenemia-crag-among-hiv-infected-adults-with-advanced-immunosuppression-in-namibia-justifies-routine-screening-and-preemptive-treatment
#7
Souleymane Sawadogo, Boniface Makumbi, Anne Purfield, Christophine Ndjavera, Gram Mutandi, Andrew Maher, Francina Kaindjee-Tjituka, Jonathan E Kaplan, Benjamin J Park, David W Lowrance
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis is common and associated with high mortality among HIV infected persons. The World Health Organization recommends that routine Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening in ART-naïve adults with a CD4+ count <100 cells/μL followed by pre-emptive antifungal therapy for CrAg-positive patients be considered where CrAg prevalence is ≥3%. The prevalence of CrAg among HIV adults in Namibia is unknown. We estimated CrAg prevalence among HIV-infected adults receiving care in Namibia for the purpose of informing routine screening strategies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742281/cryptococcosis-in-renal-transplant-recipients-a-single-center-experience
#8
S Marques, R Carmo, I Ferreira, M Bustorff, S Sampaio, M Pestana
BACKGROUND: In solid organ transplant patients, 8% of invasive fungal infections are attributed to Cryptococcus. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcome of kidney transplant recipients (TR) infected with Cryptococcus. CASE SERIES: Between 2007 and 2014, a total of 500 kidney transplantations were performed at São João Hospital, in Porto, Portugal. Six infections by C. neoformans were reported, an incidence of 1...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664991/activity-of-vt-1129-against-cryptococcus-neoformans-clinical-isolates-with-high-fluconazole-mics
#9
Kirsten Nielsen, Priya Vedula, Kyle D Smith, David B Meya, Edward P Garvey, William J Hoekstra, Robert J Schotzinger, David R Boulware
Although antifungal drug resistance in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is relatively uncommon, fluconazole-resistant strains are problematic for preemptive treatment of cryptococcal antigenemia or during cryptococcal meningitis consolidation therapy. We analyzed activity of the experimental antifungal VT-1129 on 51 clinical Cryptococcus neoformans isolates previously screened for fluconazole resistance; with an emphasis on fluconazole dose-dependent (MIC 16-32 μg/ml) or resistant (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml) isolates...
September 24, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651801/pattern-clinical-characteristics-and-outcome-of-meningitis-among-hiv-infected-adults-admitted-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-north-western-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Matobogolo M Boaz, Samuel Kalluvya, Jennifer A Downs, Bonaventura C T Mpondo, Stephen E Mshana
Background. Limited information exists on the etiologies, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of meningitis among HIV-infected patients in Africa. We conducted a study to determine the etiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of meningitis among HIV-infected adults. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted among HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years admitted to the medical wards with symptoms and signs of meningitis. Sociodemographic and clinical information were collected using a standardized data collection tool...
2016: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638836/cryptococcus-neoformans-population-diversity-and-clinical-outcomes-of-hiv-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis-patients-in-zimbabwe
#11
Tinashe K Nyazika, Ferry Hagen, Tendai Machiridza, Melody Kutepa, Faith Masanganise, Marijke Hendrickx, Teun Boekhout, Tricia Magombei-Majinjiwa, Nonthokozo Siziba, Nyasha Chin'ombe, Kudzanai Mateveke, Jacques F Meis, Valerie J Robertson
HIV and cryptococcal meningitis co-infection is a major public health problem in most developing countries. Cryptococcus neoformans sensu stricto is responsible for the majority of HIV-associated cryptococcosis cases in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the available information, little is known about cryptococcal population diversity and its association with clinical outcomes in patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. In a prospective cohort, we investigated the prevalence and clinical outcome of Cryptococcusneoformans sensu stricto meningitis among HIV-infected patients in Harare, Zimbabwe, and compared the genotypic diversity of the isolates with those collected from other parts of Africa...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633849/molecular-identification-antifungal-resistance-and-virulence-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-deneoformans-isolated-in-seville-spain
#12
Sara Gago, Carmen Serrano, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Isabel Cuesta, Estrella Martín-Mazuelos, Ana Isabel Aller, Alicia Gómez-López, Emilia Mellado
Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the leading causes of death in HIV/AIDS patients. Our aim was to in order to characterise the epidemiology, antifungal susceptibility pattern and virulence of 28 Cyptococcus sp. strains recovered from 12 AIDS patients during two years in a Spanish single institution. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to the CLSI protocols. Clinical strains were molecularly characterised by serotyping, mating type, PCR fingerprinting (M13 and GACA4 microsatellites) and analysis of two rDNA regions (IGS1 and ITS)...
January 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629591/unique-roles-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-pathway-in-fungal-development-and-differentiation
#13
Kwang-Woo Jung, Yee-Seul So, Yong-Sun Bahn
Cryptococcus neoformans, a global fungal meningitis pathogen, employs the unfolded protein response pathway. This pathway, which consists of an evolutionarily conserved Ire1 kinase/endoribonuclease and a unique transcription factor (Hxl1), modulates the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and pathogenicity. Here, we report that the unfolded protein response pathway governs sexual and unisexual differentiation of C. neoformans in an Ire1-dependent but Hxl1-independent manner. The ire1∆ mutants showed defects in sexual mating, with reduced cell fusion and pheromone-mediated formation of the conjugation tube...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609561/different-characteristics-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-between-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-patients-in-the-southwest-of-china
#14
Ya Liu, Mei Kang, Si-Ying Wu, Ying Ma, Zhi-Xing Chen, Yi Xie, Jiang-Tao Tang
Cryptococcus is the major pathogen that causes fungal meningitis. In the People's Republic of China, especially in the Southwest area, cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in HIV-uninfected patients is more common than in HIV-infected patients. We compared clinical features and laboratory data pertaining to CM in patients with different immunological statuses. Demographic data, clinical manifestations, and laboratory data from inpatients in West China Hospital Sichuan University were collected from June 2009 to June 2014...
September 8, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608538/in-vitro-antifungal-susceptibility-profiles-of-cryptococcus-species-isolated-from-hiv-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis-patients-in-zimbabwe
#15
Tinashe K Nyazika, Patricia F Herkert, Ferry Hagen, Kudzanai Mateveke, Valerie J Robertson, Jacques F Meis
Cryptococcus neoformans is the leading cause of cryptococcosis in HIV-infected subjects worldwide. Treatment of cryptococcosis is based on amphotericin B, flucytosine, and fluconazole. In Zimbabwe, little is known about antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus. Sixty-eight genotyped Cryptococcus isolates were tested for antifungal profiles. Amphotericin B, isavuconazole, and voriconazole showed higher activity than other triazoles. Fluconazole and flucytosine were less effective, with geometric mean MICs of 2...
November 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583871/cryptococcal-meningitis-complicating-sarcoidosis
#16
Sonja E Leonhard, Daan Fritz, Diederik van de Beek, Matthijs C Brouwer
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon but severe complication of sarcoidosis. METHODS: We present 2 patients with cryptococcal meningitis complicating sarcoidosis and compared findings with 38 cases reported in the literature. RESULTS: When analyzing our patients and 38 cases reported in the literature, we found that median age of sarcoidosis patients with cryptococcal meningitis was 39 years (range 30-48); 27 of 33 reported cases (82%) had a history of sarcoidosis...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561904/geographic-distribution-of-patients-affected-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-cryptococcus-gattii-species-complexes-meningitis-pigeon-and-tree-populations-in-southern-brazil
#17
Tallulah Spina-Tensini, Marisol Dominguez Muro, Flávio Queiroz-Telles, Isabella Strozzi, Samia Talise Moraes, Ricardo Rasmussen Petterle, Marcelo Vettorello, Claudia Staudacher, Luiz Alberto Lopes Miguez, Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida
Cryptococcal meningitis is mainly caused by members of the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complexes. The ecological niches of Cryptococcus species have extensively been studied, but its epidemiological relationship with meningitis cases is still unknown. In this study, we estimate the relationship between cryptococcal meningitis cases and tree and pigeon populations, the classical niches of members of C. neoformans/C. gattii sensu lato. We analysed the records of every patient whose cerebrospinal fluid culture yielded Cryptococcus spp...
January 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555306/mechanisms-by-which-interleukin-12-corrects-defective-nk-cell-anticryptococcal-activity-in-hiv-infected-patients
#18
Stephen K Kyei, Henry Ogbomo, ShuShun Li, Martina Timm-McCann, Richard F Xiang, Shaunna M Huston, Anutosh Ganguly, Pina Colarusso, M John Gill, Christopher H Mody
UNLABELLED: Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast and a leading cause of life-threatening meningitis in AIDS patients. Natural killer (NK) cells are important immune effector cells that directly recognize and kill C. neoformans via a perforin-dependent cytotoxic mechanism. We previously showed that NK cells from HIV-infected patients have aberrant anticryptococcal killing and that interleukin-12 (IL-12) restores the activity at least partially through restoration of NKp30. However, the mechanisms causing this defect or how IL-12 restores the function was unknown...
2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527636/point-of-care-testing-for-cryptococcal-disease-among-hospitalized-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-in-ethiopia
#19
Admasu Tenna Mamuye, Ethan Bornstein, Obsie Temesgen, Henry M Blumberg, Russell R Kempker
In a cross-sectional study among hospitalized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Ethiopia, we sought to determine the rates and predictors of cryptococcal disease and evaluate the test performance of a recently introduced point-of-care test for Cryptococcus neoformans detection in various biological samples. We tested serum, urine, and fingerstick blood samples from each patient with a cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (CRAG LFA; Immuno Mycologic Inc., Norman, OK). Cerebrospinal fluid was collected at the discretion of the treating physician...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502502/risk-factors-for-cryptococcal-meningitis-a-single-united-states-center-experience
#20
Andrés F Henao-Martínez, Lilyana Gross, Bryan Mcnair, Bruce McCollister, Kristen DeSanto, Jose G Montoya, Leland Shapiro, J David Beckham
Cryptococcal meningitis carries a high mortality. Further understanding of immune suppression factors associated with neuroinvasive infection will improve risk stratification and enhance early diagnosis and treatment with antifungal therapy. The aim of the study was to corroborate established or find novel clinical predictors for cryptococcal meningitis. We performed a matched case-control study of Cryptococcus infection in immunocompromised patients with or without cryptococcal meningitis. Data of all patients with a diagnosis of cryptococcal disease were collected at University of Colorado Hospital between 2000 and 2015 (n = 51)...
August 8, 2016: Mycopathologia
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