keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

cryptococcus meningitis

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793019/cryptococcus-neoformans-and-c-gattii-isolates-from-both-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-patients-antifungal-susceptibility-and-outcome-of-cryptococcal-disease
#1
Erika Nascimento, Lucia Helena Vitali, Marcia Regina von Zeska Kress, Roberto Martinez
One of the factors causing treatment failure in cryptococcosis is the resistance of Cryptococcus spp. to antifungal drugs, which has motivated the susceptibility assessment of isolates from patients with cryptococcosis, different clinical conditions and infections outcomes. Clinical isolates of Cryptococcus spp. from three different groups of patients were studied in the present investigation: 19 HIV-positive patients with relapsing and/or refractory meningitis (Group 1), 30 HIV-positive patients who experienced a single and limited episode of cryptococcosis (Group 2), and 19 HIV-negative patients with cryptococcosis (Group 3)...
2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775082/disseminated-cryptococcal-infection-in-a-patient-who-had-kidney-transplant-discrepancy-between-clinical-symptoms-and-microbiological-findings
#2
Suzan Dahdal, Robert Kalicki, Niklaus Von Steiger, Parham Sendi
A 29-year-old man complained of a 2-day history of frontal headache and new-onset fever but no other symptoms. Two months prior to admission, he underwent his third kidney transplantation. Clinical and laboratory examinations were unremarkable. Brain MRI showed a meningeal irritation consistent with viral meningitis. A diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis and fungaemia was made after detection of a remarkably high and visible load of Cryptococcus neoformans in the cerebrospinal fluid.
August 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752102/acute-kidney-injury-and-urinary-biomarkers-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis
#3
Charlotte Schutz, David R Boulware, Katherine Huppler-Hullsiek, Maximilian von Hohenberg, Joshua Rhein, Kabanda Taseera, Friedrich Thienemann, Conrad Muzoora, David B Meya, Graeme Meintjes
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus is the most common etiology of adult meningitis in Africa. Amphotericin B deoxycholate remains paramount to treatment, despite toxicities, including acute kidney injury (AKI). We assessed the ability of the following urine markers to predict AKI in patients who received amphotericin B: urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C (CysC), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), and protein. METHODS: One hundred and thirty human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected participants with cryptococcal meningitis were enrolled and received amphotericin and fluconazole for 2 weeks...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750078/acridine-orange-fluorescent-microscopy-is-more-sensitive-than-india-ink-light-microscopy-in-the-rapid-detection-of-cryptococcosis-among-crag-positive-hiv-patients
#4
Richard Kwizera, Andrew Akampurira, Darlisha Williams, David R Boulware, David B Meya
BACKGROUND: India ink microscopy on cerebrospinal fluid is still utilized in resource limited settings for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis despite its poor sensitivity. We hypothesized that staining fungal nucleic acids with fluorescent dyes instead of the capsule with India ink might improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. METHODS: We enrolled 96 HIV-infected participants with cryptococcal meningitis who provided 194 CSF specimens at serial time points in Kampala, Uganda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736880/central-nervous-system-infection-due-to-cryptococcus-gattii-sensu-lato-in-india-analysis-of-clinical-features-molecular-profile-and-antifungal-susceptibility
#5
Shayanki Lahiri Mukhopadhyay, Veenakumari H Bahubali, Netravathi Manjunath, Aarthi Swaminathan, Sayani Maji, Marimuthu Palaniappan, Satishchandra Parthasarathy, Nagarathna Chandrashekar
Cryptococcus gattii species complex has evolved as a pathogen in the last two decades causing infection among both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. We aimed to analyse the clinical features of CNS infection caused by C. gattii sensu lato, molecular and antifungal susceptibility profile of this pathogen. Cases diagnosed to have CNS cryptococcosis were included in the study. Cryptococcus recovered from patient's specimen was identified by standard protocol. Species confirmation, mating type and molecular type determination were performed by PCR based methods...
July 23, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700464/cryptococcal-meningitis-after-transnasal-transsphenoidal-pituitary-microsurgery-of-acth-secreting-pituitary-adenoma-a-case-report
#6
Yang Liu, Ming Feng, Yong Yao, Kan Deng, Xinjie Bao, Xiaohai Liu, Renzhi Wang
RATIONALE: Microbial infection should be regarded in the differential diagnosis of neurosurgical complications after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery, albeit cryptococcal meningitis is rare. This article will discuss the risk factors of cryptococcal meningitis in patients underwent transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery, and summary the potential origins of infection. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: Here, we report a case of 37-year-old male who had cryptococcal meningitis after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery of a relapsing ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679543/tracing-genetic-exchange-and-biogeography-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-at-the-global-population-level
#7
Johanna Rhodes, Christopher A Desjardins, Sean M Sykes, Mathew A Beale, Mathieu Vanhove, Sharadha Sakthikumar, Yuan Chen, Sharvari Gujja, Sakina Saif, Anuradha Chowdhary, Daniel John Lawson, Vinicius Ponzio, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, Wieland Meyer, David M Engelthaler, Ferry Hagen, Maria Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi, Alexandre Alanio, Jo-Marie Vreulink, Joseph Heitman, John R Perfect, Anastasia Litvintseva, Tihana Bicanic, Thomas S Harrison, Matthew C Fisher, Christina A Cuomo
Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is the causative agent of cryptococcal meningitis, a significant source of mortality in immunocompromised individuals, typically HIV/AIDS patients from developing countries. Despite the worldwide emergence of this ubiquitous infection, little is known about the global molecular epidemiology of this fungal pathogen. Here we sequence the genomes of 188 diverse isolates and characterized the major subdivisions, their relative diversity and the level of genetic exchange between them...
July 5, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631642/sporadic-occurrence-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-hiv-seronegative-patients-uncommon-etiology
#8
Shukla Das, Shyama Datt, Priyamvada Roy, Rumpa Saha, Immaculata Xess
Cryptococcosis in HIV-seronegative patients is rarely reported from India. This prospective study was conducted to look for cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals and compare their laboratory features to cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seropositive patients. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 153 suspected cases of meningitis and subjected to India ink preparation, antigen detection, and culture. Nineteen samples tested positive for Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Seventeen and two patients were HIV reactive and nonreactive, respectively...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630940/fluconazole-induced-ploidy-change-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-results-from-the-uncoupling-of-cell-growth-and-nuclear-division
#9
Sophie Altamirano, Diana Fang, Charles Simmons, Shreyas Sridhar, Peipei Wu, Kaustuv Sanyal, Lukasz Kozubowski
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes lethal cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. One of the challenges in treating cryptococcosis is the development of resistance to azole antifungals. Previous studies linked azole resistance to elevated numbers of copies of critical resistance genes in aneuploid cells. However, how aneuploidy is formed in the presence of azole drugs remains unclear. This study showed that treatment with inhibitory concentrations of an azole drug, fluconazole (FLC), resulted in a significant population of cells with increased DNA content, through the following defects: inhibition of budding, premature mitosis, and inhibition of cytokinesis followed by replication in the mother cell...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622118/imaging-spectrum-of-invasive-fungal-and-fungal-like-infections
#10
Hilary L P Orlowski, Sebastian McWilliams, Vincent M Mellnick, Sanjeev Bhalla, Meghan G Lubner, Perry J Pickhardt, Christine O Menias
Invasive fungal and fungal-like infections contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. The incidence of these infections is increasing-largely because of rising numbers of immunocompromised patients, including those with neutropenia, human immunodeficiency virus, chronic immunosuppression, indwelling prostheses, burns, and diabetes mellitus, and those taking broad-spectrum antibiotics. Invasive fungal pathogens include primary mycotic organisms such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which are true pathogens and inherently virulent...
July 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614360/comparative-genomics-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-associated-with-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-patients-in-vietnam
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jeremy N Day, Seet Qihui, Lam Tuan Thanh, Phan Hai Trieu, Anh Duong Van, Nha Hoang Thu, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Nguyen P H Lan, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Philip M Ashton, Guy E Thwaites, Maciej F Boni, Marcel Wolbers, Niranjan Nagarajan, Patrick B O Tan, Stephen Baker
The vast burden of cryptococcal meningitis occurs in immunosuppressed patients, driven by HIV, and is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. We previously reported cryptococcal meningitis in Vietnam arising atypically in HIV uninfected, apparently immunocompetent patients, caused by a single amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) cluster of C. neoformans var. grubii (VNIγ). This variant was less common in HIV infected individuals; it remains unclear why this lineage is associated with apparently immunocompetent patients...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584857/evolving-failures-in-the-delivery-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-care-lessons-from-a-ugandan-meningitis-cohort-2006-2016
#12
Andrew G Flynn, David B Meya, Katherine Huppler Hullsiek, Joshua Rhein, Darlisha A Williams, Abdu Musubire, Bozena M Morawski, Kabanda Taseera, Alisat Sadiq, Liberica Ndyatunga, Mollie Roediger, Radha Rajasingham, Paul R Bohjanen, Conrad Muzoora, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: Because of investments in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care in sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people aware of their status and receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased; however, HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality still remains high. METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of 3 sequential prospective cohorts of HIV-infected Ugandan adults presenting with AIDS and meningitis from 2006 to 2009, 2010 to 2012, and 2013 to 2016...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576330/first-report-of-two-cases-of-cryptococcosis-in-tripoli-libya-infected-with-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolates-present-in-the-urban-area
#13
M S Ellabib, Z A Krema, A A Allafi, M Cogliati
Cryptococcosis is a potentially fatal fungal disease caused by the basidiomycetes yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii with high predilection to invade the central nervous system mainly in immunocompromised hosts. Skin can be secondarily involved in disseminated infection or be exceptionally involved as primary cutaneous infection by inoculation with contaminated materials. We report the first two Libyan cases of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV patients, in which one of them presented a secondary cutaneous involvement due to systemic dissemination...
May 30, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486489/cytokine-patterns-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-hiv-infected-patients-with-cryptococcal-meningitis-following-initiation-of-antifungal-and-antiretroviral-therapy
#14
Delio José Mora, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Leonardo Eurípedes Andrade-Silva, Thatiane Bragine, Ivonete Helena Rocha, Barbara de Melo Ribeiro, Guilherme Henrique Machado, Virmondes Rodrigues Junior, David Nascimento Silva-Teixeira, Wieland Meyer, Mario León Silva-Vergara
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a life-threatening infection in HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited settings. Cytokine patterns in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sera may be related to clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate cytokine patterns in the CSF and sera of HIV-infected patients with CM as well as the cytokines produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) when stimulated with LPS and cryptococcal GXM. CSF and serum levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-17A, INF-γ, TNF-α and CXCL-10 were measured in HIV-infected patients with CM (CM+ HIV+) at various time points...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483963/influence-of-experimental-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-wistar-rats-on-voriconazole-brain-penetration-assessed-by-microdialysis
#15
Izabel Almeida Alves, Keli Jaqueline Staudt, Carolina de Miranda Silva, Graziela de Araujo Lock, Teresa Dalla Costa, Bibiana Verlindo de Araujo
To make advances in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis, it is crucial to know a given drug's free fraction that reaches the biophase. In the present study, we applied microdialysis (μD) as a tool to determine the free levels reached by voriconazole (VRC) in the brains of healthy and Cryptococcus neoformans-infected rats. The infection was induced by the intravenous (i.v.) administration of 1 × 10(5) CFU of yeast. The dose administered was 5 mg/kg (of body weight) of VRC, given i.v. Plasma and microdialysate samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LC-UV methods...
July 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483415/global-burden-of-disease-of-hiv-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis-an-updated-analysis
#16
Radha Rajasingham, Rachel M Smith, Benjamin J Park, Joseph N Jarvis, Nelesh P Govender, Tom M Chiller, David W Denning, Angela Loyse, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus is the most common cause of meningitis in adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Global burden estimates are crucial to guide prevention strategies and to determine treatment needs, and we aimed to provide an updated estimate of global incidence of HIV-associated cryptococcal disease. METHODS: We used 2014 Joint UN Programme on HIV and AIDS estimates of adults (aged >15 years) with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage...
August 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450771/in-vitro-antifungal-susceptibility-of-environmental-isolates-of-cryptococcus-spp-from-the-west-region-of-cameroon
#17
William Dongmo, Frederick Kechia, Roland Tchuenguem, Claude Nangwat, Iwewe Yves, Jules-Roger Kuiate, Jean Paul Dzoyem
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus neoformans is responsible of cryptococcosis, a life-threatening infection that affects healthy and immunocompromised individuals. It is the first cause of adult acute meningitis in some sub-Saharan African countries with a mortality rate of about 100% in cases of inappropriate therapy. This study aimed at examining the occurrence and the antifungal patterns of Cryptococcus isolates from pigeon droppings and bat guanos in the west region of Cameroon. METHODS: A total of 350 samples were randomly collected from three selected localities of west region of Cameroon...
November 2016: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446137/progressive-cutaneous-cryptococcosis-complicated-with-meningitis-in-a-myasthenia-gravis-patient-on-long-term-immunosuppressive-therapy-a-case-report
#18
Nguyen Thi Cam Huong, Ahmed M A Altibi, Nguyen My Hoa, Le Anh Tuan, Samar Salman, Sara Morsy, Nguyen Thi Bich Lien, Nguyen Thanh Truong, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Pham Thi Le Hoa, Nguyen Ba Thang, Van The Trung
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans and most remarkably manifests in HIV-infected individuals, especially in the settings of very low CD4 count. Development of cryptococcosis in HIV-uninfected individuals is exceedingly rare and usually signifies a marked immunodeficiency. Cryptococcosis in association with myasthenia gravis or thymoma has been previously documented in only very few cases in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We reported a complicated case of severe cutaneous cryptococcosis in a 39-year-old Vietnamese male patient with myasthenia gravis on long-term immunosuppressive therapy...
April 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355252/factors-associated-with-early-mycological-clearance-in-hiv-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis
#19
Fátima Concha-Velasco, Elsa González-Lagos, Carlos Seas, Beatriz Bustamante
INTRODUCTION: The first-line combination therapy for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM), a condition of high mortality particularly in the first two weeks of treatment, consists of amphotericin B plus flucytosine (5-FC). Given that 5-FC remains unavailable in many countries, the knowledge of factors influencing mycological clearance in patients treated with second-line therapy could contribute to effective management. OBJECTIVES: To determine the factors associated with the clearance of Cryptococcus sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348767/first-case-of-mixed-infection-with-cryptococcus-deuterogattii-and-cryptococcus-neoformans-vni-in-an-ivorian-hiv-positive-patient
#20
Fulgence K Kassi, Virginie Bellet, Adama Doumbia, Donika Krasteva, Pascal Drakulovski, Gisèle A Kouakou, François Gatchitch, Eric Delaporte, Jacques Reynes, Michèle Mallié, Hervé I E Menan, Sébastien Bertout
INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) may be caused by several species of Cryptococcus. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a fatal case of CM in a HIV-positive patient from Ivory Coast infected by Cryptococcus neoformans VNI and Cryptococcusdeuterogattii. Isolates were recovered from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) prior to systemic antifungal treatment. Six isolates were studied (the entire culture plus five isolated colonies from it). Serotyping was performed via LAC 1 and CAP 64 gene amplification...
August 2016: JMM Case Reports
keyword
keyword
68854
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"