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Swimmers and fatigue

Jailton Gregório Pelarigo, Leandro Machado, Ricardo Jorge Fernandes, Camila Coelho Greco, João Paulo Vilas-Boas
The purpose of this study was to examine the oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) kinetics and the energy systems' contribution at 97.5, 100 and 102.5% of the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) swimming intensity. Ten elite female swimmers performed three-to-five 30 min submaximal constant swimming bouts at imposed paces for the determination of the swimming velocity (v) at 100%MLSS based on a 7 x 200 m intermittent incremental protocol until voluntary exhaustion to find the v associated at the individual anaerobic threshold...
2017: PloS One
Ross Julian, Tim Meyer, Hugh H K Fullagar, Sabrina Skorski, Mark Pfeiffer, Michael Kellmann, Alexander Ferrauti, Anne Hecksteden
Julian, R, Meyer, T, Fullagar, HHK, Skorski, S, Pfeiffer, M, Kellmann, M, Ferrauti, A, and Hecksteden, A. Individual patterns in blood-borne indicators of fatigue-trait or chance. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 608-619, 2017-Blood-borne markers of fatigue such as creatine kinase (CK) and urea (U) are widely used to fine-tune training recommendations. However, predictive accuracy is low. A possible explanation for this dissatisfactory characteristic is the propensity of athletes to react to different patterns of fatigue indicators (e...
March 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Andrew A Flatt, Bjoern Hornikel, Michael R Esco
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiac-parasympathetic and psychometric responses to competition preparation in collegiate sprint-swimmers. Additionally, we aimed to determine the relationship between average vagal activity and its daily fluctuation during each training phase. DESIGN: Observational. METHODS: Ten Division-1 collegiate sprint-swimmers performed heart rate variability recordings (i.e., log transformed root mean square of successive RR intervals, lnRMSSD) and completed a brief wellness questionnaire with a smartphone application daily after waking...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Martyn J Matthews, Daniel Green, Helen Matthews, Emma Swanwick
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of training induced fatigue on shoulder strength, ROM, joint position sense, and stroke length in elite competitive swimmers. METHODS: Seventeen national level swimmers performed maximum isometric strength (internal and external rotation), ROM, and joint position sense tests before and after a fatiguing 8 × 100 m training set. Stroke length, heart rate, blood lactate and blood glucose levels were recorded throughout. RESULTS: Peak blood lactate, blood glucose levels, and heart rate increased significantly (P < 0...
January 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
Stephen Crowcroft, Erin McCleave, Katie Slattery, Aaron J Coutts
PURPOSE: To assess measurement sensitivity and diagnostic characteristics of athlete monitoring tools to identify performance change. METHODS: Fourteen nationally competitive swimmers (11 males, 3 females, age: 21.2 ± 3.2 y) recorded daily monitoring over 15 months. The "Self-report" group (n=7) reported general health, energy levels, motivation, stress, recovery, soreness and wellness. The "Combined" group (n=7) recorded sleep quality, perceived fatigue, total quality recovery (TQR) and heart rate variability measures...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Alex R Burtch, Ben T Ogle, Patrick A Sims, Craig A Harms, T Brock Symons, Rodney J Folz, Gerald S Zavorsky
Burtch, AR, Ogle, BT, Sims, PA, Harms, CA, Symons, TB, Folz, RJ, and Zavorsky, GS. Controlled frequency breathing reduces inspiratory muscle fatigue. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1273-1281, 2017-Controlled frequency breathing (CFB) is a common swim training modality involving holding one's breath for approximately 7-10 strokes before taking another breath. We sought to examine the effects of CFB training on reducing respiratory muscle fatigue. Competitive college swimmers were randomly divided into either the CFB group that breathed every 7-10 strokes or a control group that breathed every 3-4 strokes...
May 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jailton Gregório Pelarigo, Camila Coelho Greco, Benedito Sérgio Denadai, Ricardo Jorge Fernandes, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, David Robert Pendergast
Our purpose was to examine the swimming biophysical responses at velocities (v) of 97.5, 100 and 102.5% of the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Ten elite female swimmers performed three-to-five 30-min constant tests at imposed paces to determine 97.5, 100 and 102.5%MLSS v. Gas exchange, blood lactate concentration ([La-]), stroke rate (SR) and v were determined during each test. The v values at 97.5, 100 and 102.5%MLSS were 1.21±0.07, 1.24±0.07 and 1.27±0.07m.s(-1), respectively. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and Pulmonary ventilation (V̇E) increased as function of v...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
K Schaal, E Tiollier, Y Le Meur, G Casazza, C Hausswirth
Elite synchronized swimmers follow high-volume training regimen that result in elevated rates of exercise energy expenditure (ExEE). While adequate energy intake (EI) is important to optimize recovery, a number of sport-specific constraints may lead to chronically low energy availability (EA = EI-ExEE). This study aimed to quantify changes in EA, endocrine markers of energy conservation, and perceived fatigue in synchronized swimmers, during a week of baseline training followed by 4 weeks of intensified training (IT)...
July 1, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Mounir Chennaoui, Clément Bougard, Catherine Drogou, Christophe Langrume, Christian Miller, Danielle Gomez-Merino, Frédéric Vergnoux
The aim of this study was to evaluate stress markers, mood states, and sleep indicators in high-level swimmers during a major 7-days competition according to the outcomes. Nine swimmers [six men and three women (age: 22 ± 2 and 22 ± 4 years, respectively)] were examined. Before (PRE) and after (POST) each race (series, semi-finals, and finals), salivary concentrations of cortisol, α-amylase (sAA), and chromogranin-A (CgA) were determined. Mood states were assessed by the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire completed before and after the 7-days, and self-reported sleep diaries were completed daily...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Ross Julian, Tim Meyer, Hugh H K Fullagar, Sabrina Skorski, Mark Pfeiffer, Michael Kellmann, Alexander Ferrauti, Anne Hecksteden
Blood-borne markers of fatigue such as Creatine Kinase (CK) and Urea (U) are widely used to fine-tune training recommendations. However, predictive accuracy is low. A possible explanation for this dissatisfactory characteristic is the propensity of athletes to react with different patterns of fatigue indicators (e.g. predominantly muscular (CK) or metabolic (U)). The aim of the present trial was to explore this hypothesis by using repetitive fatigue-recovery cycles. 22 elite junior swimmers and triathletes (18 ±3 years) were monitored for nine weeks throughout two training phases (low-intensity, high-volume (LIHV) and high-intensity, low-volume (HILV))...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Hisayoshi Ogata, Ikuyo Fujimaru, Takaharu Kondo
BACKGROUND: Although chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCO-CPR) is recommended for lay bystanders, fatigue is easily produced during CCO-CPR. If CCO-CPR can be performed at a lower intensity of exercise, higher resistance to fatigue is expected. Since chest compression is considered to be a submaximal upper body exercise in a steady rhythm and since the unit of load for chest compression is expressed as work rate, we investigated the possibility that peak work rate of the upper body determines the level of exercise intensity during CCO-CPR...
2015: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Jeanne Dekerle, James Paterson
PURPOSE: To examine muscle fatigue of the shoulder internal rotators alongside swimming biomechanics during long-duration submaximal swimming sets performed in 2 different speed domains. METHODS: Eight trained swimmers (mean ± SD 20.5 ± 0.9 y, 173 ± 10 cm, 71.3 ± 10.0 kg) raced over 3 distances (200-, 400-, 800-m races) for determination of critical speed (CS; slope of the distance-time relationship). After a familiarization with muscle isokinetic testing, they subsequently randomly performed 2 constant-speed efforts (6 × 5-min blocks, 2...
July 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Andrew J Callaway
Objective data on swimming performance is needed to meet the demands of the swimming coach and athlete. The purpose of this study is to use a multiple inertial measurement units to calculate Lap Time, Velocity, Stroke Count, Stroke Duration, Stroke Rate and Phases of the Stroke (Entry, Pull, Push, Recovery) in front crawl swimming. Using multiple units on the body, an algorithm was developed to calculate the phases of the stroke based on the relative position of the body roll. Twelve swimmers, equipped with these devices on the body, performed fatiguing trials...
2015: Sensors
Ross H Sanders, Malcolm M Fairweather, Alison Alcock, Carla B McCabe
Despite the importance of maintaining good alignment to minimize resistive drag in swimming there is a paucity of literature relating to the effect of technique asymmetries on rotations of the body about a vertical axis (yaw). The purpose of this paper was to present an approach to analyzing the effect of technique asymmetries on rotations in swimming, exemplifying the process with a case study of a breaststroke swimmer. The kinematics and angular kinetics of an elite female international breaststroke swimmer performing a 'fatigue set' of four 100m swims were derived from digitized three-dimensional video data using a 13 segment body model...
June 2015: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Shilo J Dormehl, Conor D Osborough
The aims of this study were to determine the effect of age, sex and race distance on velocity (v), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) of subelite adolescent swimmers in competition, and to investigate their pacing strategies during the 100-m and 200-m events. Video footage of 112 adolescent swimmers (56 female; 56 male), competing in the 100-m and 200-m freestyle events, in two age groups (12-14; 15-18 years) was recorded and subsequently analyzed. A MANOVA showed that all stroke parameters significantly differed between sexes and between race distances...
August 2015: Pediatric Exercise Science
Natália M Bassan, Tadeu E A S César, Benedito S Denadai, Camila C Greco
PURPOSE: To analyze the relationship between the responses of isometric peak torque (IPT) and maximal rate of force development (RFDmax) with the changes in stroking parameters in an exhaustive exercise performed in front crawl. METHODS: Fifteen male swimmers performed, on different days, the following protocols: maximal 400-m trial, strength tests before and after an exhaustive test at 100% of the mean speed obtained during the 400-m test, and the same procedures on day 2...
January 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
M Lomax, L Tasker, O Bostanci
The upper body trunk musculature is key in supporting breathing, propulsion, and stabilization during front crawl swimming. The aim of this study was to determine if the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, and serratus anterior contributed to the development of inspiratory muscle fatigue observed following front crawl swimming. Fourteen trained swimmers completed a 200-m front crawl swim at 90% of race pace. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (PImax and PEmax) were assessed before (baseline) and after each swim, and electromyography was recorded from the three muscles...
October 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Dale E Rae, Kim J Stephenson, Laura C Roden
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare morning and evening time-trial performance, RPE and mood state of trained swimmers, taking into account chronotype, habitual training time-of-day and PERIOD3 (PER3) variable number tandem repeat genotype. METHODS: Twenty-six swimmers (18 males, age: 32.6 ± 5.7 years) swam 200 m time trials (TT) at 06h30 and 18h30 in a randomised order. RESULTS: There was no difference between morning and evening performance when the swimmers were considered as a single group (06h30: 158...
June 2015: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ren J Shei, Martin Lindley, Ken Chatham, Timothy D Mickleborough
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week swim training and inspiratory muscle training program on respiratory muscle and pulmonary function in competitively trained sub-elite swimmers. METHODS: A double-blind, parallel-group experimental design was employed to compare the effects of swim training alone, swim training with sham-inspiratory muscle training, and swim training with true inspiratory muscle training. Twenty-four competitively trained sub-elite swimmers combined swim training with either flow-resistive inspiratory muscle training set at 80% sustained maximal inspiratory pressure with progressively increased work-rest ratios until task failure for 3 days/week (swim training with inspiratory muscle training, N...
April 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Andrew P Hancock, Kenneth E Sparks, Emily L Kullman
This study examined postactivation potentiation (PAP) and its effect on performance during sprint swimming. After maximal muscular contraction, the muscles are in both a potentiated and fatigued state. However, fatigue dissipates faster than potentiation, creating a window of opportunity for possible performance enhancement. We observed 30 collegiate swimmers (15 men and 15 women) performing 2 swim trials in a randomized order. The control trial involved a standard swim warm-up, followed by a 6-minute rest and by a maximal 100-m freestyle swim effort...
April 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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