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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228281/the-intriguing-evolution-of-effect-sizes-in-biomedical-research-over-time-smaller-but-more-often-statistically-significant
#1
Paul Monsarrat, Jean-Noel Vergnes
Background: In medicine, effect sizes (ESs) allow the effects of independent variables (including risk/protective factors, or treatment interventions) on dependent variables (e.g., health outcomes) to be quantified. Given that many public health decisions and health care policies are based on ES estimates, it is important to assess how ESs are used in the biomedical literature and to investigate potential trends in their reporting over time. Results: Through a big data approach, the text mining process automatically extracted 814 120 ESs from 13 322 754 PubMed abstracts...
December 6, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228271/litpathexplorer-a-confidence-based-visual-text-analytics-tool-for-exploring-literature-enriched-pathway-models
#2
Axel J Soto, Chrysoula Zerva, Riza Batista-Navarro, Sophia Ananiadou
Motivation: Pathway models are valuable resources that help us understand the various mechanisms underpinning complex biological processes. Their curation is typically carried out through manual inspection of published scientific literature to find information relevant to a model, which is a laborious and knowledge-intensive task. Furthermore, models curated manually cannot be easily updated and maintained with new evidence extracted from the literature without automated support. Results: We have developed LitPathExplorer, a visual text analytics tool that integrates advanced text mining, semi-supervised learning and interactive visualization, to facilitate the exploration and analysis of pathway models using statements (i...
December 8, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228144/randomized-controlled-trial-of-daily-text-messages-to-support-adherence-to-prep-in-at-risk-for-hiv-individuals-the-tapir-study
#3
David J Moore, Sonia Jain, Michael P Dubé, Eric S Daar, Xiaoying Sun, Jason Young, Katya Corado, Eric Ellorin, Joel Milam, Deborah Collins, Jill Blumenthal, Brookie M Best, Peter Anderson, Richard Haubrich, Sheldon R Morris
Background: Adherence is critical for efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Methods: Between 02/2013 and 02/2016, 398 men who have sex with men and transgender women were randomized 1:1 to receive individualized Texting for Adherence Building (iTAB) or standard care (SoC) for 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was dried blood spot (DBS) tenofovir (TFV-DP) concentrations at both week 12 and week 48 (or the last on-drug visit) of >719 fmol/punch consistent with ≥4 doses per week (i...
November 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228075/errors-in-text
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228074/a-review-of-the-current-therapies-challenges-and-future-directions-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-technology-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#5
Vibhor Krishna, Francesco Sammartino, Ali Rezai
Importance: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation has been approved for the treatment of refractory essential tremor and is being studied for other neurological indications, including dyskinesias and tremor in Parkinson disease, dystonia, neuropathic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and brain tumors. Objective: To review the scientific foundations of FUS technology, existing neurological applications, and future advances. Evidence Review: PubMed was searched for the past 10 years using the terms "transcranial ultrasound," "focused ultrasound," and "neurological applications...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227709/a-review-study-on-the-beneficial-effects-of-baduanjin
#6
Liye Zou, Zhujun Pan, Albert Yeung, Saira Talwar, Chaoyi Wang, Yang Liu, Yankai Shu, Xiaoan Chen, Garrett Anthony Thomas
AIM: Baduanjin, a Chinese traditional Qigong exercise that focuses on a mind-body integration, is considered to be an effective exercise in promoting health. Thus, we systematically and critically evaluated the emerging literature relating to the effects of Baduanjin on health outcomes. METHODS: We used seven English-language electronic databases for the literature search. At least one health-related parameter was reported in retrievable full-text Baduanjin intervention studies...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227671/text-mining-metal-organic-framework-papers
#7
Sanghoon Park, Baekjun Kim, Sihoon Choi, Peter G Boyd, Berend Smit, Jihan Kim
We have developed a simple text mining algorithm that allows us to identify surface area and pore volumes of metal-organic frameworks using manuscript html files as inputs. The algorithm searches for common units (e.g. m2/g, cm3/g) associated with these two quantities to facilitate the search. From the training set data of over 200 MOFs, the algorithm managed to identify 90% and 88.8% of the correct surface area and pore volume values. Further application to test set of randomly chosen MOF html files yielded 73...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227329/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-second-line-immunosuppressants-for-autoimmune-hepatitis-treatment
#8
Michele De Lemos-Bonotto, Cristiane Valle-Tovo, Ane M Costabeber, Angelo A Mattos, André L F Azeredo-da-Silva
INTRODUCTION: The gold-standard treatment for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a prednisone/azathioprine combination. However, subgroups of patients may be unresponsive to this treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of second-line immunosuppressive therapies for AIH through a systematic review and meta-analysis in adult patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The systematic review was registered at the PROSPERO platform under number 42015019831. Databases MEDLINE (PubMed), Lilacs, Cochrane, and Scielo were searched...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227216/front-of-package-nutrition-references-are-positively-associated-with-food-processing
#9
Anthea Christoforou, Naomi Dachner, Rena Mendelson, Valerie Tarasuk
OBJECTIVE: Foods characterized by a high degree of processing are pervasive in the global food supply and concerns have been raised about their contribution to the escalating burden of diet-related disease. It has been suggested that the dominance of these products relates in part to their aggressive on-package marketing. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between the extent and nature of front-of-package (FOP) nutrition references on products sold in Canadian supermarkets and the level of food processing...
January 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227155/using-mobile-health-to-improve-social-support-for-low-income-latino-patients-with-diabetes-a-mixed-methods-analysis-of-the-feasibility-trial-of-text-med%C3%A2-%C3%A2-fans
#10
Elizabeth Burner, Chun Nok Lam, Rebecca DeRoss, Marjorie Kagawa Singer, Michael Menchine, Sanjay Arora
BACKGROUND: Social support interventions can improve diabetes self-care, particularly for Latinos, but are time and resource intensive. Mobile health may overcome these barriers by engaging and training supporters remotely. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled feasibility trial of emergency department patients with diabetes to determine the feasibility of enrolling patients and supporters, acceptability of the intervention, and preliminary efficacy results to power a larger trial...
December 11, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226845/synthesis-structure-and-magnetism-of-the-new-s%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-1-kagome-magnet-nh4ni2-5v2o7-oh-2%C3%A2-h2o
#11
E T Connolly, P Reeves, D Boldrin, A S Wills
Kagome antiferromagnets (KAFMs) have long been known to host exotic electronic states due to their strong geometric frustration, including the quantum spin liquid state in [Formula: see text] systems. Away from that limit, S  =  1 KAFMs are also predicted to host unconventional ground states such as spin nematic phases, but a paucity of studies on known model materials has restricted progress. Here, we present the crystal structure and preliminary magnetization measurements on the newly synthesized S  =  1 KAFM, NH4Ni2...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226735/social-media-for-health-promotion-what-messages-are-women-receiving-about-cardiovascular-disease-risk-by-the-canadian-heart-and-stroke-foundation
#12
Christine A Gonsalves, Kerry R McGannon, Robert J Schinke
The aim of this study was to explore the meanings of women's cardiovascular disease constructed within the Canadian Heart and Stroke Foundation Facebook page. Posts from Heart and Stroke Foundation and public user comments surrounding the launch of the Heart and Stroke Foundation re-branding were of interest. Ethnographic content analysis was employed to analyse text ( n = 40), images ( n = 32), videos ( n = 6), user comments and replies ( n = 42) from November 2016 to March 2017. Constructions (re)presented on Facebook of 'typical' women at risk and risk reduction were problematic as women most at risk were excluded through the use of consumerist, medicalized identities which also excluded promotion of healthy behaviour changes...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226710/group-a-streptococcus-encounters-with-host-macrophages
#13
J Andrés Valderrama, Victor Nizet
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a leading human bacterial pathogen with diverse clinical manifestations. Macrophages constitute a critical first line of host defense against GAS infection, using numerous surface and intracellular receptors such as Toll-like receptors and inflammasomes for pathogen recognition and activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. Depending on the intensity of the GAS infection, activation of these signaling cascades may provide a beneficial early alarm for effective immune clearance, or conversely, may cause hyperinflammation and tissue injury during severe invasive infection...
December 11, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226176/holistic-segmentation-of-the-lung-in-cine-mri
#14
William Kovacs, Nathan Hsieh, Holger Roth, Chioma Nnamdi-Emeratom, W Patricia Bandettini, Andrew Arai, Ami Mankodi, Ronald M Summers, Jianhua Yao
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a childhood-onset neuromuscular disease that results in the degeneration of muscle, starting in the extremities, before progressing to more vital areas, such as the lungs. Respiratory failure and pneumonia due to respiratory muscle weakness lead to hospitalization and early mortality. However, tracking the disease in this region can be difficult, as current methods are based on breathing tests and are incapable of distinguishing between muscle involvements. Cine MRI scans give insight into respiratory muscle movements, but the images suffer due to low spatial resolution and poor signal-to-noise ratio...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226054/reversible-broad-spectrum-control-of-selective-reflections-of-chiral-nematic-phases-by-closed-open-type-axially-chiral-azo-dopants
#15
Hiroya Nishikawa, Daigou Mochizuki, Hiroki Higuchi, Yasushi Okumura, Hirotsugu Kikuchi
Invited for this month's cover picture is the groups of Professor Hirotsugu Kikuchi and Dr. Yasushi Okumura at the Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering at Kyushu University (Japan). External dynamic control of molecular self-organized superstructures with unique features has been researched, as these structures are applicable to chiral molecular devices. The cover picture shows photocontrol of selective reflection color that originated from the self-organized helical structure of chiral nematic liquid crystals (N*LCs) using closed-/open-type dopants...
December 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226006/next-generation-quality-assessing-the-physician-in-clinical-history-completeness-and-diagnostic-interpretations-using-funnel-plots-and-normalized-deviations-plots-in-3-854-prostate-biopsies
#16
Michael Bonert, Ihab El-Shinnawy, Michael Carvalho, Phillip Williams, Samih Salama, Damu Tang, Anil Kapoor
Background: Observational data and funnel plots are routinely used outside of pathology to understand trends and improve performance. Objective: Extract diagnostic rate (DR) information from free text surgical pathology reports with synoptic elements and assess whether inter-rater variation and clinical history completeness information useful for continuous quality improvement (CQI) can be obtained. Methods: All in-house prostate biopsies in a 6-year period at two large teaching hospitals were extracted and then diagnostically categorized using string matching, fuzzy string matching, and hierarchical pruning...
2017: Journal of Pathology Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225946/did-the-right-to-health-get-across-the-line-examining-the-united-nations-resolution-on-the-sustainable-development-goals
#17
REVIEW
Claire E Brolan, Vannarath Te, Nadia Floden, Peter S Hill, Lisa Forman
Since the new global health and development goal, Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3, and its nine targets and four means of implementation were introduced to the world through a United Nations (UN) General Assembly resolution in September 2015, right to health practitioners have queried whether this goal mirrors the content of the human right to health in international law. This study examines the text of the UN SDG resolution, Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, from a right to health minimalist and right to health maximalist analytic perspective...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225501/the-grasshopper-problem
#18
Olga Goulko, Adrian Kent
We introduce and physically motivate the following problem in geometric combinatorics, originally inspired by analysing Bell inequalities. A grasshopper lands at a random point on a planar lawn of area 1. It then jumps once, a fixed distance d, in a random direction. What shape should the lawn be to maximize the chance that the grasshopper remains on the lawn after jumping? We show that, perhaps surprisingly, a disc-shaped lawn is not optimal for any d>0. We investigate further by introducing a spin model whose ground state corresponds to the solution of a discrete version of the grasshopper problem...
November 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225492/geometric-description-of-a-discrete-power-function-associated-with-the-sixth-painlev%C3%A3-equation
#19
Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Tetsu Masuda, Nobutaka Nakazono, Yang Shi
In this paper, we consider the discrete power function associated with the sixth Painlevé equation. This function is a special solution of the so-called cross-ratio equation with a similarity constraint. We show in this paper that this system is embedded in a cubic lattice with [Formula: see text] symmetry. By constructing the action of [Formula: see text] as a subgroup of [Formula: see text], i.e. the symmetry group of PVI, we show how to relate [Formula: see text] to the symmetry group of the lattice. Moreover, by using translations in [Formula: see text], we explain the odd-even structure appearing in previously known explicit formulae in terms of the τ function...
November 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225434/estimation-of-sobolev-embedding-constant-on-a-domain-dividable-into-bounded-convex-domains
#20
Makoto Mizuguchi, Kazuaki Tanaka, Kouta Sekine, Shin'ichi Oishi
This paper is concerned with an explicit value of the embedding constant from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] for a domain [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), where [Formula: see text]. We previously proposed a formula for estimating the embedding constant on bounded and unbounded Lipschitz domains by estimating the norm of Stein's extension operator. Although this formula can be applied to a domain Ω that can be divided into a finite number of Lipschitz domains, there was room for improvement in terms of accuracy...
2017: Journal of Inequalities and Applications
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