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Swimmers and fatigue

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679207/the-swimmer-s-shoulder-multi-directional-instability
#1
REVIEW
Ivan De Martino, Scott A Rodeo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Swimmer's shoulder is the term used to describe the problem of shoulder pain in swimmers. Originally described as supraspinatus tendon impingement under the coracoacromial arch, it is now understood that several different pathologies can cause shoulder pain in competitive swimmers, including subacromial impingement syndrome, overuse and subsequent muscle fatigue, scapular dyskinesis, and laxity and instability. RECENT FINDINGS: Swimmers may develop increased shoulder laxity over time due to repetitive use...
April 20, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575975/oxidative-stress-in-elite-athletes-training-at-moderate-altitude-and-at-sea-level
#2
Josefa León-López, Carmen Calderón-Soto, Matías Pérez-Sánchez, Belén Feriche, Xavier Iglesias, Diego Chaverri, Ferran A Rodréguez
Using a controlled parallel group longitudinal trial design, we investigated the effects of different training interventions on the prooxidant/antioxidant status of elite athletes: living and training at moderate altitude for 3 (Hi-Hi3) and 4 weeks (Hi-Hi), and for 4 weeks too, living high and training high and low (Hi-HiLo) and living and training at sea level (Lo-Lo). From 61 swimmers, 54 completed the study. Nitrites, carbonyls, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were assessed in plasma. Enzymatic antioxidants glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd), and non-enzymatic antioxidants total glutathione (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were analysed in the erythrocyte fraction...
March 24, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566543/beetroot-based-gel-supplementation-improves-handgrip-strength-forearm-muscle-o2-saturation-but-not-exercise-tolerance-and-blood-volume-in-jiu-jitsu-athletes
#3
Gustavo Vieira de Oliveira, Luiz Nascimento, Mônica Volino-Souza, Jacilene Mesquita, Thiago Alvares
The ergogenic effect of beetroot on the exercise performance of trained cyclists, runners, kayakers, and swimmers has been demonstrated. However, whether or not beetroot supplementation presents a beneficial effect on the exercise performance of jiu-jitsu athletes (JJA) remains inconclusive. Therefore, present study assessed the effect of beetroot-based gel (BG) supplementation on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), exercise time until fatigue (ETF), muscle O2 saturation (SmO2), blood volume (tHb), and plasma nitrate and lactate in response to handgrip isotonic exercise (HIE) in JJA...
March 22, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353138/competitive-swimmers-with-hypermobility-have-strength-and-fatigue-deficits-in-shoulder-medial-rotation
#4
Behnam Liaghat, Birgit Juul-Kristensen, Thomas Frydendal, Camilla Marie Larsen, Karen Søgaard, Aki Ilkka Tapio Salo
Generalised Joint Hypermobility including shoulder hypermobility (GJHS) in swimmers is considered an intrinsic risk factor for shoulder injuries. The aim was to investigate the association of GJHS with shoulder strength, fatigue development and muscle activity during swimming-related shoulder rotations. Totally, 38 competitive swimmers (aged 13-17 years) participated, 19 were competitive swimmers with GJHS and 19 were age, sex and club matched swimmers without GJHS. Concentric isokinetic force in medial and lateral rotations were measured at 60°/s (5 repetitions) and 180°/s (10 repetitions)...
April 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276857/mental-fatigue-impairs-physical-performance-in-young-swimmers
#5
Eduardo Macedo Penna, Edson Filho, Samuel Penna Wanner, Bruno Teobaldo Campos, Gabriel Resende Quinan, Thiago Teixeira Mendes, Mitchell Robert Smith, Luciano Sales Prado
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the impact of mental fatigue on heart rate variability, subjective measures of fatigue, and swimming performance in young athletes. METHODS: Sixteen swimmers [15.45 (0.51) y old, 7.35 (2.20) y of swimming experience] performed a 1500-m time trial on 2 occasions separated by an interval of at least 72 hours. The 1500-m swimming was preceded by a 30-minute treatment that consisted of performing the Stroop Color and Word test to induce mental fatigue (experimental trial) or watching an emotionally neutral video (control trial)...
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249572/the-changes-in-classical-and-nonlinear-parameters-after-a-maximal-bout-to-elicit-fatigue-in-competitive-swimming
#6
Tiago M Barbosa, Simin Chen, Jorge E Morais, Mário J Costa, Nuno Batalha
The aim was to assess the effect of fatigue on linear and nonlinear parameters in swimming. Twenty-four fitness-oriented swimmers performed a maximal bout of 100 m at front-crawl to elicit fatigue. Before (pre-) and immediately after (post-test) the bout, participants swam an all-out 25 m to derive the speed fluctuation (dv), approximate entropy (ApEn) and fractal dimension (FD) from the speed-time series collected by a speedo-meter. Swim speed was 10.85% slower in the post-test than in the pre-test (p < ...
December 15, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750976/scapular-dyskinesis-among-competitive-swimmers
#7
Maayan Bussiba Maor, Tatyana Ronin, Leonid Kalichman
AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of scapular dyskinesis (SD) in competitive swimmers during training sessions. METHODS: Repeated measurement observational study.20 young competitive swimmers were filmed before, at midpoint and at the end of a training session, performing shoulder flexion and abduction. SD was examined separately by two assessors. Demographic and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaires were collected. RESULTS: SD was observed in 30% of the swimmers before training, in 70%, an hour later, and in 80%, upon completion of the training session...
July 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470361/use-of-biotechnology-devices-to-analyse-fatigue-process-in-swimming-training
#8
V J Clemente-Suárez, J J Arroyo-Toledo
The aim of the present research was to analyze the acute psycho-physiological response during a high intensity interval training (HIIT) session of trained swimmers. We analyzed blood lactate concentration, heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), arms isometric strength, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and cortical arousal before and after a HIIT session in 14 trained swimmers (16.2 ± 2.6 years 169.1 ± 10.2 cm 61.3 ± 9.9 kg). HIIT session consisted in: 4 × 10 m tethered swimming resting 90 s between sets, 3 min rest, 16 × 25 m maximum speed swimming resting 30 s between sets...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245246/oxygen-uptake-kinetics-and-energy-system-s-contribution-around-maximal-lactate-steady-state-swimming-intensity
#9
Jailton Gregório Pelarigo, Leandro Machado, Ricardo Jorge Fernandes, Camila Coelho Greco, João Paulo Vilas-Boas
The purpose of this study was to examine the oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) kinetics and the energy systems' contribution at 97.5, 100 and 102.5% of the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) swimming intensity. Ten elite female swimmers performed three-to-five 30 min submaximal constant swimming bouts at imposed paces for the determination of the swimming velocity (v) at 100%MLSS based on a 7 x 200 m intermittent incremental protocol until voluntary exhaustion to find the v associated at the individual anaerobic threshold...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212266/individual-patterns-in-blood-borne-indicators-of-fatigue-trait-or-chance
#10
Ross Julian, Tim Meyer, Hugh H K Fullagar, Sabrina Skorski, Mark Pfeiffer, Michael Kellmann, Alexander Ferrauti, Anne Hecksteden
Julian, R, Meyer, T, Fullagar, HHK, Skorski, S, Pfeiffer, M, Kellmann, M, Ferrauti, A, and Hecksteden, A. Individual patterns in blood-borne indicators of fatigue-trait or chance. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 608-619, 2017-Blood-borne markers of fatigue such as creatine kinase (CK) and urea (U) are widely used to fine-tune training recommendations. However, predictive accuracy is low. A possible explanation for this dissatisfactory characteristic is the propensity of athletes to react to different patterns of fatigue indicators (e...
March 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890479/heart-rate-variability-and-psychometric-responses-to-overload-and-tapering-in-collegiate-sprint-swimmers
#11
Andrew A Flatt, Bjoern Hornikel, Michael R Esco
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiac-parasympathetic and psychometric responses to competition preparation in collegiate sprint-swimmers. Additionally, we aimed to determine the relationship between average vagal activity and its daily fluctuation during each training phase. DESIGN: Observational. METHODS: Ten Division-1 collegiate sprint-swimmers performed heart rate variability recordings (i.e., log transformed root mean square of successive RR intervals, lnRMSSD) and completed a brief wellness questionnaire with a smartphone application daily after waking...
June 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769804/the-effects-of-swimming-fatigue-on-shoulder-strength-range-of-motion-joint-control-and-performance-in-swimmers
#12
Martyn J Matthews, Daniel Green, Helen Matthews, Emma Swanwick
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of training induced fatigue on shoulder strength, ROM, joint position sense, and stroke length in elite competitive swimmers. METHODS: Seventeen national level swimmers performed maximum isometric strength (internal and external rotation), ROM, and joint position sense tests before and after a fatiguing 8 × 100 m training set. Stroke length, heart rate, blood lactate and blood glucose levels were recorded throughout. RESULTS: Peak blood lactate, blood glucose levels, and heart rate increased significantly (P < 0...
January 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736255/assessing-the-measurement-sensitivity-and-diagnostic-characteristics-of-athlete-monitoring-tools-in-national-swimmers
#13
Stephen Crowcroft, Erin McCleave, Katie Slattery, Aaron J Coutts
PURPOSE: To assess measurement sensitivity and diagnostic characteristics of athlete-monitoring tools to identify performance change. METHODS: Fourteen nationally competitive swimmers (11 male, 3 female; age 21.2 ± 3.2 y) recorded daily monitoring over 15 mo. The self-report group (n = 7) reported general health, energy levels, motivation, stress, recovery, soreness, and wellness. The combined group (n = 7) recorded sleep quality, perceived fatigue, total quality recovery (TQR), and heart-rate variability...
April 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537410/controlled-frequency-breathing-reduces-inspiratory-muscle-fatigue
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Alex R Burtch, Ben T Ogle, Patrick A Sims, Craig A Harms, T Brock Symons, Rodney J Folz, Gerald S Zavorsky
Burtch, AR, Ogle, BT, Sims, PA, Harms, CA, Symons, TB, Folz, RJ, and Zavorsky, GS. Controlled frequency breathing reduces inspiratory muscle fatigue. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1273-1281, 2017-Controlled frequency breathing (CFB) is a common swim training modality involving holding one's breath for approximately 7-10 strokes before taking another breath. We sought to examine the effects of CFB training on reducing respiratory muscle fatigue. Competitive college swimmers were randomly divided into either the CFB group that breathed every 7-10 strokes or a control group that breathed every 3-4 strokes...
May 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518586/do-5-changes-around-maximal-lactate-steady-state-lead-to-swimming-biophysical-modifications
#15
Jailton Gregório Pelarigo, Camila Coelho Greco, Benedito Sérgio Denadai, Ricardo Jorge Fernandes, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, David Robert Pendergast
Our purpose was to examine the swimming biophysical responses at velocities (v) of 97.5, 100 and 102.5% of the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Ten elite female swimmers performed three-to-five 30-min constant tests at imposed paces to determine 97.5, 100 and 102.5%MLSS v. Gas exchange, blood lactate concentration ([La-]), stroke rate (SR) and v were determined during each test. The v values at 97.5, 100 and 102.5%MLSS were 1.21±0.07, 1.24±0.07 and 1.27±0.07m.s(-1), respectively. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and Pulmonary ventilation (V̇E) increased as function of v...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367601/elite-synchronized-swimmers-display-decreased-energy-availability-during-intensified-training
#16
K Schaal, E Tiollier, Y Le Meur, G Casazza, C Hausswirth
Elite synchronized swimmers follow high-volume training regimen that result in elevated rates of exercise energy expenditure (ExEE). While adequate energy intake (EI) is important to optimize recovery, a number of sport-specific constraints may lead to chronically low energy availability (EA = EI-ExEE). This study aimed to quantify changes in EA, endocrine markers of energy conservation, and perceived fatigue in synchronized swimmers, during a week of baseline training followed by 4 weeks of intensified training (IT)...
September 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014092/stress-biomarkers-mood-states-and-sleep-during-a-major-competition-success-and-failure-athlete-s-profile-of-high-level-swimmers
#17
Mounir Chennaoui, Clément Bougard, Catherine Drogou, Christophe Langrume, Christian Miller, Danielle Gomez-Merino, Frédéric Vergnoux
The aim of this study was to evaluate stress markers, mood states, and sleep indicators in high-level swimmers during a major 7-days competition according to the outcomes. Nine swimmers [six men and three women (age: 22 ± 2 and 22 ± 4 years, respectively)] were examined. Before (PRE) and after (POST) each race (series, semi-finals, and finals), salivary concentrations of cortisol, α-amylase (sAA), and chromogranin-A (CgA) were determined. Mood states were assessed by the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire completed before and after the 7-days, and self-reported sleep diaries were completed daily...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937767/individual-patterns-in-blood-borne-indicators-of-fatigue-trait-or-chance
#18
Ross Julian, Tim Meyer, Hugh H K Fullagar, Sabrina Skorski, Mark Pfeiffer, Michael Kellmann, Alexander Ferrauti, Anne Hecksteden
Blood-borne markers of fatigue such as Creatine Kinase (CK) and Urea (U) are widely used to fine-tune training recommendations. However, predictive accuracy is low. A possible explanation for this dissatisfactory characteristic is the propensity of athletes to react with different patterns of fatigue indicators (e.g. predominantly muscular (CK) or metabolic (U)). The aim of the present trial was to explore this hypothesis by using repetitive fatigue-recovery cycles. 22 elite junior swimmers and triathletes (18 ±3 years) were monitored for nine weeks throughout two training phases (low-intensity, high-volume (LIHV) and high-intensity, low-volume (HILV))...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26687118/degree-of-exercise-intensity-during-continuous-chest-compression-in-upper-body-trained-individuals
#19
Hisayoshi Ogata, Ikuyo Fujimaru, Takaharu Kondo
BACKGROUND: Although chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCO-CPR) is recommended for lay bystanders, fatigue is easily produced during CCO-CPR. If CCO-CPR can be performed at a lower intensity of exercise, higher resistance to fatigue is expected. Since chest compression is considered to be a submaximal upper body exercise in a steady rhythm and since the unit of load for chest compression is expressed as work rate, we investigated the possibility that peak work rate of the upper body determines the level of exercise intensity during CCO-CPR...
2015: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457829/muscle-fatigue-when-swimming-intermittently-above-and-below-critical-speed
#20
Jeanne Dekerle, James Paterson
PURPOSE: To examine muscle fatigue of the shoulder internal rotators alongside swimming biomechanics during long-duration submaximal swimming sets performed in 2 different speed domains. METHODS: Eight trained swimmers (mean ± SD 20.5 ± 0.9 y, 173 ± 10 cm, 71.3 ± 10.0 kg) raced over 3 distances (200-, 400-, 800-m races) for determination of critical speed (CS; slope of the distance-time relationship). After a familiarization with muscle isokinetic testing, they subsequently randomly performed 2 constant-speed efforts (6 × 5-min blocks, 2...
July 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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