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Parkinson\'s disease (PD) is often accompanied by significant changes in emotionality, such as apathy, anhedonia, anxiety and depression. The present review summarizes the empirical evidence, including amygdala changes and psychological changes in emotionality in people suffering with PD. Seventeen empirical full-text articles including research on both amygdala and emotionality in PD were reviewed.The changes in amygdala volumes as well as changes in binding potentials, functional connectivity, regional homogeneity and regional cerebral blood flow were found to have various impacts on emotionality in people with PD...
May 19, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Shanshan Wu, Wanjiao Li, Qiongxiao Zhang, Shuting Li, Lizi Wang
AIM: To compare peripheral arm ports versus central chest ports in complication rates. BACKGROUND: Late complications of arm ports versus chest ports, including catheter-related infection, venous thrombosis and catheter obstruction, remain controversial. DESIGN: A meta-analysis conducted following the Cochrane handbook. DATA SOURCES: Studies published between 1950 - August 2017 were searched through Pubmed, Embase, Web of science and Cochrane library...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Kirsten Lochbuehler, E Paul Wileyto, Melissa Mercincavage, Valentina Souprountchouk, Jordan Z Burdge, Kathy Z Tang, Joseph N Cappella, Andrew A Strasser
Objectives: Recent research has shown that message congruency is beneficial to recall of pictorial health warning label (PWL) content after initial exposure. Despite less attention to the text warning, smokers exposed to congruent PWLs were more likely to recall the text and the message. This study aimed to replicate these findings and to examine whether congruency also affects recall after multiple exposures over time. Methods: 320 daily smokers (39.7% female; cigarettes/day: M = 15...
June 16, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Callum J Court, Jacqueline M Cole
Large auto-generated databases of magnetic materials properties have the potential for great utility in materials science research. This article presents an auto-generated database of 39,822 records containing chemical compounds and their associated Curie and Néel magnetic phase transition temperatures. The database was produced using natural language processing and semi-supervised quaternary relationship extraction, applied to a corpus of 68,078 chemistry and physics articles. Evaluation of the database shows an estimated overall precision of 73%...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Data
Anne-Karien M de Waard, Per E Wändell, Martin J Holzmann, Joke C Korevaar, Monika Hollander, Carl Gornitzki, Niek J de Wit, François G Schellevis, Christos Lionis, Jens Søndergaard, Bohumil Seifert, Axel C Carlsson
Background Health checks for cardiometabolic diseases could play a role in the identification of persons at high risk for disease. To improve the uptake of these health checks in primary care, we need to know what barriers and facilitators determine participation. Methods We used an iterative search strategy consisting of three steps: (a) identification of key-articles; (b) systematic literature search in PubMed, Medline and Embase based on keywords; (c) screening of titles and abstracts and subsequently full-text screening...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Xi Shen, Chang-Xing Ma, Kam C Yuen, Guo-Liang Tian
Bilateral correlated data are often encountered in medical researches such as ophthalmologic (or otolaryngologic) studies, in which each unit contributes information from paired organs to the data analysis, and the measurements from such paired organs are generally highly correlated. Various statistical methods have been developed to tackle intra-class correlation on bilateral correlated data analysis. In practice, it is very important to adjust the effect of confounder on statistical inferences, since either ignoring the intra-class correlation or confounding effect may lead to biased results...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
R Colomer, I Aranda-López, J Albanell, T García-Caballero, E Ciruelos, M Á López-García, J Cortés, F Rojo, M Martín, J Palacios-Calvo
On page 5 of the article, in the last paragraph of the section "Prognostic genetic platforms: molecular phenotypes and translation to the clinic" a relevant discrepancy between the text and Table 1 could be misunderstood, therefore the paragraph was corrected.
June 18, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Paola Mian, Karel Allegaert, Isabel Spriet, Dick Tibboel, Mirko Petrovic
Paracetamol is the most commonly used analgesic in older people, and is mainly dosed according to empirical dosing guidelines. However, the pharmacokinetics and thereby the effects of paracetamol can be influenced by physiological changes occurring with ageing. To investigate the steps needed to reach more evidence-based paracetamol dosing regimens in older people, we applied the concepts used in the paediatric study decision tree. A search was performed to retrieve studies on paracetamol pharmacokinetics and safety in older people (> 60 years) or studies that performed a (sub) analysis of pharmacokinetics and/or safety in older people...
June 19, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Haoyan Guo, Sicong Song, Jinke Wang, Maozu Guo, Yuanzhi Cheng, Yadong Wang, Shinichi Tamura
PURPOSE: For extremely close bones, their boundaries are weak and diffused due to strong interaction between adjacent surfaces. These factors prevent the accurate segmentation of bone structure. To alleviate these difficulties, we propose an automatic method for accurate bone segmentation. The method is based on a consideration of the 3D surface normal direction, which is used to detect the bone boundary in 3D CT images. METHODS: Our segmentation method is divided into three main stages...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Stephan Wyder, Philippe C Cattin
PURPOSE: We present a new method to evaluate the accuracy of an eye tracker-based eye localization system. Measuring the accuracy of an eye tracker's primary intention, the estimated point of gaze, is usually done with volunteers and a set of fixation points used as ground truth. However, verifying the accuracy of the location estimate of a volunteer's eye center in 3D space is not easily possible. This is because the eye center, the center of corneal curvature, is an intangible point...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Aaron Drovandi, Kelvin Robertson, Matthew Tucker, Niechole Robinson, Stephen Perks, Therése Kairuz
Clinical pharmacists provide beneficial services to adult patients, though their benefits for paediatric hospital patients are less defined. Five databases were searched using the MeSH terms 'clinical pharmacist', 'paediatric/paediatric', 'hospital', and 'intervention' for studies with paediatric patients conducted in hospital settings, and described pharmacist-initiated interventions, published between January 2000 and October 2017. The search strategy after full-text review identified 12 articles matching the eligibility criteria...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Daniel Floryan, Tyler Van Buren, Alexander J Smits
Many swimming and flying animals are observed to cruise in a narrow range of Strouhal numbers, where the Strouhal number [Formula: see text] is a dimensionless parameter that relates stroke frequency f, amplitude A, and forward speed U. Dolphins, sharks, bony fish, birds, bats, and insects typically cruise in the range [Formula: see text], which coincides with the Strouhal number range for maximum efficiency as found by experiments on heaving and pitching airfoils. It has therefore been postulated that natural selection has tuned animals to use this range of Strouhal numbers because it confers high efficiency, but the reason why this is so is still unclear...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
W J Gannon, L S Wu, I A Zaliznyak, W H Xu, A M Tsvelik, Y Qiu, J A Rodriguez-Rivera, M C Aronson
A phase transition occurs when correlated regions of a new phase grow to span the system and the fluctuations within the correlated regions become long lived. Here, we present neutron scattering measurements showing that this conventional picture must be replaced in YFe2 Al10 , a compound that forms naturally very close to a [Formula: see text] quantum phase transition. Fully quantum mechanical fluctuations of localized moments are found to diverge at low energies and temperatures; however, the fluctuating moments are entirely without spatial correlations...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yong Ma, Jiarui Zhao, Yifei Li, Dazhang Li, Liming Chen, Jianxun Liu, Stephen J D Dann, Yanyun Ma, Xiaohu Yang, Zheyi Ge, Zhengming Sheng, Jie Zhang
Compact acceleration of a tightly collimated relativistic electron beam with high charge from a laser-plasma interaction has many unique applications. However, currently the well-known schemes, including laser wakefield acceleration from gases and vacuum laser acceleration from solids, often produce electron beams either with low charge or with large divergence angles. In this work, we report the generation of highly collimated electron beams with a divergence angle of a few degrees, nonthermal spectra peaked at the megaelectronvolt level, and extremely high charge (∼100 nC) via a powerful subpicosecond laser pulse interacting with a solid target in grazing incidence...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Charkarra Anderson-Lewis, Gabrielle Darville, Rebeccah Eve Mercado, Savannah Howell, Samantha Di Maggio
BACKGROUND: The proportion of people in the United States who are members of at least two ethnic groups is projected to increase to 10% by the year 2050. This makes addressing health disparities and health inequities in minority populations increasingly more difficult. Minority populations, including those who classify themselves as African American and Hispanic, are using mobile phones to access health information via the internet more frequently than those who classify themselves as white, providing unique opportunities for those in public health and health education to reach these traditionally underserved populations using mobile health (mHealth) interventions...
June 18, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Rebecca Theal, Valerie Xin Pei Tay, Ingrid J Hickman
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychological condition associated with significant physical comorbidities. There has been growing evidence to support the relationship between PTSD and cardiometabolic disease. Disordered eating behaviors often seen in people with PTSD symptoms may explain increased cardiometabolic risk. This systematic review aimed to assess the quality of evidence surrounding dietary intake of individuals with symptoms or a diagnosis of PTSD and their associated risk with cardiometabolic health outcomes...
June 2018: Nutrition Research
Daijiro Abe, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Takafumi Maeda, Masahiro Horiuchi
BACKGROUND: Energy cost of transport per unit distance (CoT) against speed shows U-shaped fashion in walking and linear fashion in running, indicating that there exists a specific walking speed minimizing the CoT, being defined as economical speed (ES). Another specific gait speed is the intersection speed between both fashions, being called energetically optimal transition speed (EOTS). We measured the ES, EOTS, and muscle activities during walking and running at the EOTS under hyperoxia (40% fraction of inspired oxygen) on the level and uphill gradients (+ 5%)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Susanne Küker, Celine Faverjon, Lenz Furrer, John Berezowski, Horst Posthaus, Fabio Rinaldi, Flavie Vial
BACKGROUND: Animal health data recorded in free text, such as in necropsy reports, can have valuable information for national surveillance systems. However, these data are rarely utilized because the text format requires labor-intensive classification of records before they can be analyzed with using statistical or other software. In a previous study, we designed a text-mining tool to extract data from text in necropsy reports. In the current study, we used the tool to extract data from the reports from pig and cattle necropsies performed between 2000 and 2011 at the Institute of Animal Pathology (ITPA), University of Bern, Switzerland...
June 18, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Graham Peyton, Martyn G Boutelle, Emmanuel M Drakakis
BACKGROUND: Point of care ultrasonography has been the focus of extensive research over the past few decades. Miniaturised, wireless systems have been envisaged for new application areas, such as capsule endoscopy, implantable ultrasound and wearable ultrasound. The hardware constraints of such small-scale systems are severe, and tradeoffs between power consumption, size, data bandwidth and cost must be carefully balanced. METHODS: In this work, two receiver architectures are proposed and compared to address these challenges...
June 18, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Dawid Pieper, Nadja Koensgen, Jessica Breuing, Long Ge, Uta Wegewitz
BACKGROUND: The assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool is widely used for investigating the methodological quality of systematic reviews (SR). Originally, AMSTAR was developed for SRs of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Its applicability to SRs of other study designs remains unclear. Our objectives were to: 1) analyze how AMSTAR is applied by authors and (2) analyze whether the authors pay attention to the original purpose of AMSTAR and for what it has been validated...
June 18, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
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