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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923091/association-between-learning-environment-interventions-and-medical-student-well-being-a-systematic-review
#1
Lauren T Wasson, Amberle Cusmano, Laura Meli, Irene Louh, Louise Falzon, Meghan Hampsey, Geoffrey Young, Jonathan Shaffer, Karina W Davidson
Importance: Concerns exist about the current quality of undergraduate medical education and its effect on students' well-being. Objective: To identify best practices for undergraduate medical education learning environment interventions that are associated with improved emotional well-being of students. Data Sources: Learning environment interventions were identified by searching the biomedical electronic databases Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and ERIC from database inception dates to October 2016...
December 6, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923012/using-mhealth-for-hiv-tb-treatment-support-in-lesotho-enhancing-patient-provider-communication-in-the-start-study
#2
Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Amrita Daftary, Katharine A Yuengling, Suzue Saito, Moeketsi Ntoane, Koen Frederix, Llang B Maama, Andrea A Howard
BACKGROUND: mHealth is a promising means of supporting adherence to treatment. The Start TB patients on ART and Retain on Treatment (START) study included real-time adherence support using short-text messaging service (SMS) text messaging and trained village health workers (VHWs). We describe the use and acceptability of mHealth by patients with HIV/tuberculosis and health care providers. METHODS: Patients and treatment supporters received automated, coded medication and appointment reminders at their preferred time and frequency, using their own phones, and $3...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922830/ligand-receptor-binding-kinetics-in-surface-plasmon-resonance-cells-a-monte-carlo-analysis
#3
Jacob Carroll, Matthew Raum, Kimberly Forsten-Williams, Uwe C Täuber
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chips are widely used to measure association and dissociation rates for the binding kinetics between two species of chemicals, e.g., cell receptors and ligands. It is commonly assumed that ligands are spatially well mixed in the SPR region, and hence a mean-field rate equation description is appropriate. This approximation however ignores the spatial fluctuations as well as temporal correlations induced by multiple local rebinding events, which become prominent for slow diffusion rates and high binding affinities...
December 6, 2016: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922220/implementation-of-a-text-based-content-intervention-in-secondary-social-studies-classes
#4
Jeanne Wanzek, Sharon Vaughn
We describe teacher fidelity (adherence to the components of the treatment as specified by the research team) based on a series of studies of a multicomponent intervention, Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text (PACT), with middle and high school social studies teachers and their students. Findings reveal that even with highly specified materials and implementing practices that are aligned with effective reading comprehension and content instruction, teachers' fidelity was consistently low for some components and high for others...
December 2016: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921437/-adaptation-of-adipose-tissue-to-weight-reduction-energy-restricted-diet-in-obese-individuals
#5
Vladimír Štich
Obesity is associated with a number of metabolic disorders that lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia and ultimately cardiovascular diseases. An important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders accompanying obesity is probably played by the alterations of adipose tissue characteristics: metabolic, endocrine and immune functions. The key component of obesity treatment, the weight-reduction energy-restricted diet, leads not only to the reduction of weight (specifically fat mass), but also to correction of obesity accompanying metabolic disorders...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921075/longitudinal-monitoring-of-reconstructed-activity-concentration-on-a-clinical-time-of-flight-pet-ct-scanner
#6
Lawrence R MacDonald, Amy E Perkins, Chi-Hua Tung
Positron emission tomography (PET) images are potential quantitative biomarkers. Understanding long-term (months/years) biomarker variability is important for establishing confidence intervals on studies using such biomarkers over these time frames. PET biomarkers are derived from activity concentration ([Formula: see text]) extracted from PET images. Over 30 months, we measured the stability of decay-normalized counts ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] by scanning the same 4.5-cm-diameter Ge-68 cylinder weekly, the same Na-22 point source daily, and a refilled 20-cm F-18 cylinder phantom monthly on a clinical TOF-PET/CT scanner...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921074/initial-performance-studies-of-a-wearable-brain-positron-emission-tomography-camera-based-on-autonomous-thin-film-digital-geiger-avalanche-photodiode-arrays
#7
Charles R Schmidtlein, James N Turner, Michael O Thompson, Krishna C Mandal, Ida Häggström, Jiahan Zhang, John L Humm, David H Feiglin, Andrzej Krol
Using analytical and Monte Carlo modeling, we explored performance of a lightweight wearable helmet-shaped brain positron emission tomography (PET), or BET camera, based on thin-film digital Geiger avalanche photodiode arrays with Lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) or [Formula: see text] scintillators for imaging in vivo human brain function of freely moving and acting subjects. We investigated a spherical cap BET and cylindrical brain PET (CYL) geometries with 250-mm diameter. We also considered a clinical whole-body (WB) LYSO PET/CT scanner...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921073/evaluation-of-lesion-detectability-in-positron-emission-tomography-when-using-a-convergent-penalized-likelihood-image-reconstruction-method
#8
Kristen A Wangerin, Sangtae Ahn, Scott Wollenweber, Steven G Ross, Paul E Kinahan, Ravindra M Manjeshwar
We have previously developed a convergent penalized likelihood (PL) image reconstruction algorithm using the relative difference prior (RDP) and showed that it achieves more accurate lesion quantitation compared to ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM). We evaluated the detectability of low-contrast liver and lung lesions using the PL-RDP algorithm compared to OSEM. We performed a two-alternative forced choice study using a channelized Hotelling observer model that was previously validated against human observers...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921072/anatomy-based-algorithm-for-automatic-segmentation-of-human-diaphragm-in-noncontrast-computed-tomography-images
#9
Elham Karami, Yong Wang, Stewart Gaede, Ting-Yim Lee, Abbas Samani
In-depth understanding of the diaphragm's anatomy and physiology has been of great interest to the medical community, as it is the most important muscle of the respiratory system. While noncontrast four-dimensional (4-D) computed tomography (CT) imaging provides an interesting opportunity for effective acquisition of anatomical and/or functional information from a single modality, segmenting the diaphragm in such images is very challenging not only because of the diaphragm's lack of image contrast with its surrounding organs but also because of respiration-induced motion artifacts in 4-D CT images...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921071/validation-of-automatic-joint-space-width-measurements-in-hand-radiographs-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
Olga Schenk, Yinghe Huo, Koen L Vincken, Mart A van de Laar, Ina H H Kuper, Kees C H Slump, Floris P J G Lafeber, Hein J Bernelot Moens
Computerized methods promise quick, objective, and sensitive tools to quantify progression of radiological damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Measurement of joint space width (JSW) in finger and wrist joints with these systems performed comparable to the Sharp-van der Heijde score (SHS). A next step toward clinical use, validation of precision and accuracy in hand joints with minimal damage, is described with a close scrutiny of sources of error. A recently developed system to measure metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints was validated in consecutive hand images of RA patients...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921070/accuracy-of-patient-specific-organ-dose-estimates-obtained-using-an-automated-image-segmentation-algorithm
#11
Taly Gilat Schmidt, Adam S Wang, Thomas Coradi, Benjamin Haas, Josh Star-Lack
The overall goal of this work is to develop a rapid, accurate, and automated software tool to estimate patient-specific organ doses from computed tomography (CT) scans using simulations to generate dose maps combined with automated segmentation algorithms. This work quantified the accuracy of organ dose estimates obtained by an automated segmentation algorithm. We hypothesized that the autosegmentation algorithm is sufficiently accurate to provide organ dose estimates, since small errors delineating organ boundaries will have minimal effect when computing mean organ dose...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921069/reaching-200-ps-timing-resolution-in-a-time-of-flight-and-depth-of-interaction-positron-emission-tomography-detector-using-phosphor-coated-crystals-and-high-density-silicon-photomultipliers
#12
Sun Il Kwon, Alessandro Ferri, Alberto Gola, Eric Berg, Claudio Piemonte, Simon R Cherry, Emilie Roncali
Current research in the field of positron emission tomography (PET) focuses on improving the sensitivity of the scanner with thicker detectors, extended axial field-of-view, and time-of-flight (TOF) capability. These create the need for depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding to correct parallax errors. We have proposed a method to encode DOI using phosphor-coated crystals. Our initial work using photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) demonstrated the possibilities of the proposed method, however, a major limitation of PMTs for this application is poor quantum efficiency in yellow light, corresponding to the wavelengths of the converted light by the phosphor coating...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921068/voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging-of-mouse-neocortex-during-a-whisker-detection-task
#13
Alexandros Kyriakatos, Vijay Sadashivaiah, Yifei Zhang, Alessandro Motta, Matthieu Auffret, Carl C H Petersen
Sensorimotor processing occurs in a highly distributed manner in the mammalian neocortex. The spatiotemporal dynamics of electrical activity in the dorsal mouse neocortex can be imaged using voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs) with near-millisecond temporal resolution and [Formula: see text] spatial resolution. Here, we trained mice to lick a water reward spout after a 1-ms deflection of the C2 whisker, and we imaged cortical dynamics during task execution with VSD RH1691. Responses to whisker deflection were highly dynamic and spatially highly distributed, exhibiting high variability from trial to trial in amplitude and spatiotemporal dynamics...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920281/systematic-review-and-statistical-analysis-of-the-integrity-of-33-randomized-controlled-trials
#14
Mark J Bolland, Alison Avenell, Greg D Gamble, Andrew Grey
BACKGROUND: Statistical techniques can investigate data integrity in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We systematically reviewed and analyzed all human RCTs undertaken by a group of researchers, about which concerns have been raised. METHODS: We compared observed distributions of p values for between-groups differences in baseline variables, for standardized sample means for continuous baseline variables, and for differences in treatment group participant numbers with the expected distributions...
December 6, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920239/the-regional-comprehensive-economic-partnership-intellectual-property-protection-and-access-to-medicines
#15
Belinda Townsend, Deborah Gleeson, Ruth Lopert
The inclusion of elevated standards of intellectual property (IP) protection in the recently negotiated Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement has raised serious public health concerns regarding access to medicines. A lesser-known trade agreement under negotiation in the Asia-Pacific region is the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Framed as an attempt to reassert ASEAN's position in response to the United States-led TPP, RCEP includes key players China and India as well as several low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919863/applying-multiple-data-collection-tools-to-quantify-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-communication-on-twitter
#16
Philip M Massey, Amy Leader, Elad Yom-Tov, Alexandra Budenz, Kara Fisher, Ann C Klassen
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. There are several vaccines that protect against strains of HPV most associated with cervical and other cancers. Thus, HPV vaccination has become an important component of adolescent preventive health care. As media evolves, more information about HPV vaccination is shifting to social media platforms such as Twitter. Health information consumed on social media may be especially influential for segments of society such as younger populations, as well as ethnic and racial minorities...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919475/language-disorders-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Stéphanie Renauld, Lyakout Mohamed-Saïd, Joël Macoir
BACKGROUND: Although cognitive impairments are common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), language impairments are not well defined. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this review was to examine the presence and nature of language disorders associated with MS. METHOD: A search of PubMed and PsycINFO databases was conducted using combinations of the following terms: language disorders, language pathology, language impairment, multiple sclerosis, communication, language and speech...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919369/informing-the-development-of-an-internet-based-chronic-pain-self-management-program
#18
Amédé Gogovor, Regina Visca, Claudine Auger, Lucie Bouvrette-Leblanc, Iphigenia Symeonidis, Lise Poissant, Mark A Ware, Yoram Shir, Natacha Viens, Sara Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Self-management can optimize health outcomes for individuals with chronic pain (CP), an increasing fiscal and social burden in Canada. However, self-management is rarely integrated into the regular care (team activities and medical treatment) patients receive. Health information technology offers an opportunity to provide regular monitoring and exchange of information between patient and care team. OBJECTIVE: To identify information needs and gaps in chronic pain management as well as technology features to inform the development of an Internet-based self-management program...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919281/incidence-causes-and-consequences-of-preventable-adverse-drug-events-protocol-for-an-overview-of-reviews
#19
Brian Hutton, Salmaan Kanji, Erika McDonald, Fatemeh Yazdi, Dianna Wolfe, Kednapa Thavorn, Sally Pepper, Laurie Chapman, Becky Skidmore, David Moher
BACKGROUND: Medication errors represent a noteworthy source of harm to patients. In recent years, several systematic reviews have assessed the frequency and causes of these events, as well as other factors such as commonly associated drugs, their incidence in different specialties, and their consequences to patients. Despite this past literature, there remains a need to study discrepancies between these reviews and establish the current state of the evidence. The planned review will bring together, compare, and contract existing evidence related to the occurrence of medication errors in acute and continuing/long-term care settings...
December 5, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919151/-a-systematic-review-of-epidemiological-cohort-studies-based-on-the-italian-medical-birth-register-is-it-time-to-think-of-a-multicentric-birth-cohort
#20
REVIEW
Cristina Canova, Gisella Pitter, Patrizia Schifano
INTRODUCTION: birth cohorts are a necessary tool for the study of the effects of exposures which can occur during pregnancy and early life on the development and health status in paediatric and adult life. The Italian Medical Birth Register (CeDAP), linked with other health administrative data, allows to build population based births cohorts to be followed over time. OBJECTIVES: to sistematically review all published scientific papers using data extracted from the (CeDAP) in order to give a picture of their current use for epidemiological aims; to describe advantages and limits of these data and possible future developments for epidemiological purposes...
November 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
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