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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644830/optimal-chemotactic-responses-in-stochastic-environments
#1
Martin Godány, Bhavin S Khatri, Richard A Goldstein
Although the "adaptive" strategy used by Escherichia coli has dominated our understanding of bacterial chemotaxis, the environmental conditions under which this strategy emerged is still poorly understood. In this work, we study the performance of various chemotactic strategies under a range of stochastic time- and space-varying attractant distributions in silico. We describe a novel "speculator" response in which the bacterium compare the current attractant concentration to the long-term average; if it is higher then they tumble persistently, while if it is lower than the average, bacteria swim away in search of more favorable conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637156/the-sink-or-swim-hypothesis-a-roadmap-from-pathology-to-work-instability
#2
Bilal Akter Mateen, Catherine Doogan, Kate Hayward, Susan Hourihan, Joanne Hurford, E Diane Playford
PURPOSE: Selecting the most appropriate health-related work outcome to evaluate an intervention can be fraught with difficulty. To aid clinicians in navigating this problem we have developed a model, which illustrates how pathology can affect specific measureable quantities, such as work instability. METHODS: Using a modified-Delphi procedure, a panel of experts met initially to analyze the content of 95 health-related work outcome measures and organize the identified areas of measurement into a coherent model, complemented by a narrative review of the literature...
March 3, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629964/a-novel-heterocyclic-compound-improves-working-memory-in-the-radial-arm-maze-and-modulates-the-dopamine-receptor-d1r-in-frontal-cortex-of-the-sprague-dawley-rat
#3
Ahmed M Hussein, Yogesh D Aher, Predrag Kalaba, Nilima Y Aher, Vladimir Dragačević, Bojana Radoman, Marija Ilic, Johann Leban, Tetyana Beryozkina, Abdel Baset M A Ahmed, Ernst Urban, Thierry Langer, Gert Lubec
A series of compounds have been shown to enhance cognitive function via the dopaminergic system and indeed the search for more active and less toxic compounds is continuing. It was therefore the aim of the study to synthetise and test a novel heterocyclic compound for cognitive enhancement in a paradigm for working memory. Specific and effective dopamine re-uptake inhibition (DAT (IC50=4,1 ± 0,8μM) made us test this compound in a radial arm maze (RAM) in the rat. CE-125 (4-((benzhydrylsulfinyl)methyl)-2-cyclopropylthiazole), was tested for dopamine (DAT), serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake inhibition by a well-established system...
June 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628968/performance-trends-in-age-group-triathletes-in-the-olympic-distance-triathlon-at-the-world-championships-2009-2014
#4
Martin Wonerow, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Performance trends in elite triathletes competing in age group classes have been investigated for Ironman triathlon in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ but not for short distance triathletes competing at international level in event such as the Olympic distance triathlon at the World Championships. The aim of the present study was to evaluate participation and performance trends of age group triathletes competing in the Olympic distance triathlon at the ITU (International Triathlon Union) World Championships 2009-2014...
June 30, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626607/phenotypic-variation-in-dorsal-fin-morphology-of-coastal-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-off-mexico
#5
Eduardo Morteo, Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares, Rodrigo Morteo, David W Weller
Geographic variation in external morphology is thought to reflect an interplay between genotype and the environment. Morphological variation has been well-described for a number of cetacean species, including the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). In this study we analyzed dorsal fin morphometric variation in coastal bottlenose dolphins to search for geographic patterns at different spatial scales. A total of 533 dorsal fin images from 19 available photo-identification catalogs across the three Mexican oceanic regions (Pacific Ocean n = 6, Gulf of California n = 6 and, Gulf of Mexico n = 7) were used in the analysis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622759/catching-audiovisual-interactions-with-a-first-person-fisherman-video-game
#6
Yile Sun, Timothy J Hickey, Barbara Shinn-Cunningham, Robert Sekuler
The human brain is excellent at integrating information from different sources across multiple sensory modalities. To examine one particularly important form of multisensory interaction, we manipulated the temporal correlation between visual and auditory stimuli in a first-person fisherman video game. Subjects saw rapidly swimming fish whose size oscillated, either at 6 or 8 Hz. Subjects categorized each fish according to its rate of size oscillation, while trying to ignore a concurrent broadband sound seemingly emitted by the fish...
July 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622359/aerobic-exercise-protects-against-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-and-hypertrophy-via-%C3%AE-3-ar-nnos-no-activation
#7
Bin Wang, Ming Xu, Wenju Li, Xiaoli Li, Qiangsun Zheng, Xiaolin Niu
Aerobic exercise confers sustainable protection against cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to play an important role in exercise-mediated cardioprotection, but the mechanism of NOS/NO stimulation during exercise remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the role of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), NOS activation, and NO metabolites (nitrite and nitrosothiols) in the sustained cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise. An HF model was constructed by transverse aortic constriction (TAC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619276/arginine-vasopressin-relates-with-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#8
Hong-Bo Jiang, Ai-Lin Du, Hai-Yang Luo, Jun Yang, Xiao-Qiu Luo, Rui-Qing Ma, Chang-He Shi, Yu-Ming Xu
Spinocerebellar ataxia is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that the most prevalent type is type 3 (SCA3). Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is released within the lateral septum for controlling the learning and memory. This communication studied the effect of AVP on the spatial learning and memory of SCA3 mice. The spatial learning and memory were analyzed by Morris water maze test (MWM), and AVP concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that (Alves et al., 2010) the swimming velocity, distance traveled and latency to the platform of MWM in SCA3 mice were reduced slower than those in WT mice over 4 training days (p<0...
June 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617384/-a-comparative-study-of-the-effects-of-mexidolum-and-mildronatum-on-the-physical-performance-of-experimental-animals
#9
Т А Voronina, I G Kapitsa, Е А Ivanova
AIM: To evaluate the effects of mexidolum on physical performance using acute and subchronic administration in experimental animals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigation was carried out using 123 male white outbred mice. The forced swim test was used to assess the effects of the drugs on the physical performance of mice. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A single intraperitoneal administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg mexidolum and subchronic intraperitoneal administration of 100 mg/kg mexidolum significantly enhances the physical performance of animals in the forced swim test...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609274/comparison-of-in-vitro-fertilization-outcomes-in-icsi-cycles-after-human-sperm-preparation-by-density-gradient-centrifugation-and-direct-micro-swim-up-without-centrifugation
#10
Simone Palini, Silvia De Stefani, Mariangela Primiterra, Serena Benedetti, Stefano Barone, Luca Carli, Enrico Vaccari, Ulug Murat, Wilfried Feichtinger
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a non-expensive, easy and fast technique (direct micro swim-up) for sperm preparation in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments without the use of centrifuge. METHODS: We carried out a multicentric study in which a total of 140 ICSI-cycles were included. Sibling oocytes were divided into two groups according to semen preparation procedures: group A, discontinuous gradients (DG) (oocytes n=668), and group B, direct micro swim-up (MSU) (oocytes n=660)...
June 1, 2017: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605694/effect-of-increased-kick-frequency-on-propelling-efficiency-and-muscular-co-activation-during-underwater-dolphin-kick
#11
Keisuke Kobayashi Yamakawa, Hirofumi Shimojo, Hideki Takagi, Shozo Tsubakimoto, Yasuo Sengoku
In this study, we investigated the effects of increased kick frequency on the propelling efficiency and the muscular co-activation during underwater dolphin kick. Participants included eight female collegiate swimmers. The participants performed seven 15-m underwater dolphin kick swimming trials at different kick frequencies, which is 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, and 115% of their maximum effort. The Froude (propelling) efficiency of the dolphin kick was calculated from the kinematic analysis. The surface electromyography was measured from six muscles (rectus abdominis, erector spinae, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius)...
June 9, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605647/physiological-determinants-of-individual-variation-in-sensitivity-to-an-organophosphate-pesticide-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#12
David J McKenzie, Felipe R Blasco, Thiago C Belão, Shaun S Killen, Nathan D Martins, Edwin W Taylor, F Tadeu Rantin
Individual variation in sub-lethal sensitivity to the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon was investigated in Nile tilapia, using critical swimming speed (Ucrit) as an indicator. Tilapia exposed for 96h to 500μgl(-1) trichlorfon at 26°C (Tcfn group, n=27) showed a significant decline in mean Ucrit, compared to their own control (pre-exposure) performance in clean water (-14.5±2.3%, mean±SEM), but also compared to a Sham group (n=10) maintained for 96h in clean water. Individuals varied in their relative sensitivity to the pesticide, with the decline in Ucrit after exposure varying from 1 to 41%...
June 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603960/dynamic-colloidal-molecules-maneuvered-by-light-controlled-janus-micromotors
#13
Yirong Gao, Fangzhi Mou, Yizheng Feng, Shengping Che, Wei Li, Leilei Xu, Jianguo Guan
In this work, we have proposed and demonstrated a dynamic colloidal molecule, which is capable of moving autonomously and performing swift, reversible and in-place assembly-dissociation in a high accuracy by manipulating a TiO2/Pt Janus micromotor with light irradiation. Due to the efficient motion of the TiO2/Pt Janus motor and the light-switchable electrostatic interactions between the micromotor and colloidal particles, the colloidal particles can be captured and assembled one by one on the fly, subsequently forming into swimming colloidal molecules by mimicking space-filling models of simple molecules with central atoms...
June 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601355/yogic-breathing-practices-improve-lung-functions-of-competitive-young-swimmers
#14
Chirag Sunil Hakked, Ragavendrasamy Balakrishnan, Manjunath Nandi Krishnamurthy
BACKGROUND: Resistive breathing practices are known to improve endurance and performance in competitive swimmers. However, the effect of Pranayama or Yogic Breathing Practices (YBP) in improving respiratory endurance and performance of competitive swimmers remains un-investigated. OBJECTIVES: To study effects of yogic breathing practices on lung functions of swimmers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty seven national and international competitive swimmers of the age range 13-20 years, with 8...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600298/trematodal-granulomatous-uveitis-in-paediatric-egyptian-patients-a-case-series
#15
Amin Rm, Goweida Mb, El Goweini Hf, Bedda Am, Lotfy Wm, Gaballah Ah, Nadar Aa, Radwan Ae
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical presentations and results of laboratory analysis of waterborne ophthalmic granulomas of the anterior chamber (AC) in Egyptian patients. PARTICIPANTS: 110 patients with granulomatous anterior uveitis and distinctive AC nodules. DESIGN: Prospective, non-comparative, case series. METHODS: Demographic data including age, gender and place of residence were recorded. A full ophthalmic examination with emphasis on the inflammatory characteristics and systemic workup was performed...
June 9, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597913/inherent-vulnerabilities-in-monoaminergic-pathways-predict-the-emergence-of-depressive-impairments-in-an-animal-model-of-chronic-epilepsy
#16
Jesús-Servando Medel-Matus, Don Shin, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
The objective was to determine whether the depression comorbid with epilepsy could be predicted based on inherent premorbid patterns of monoaminergic transmission. In male Wistar rats, despair-like and anhedonia-like behaviors were examined using forced swimming and taste preference tests, respectively. Serotonergic raphe nucleus (RN)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA)-nucleus accumbens (NAcc) pathways were interrogated by fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). The assays were performed before and 2 months after pilocarpine status epilepticus...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597620/critical-velocity-in-swimmers-of-different-ages
#17
Alex Rizzato, Giuseppe Marcolin, Alessandro Rubini, Nicola Olivato, Simone Fava, Antonio Paoli, Gerardo Bosco
BACKGROUND: In swimming one of the most employed training speed among coaches is the non-invasive Theoretical Critical Velocity (TCV) defined as the velocity that can be maintained continuously without exhaustion. METHODS: We calculated the 4mmol/L lactate Critical Velocity (MCV) in a group of swimmers of different ages (Young, Elite and Master), and compared results to the predicted TCV defined starting from the 200 and 400 m freestyle best seasonal performances...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593349/transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-swarm-motility-phenotype-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-mutant-defective-in-periplasmic-glucan-synthesis
#18
Arvind A Bhagwat, Lynn Young, Allen D Smith, Medha Bhagwat
Movement of food-borne pathogens on moist surfaces enables them to migrate towards more favorable niches and facilitate their survival for extended periods of time. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutants defective in Osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPG) synthesis are unable to exhibit motility on moist surfaces (swarming); however, their mobility in liquid (swim motility) remains unaffected. In order to understand the role of OPG in swarm motility, transcriptomic analysis was performed using cells growing on a moist agar surface...
June 8, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593117/seasonality-in-swimming-and-cycling-exploring-a-limitation-of-accelerometer-based-studies
#19
Flo Harrison, Andrew J Atkin, Esther M F van Sluijs, Andy P Jones
Accelerometer-based studies of children's physical activity have reported seasonal patterns in activity levels. However, the inability of many accelerometers to detect activity while the wearer is swimming or cycling may introduce a bias to the estimation of seasonality if participation in these activities are themselves seasonally patterned. We explore seasonal patterns in children's swimming and cycling among a sample of 7-8 year olds (N = 591) participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, UK. Participating children wore an accelerometer for one week on up to five occasions over the year and their parents completed a diary recording daily minutes spent swimming and cycling...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591135/bioelectrical-impedance-vector-analysis-biva-for-measuring-the-hydration-status-in-young-elite-synchronized-swimmers
#20
Marta Carrasco-Marginet, Jorge Castizo-Olier, Lara Rodríguez-Zamora, Xavier Iglesias, Ferran A Rodríguez, Diego Chaverri, Daniel Brotons, Alfredo Irurtia
PURPOSE: The assessment of body hydration is a complex process, and no measurement is valid for all situations. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has emerged as a relatively novel technique for assessing hydration status in sports. We applied BIVA a) to determine hydration changes evoked by an intense synchronized swimming (SS) training session; b) to characterize the sample of young elite swimmers in relation with a nonathletic reference population; and c) to generate its 50%, 75% and 95% percentiles of the bioelectrical variables...
2017: PloS One
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