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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097008/preclinical-findings-predicting-efficacy-and-side-effect-profile-of-ly2940094-an-antagonist-of-nociceptin-receptors
#1
Jeffrey M Witkin, Linda M Rorick-Kehn, Mark J Benvenga, Benjamin L Adams, Scott D Gleason, Karen M Knitowski, Xia Li, Steven Chaney, Julie F Falcone, Janice W Smith, Julie Foss, Kirsti Lloyd, John T Catlow, David L McKinzie, Kjell A Svensson, Vanessa N Barth, Miguel A Toledo, Nuria Diaz, Celia Lafuente, Alma Jiménez, Alfonso Benito, Conception Pedregal, Maria A Martínez-Grau, Anke Post, Michael A Ansonoff, John E Pintar, Michael A Statnick
Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is a 17 amino acid peptide whose receptor is designated ORL1 or nociceptin receptor (NOP). We utilized a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable antagonist with documented engagement with NOP receptors in vivo to assess antidepressant- and anxiolytic-related pharmacological effects of NOP receptor blockade along with measures of cognitive and motor impingement. LY2940094 ([2-[4-[(2-chloro-4,4-difluoro-spiro[5H-thieno[2,3-c]pyran-7,4'-piperidine]-1'-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-pyrazol-1-yl]-3-pyridyl]methanol) displayed antidepressant-like behavioral effects in the forced-swim test in mice, an effect absent in NOP (-/-) mice...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094239/performance-variation-due-to-stiffness-in-a-tuna-inspired-flexible-foil-model
#2
Mariel-Luisa N Rosic, Patrick J M Thornycroft, Kara L Feilich, Kelsey N Lucas, George V Lauder
Tuna are fast, economical swimmers in part due to their stiff, high aspect ratio caudal fins and streamlined bodies. Previous studies using passive caudal fin models have suggested that while high aspect ratio tail shapes such as a tuna's generally perform well, tail performance cannot be determined from shape alone. In this study, we analyzed the swimming performance of tuna-tail-shaped hydrofoils of a wide range of stiffnesses, heave amplitudes, and frequencies to determine how stiffness and kinematics affect multiple swimming performance parameters for a single foil shape...
January 17, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091933/flagellar-regulation-and-virulence-in-the-entomopathogenic-bacteria-xenorhabdus-nematophila-and-photorhabdus-luminescens
#3
Alain Givaudan, Anne Lanois
There is a complex interplay between the regulation of flagellar motility and the expression of virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens. Here, we review the literature on the direct and indirect roles of flagellar motility in mediating the tripartite interaction between entomopathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus), their nematode hosts, and their insect targets. First, we describe the swimming and swarming motility of insect pathogenic bacteria and its impact on insect colonization. Then, we describe the coupling between the expression of flagellar and virulence genes and the dynamic of expression of the flagellar regulon during invertebrate infection...
December 28, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089854/effects-of-adolescent-methamphetamine-and-nicotine-exposure-on-behavioral-performance-and-map-2-immunoreactivity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-adolescent-mice
#4
Jordan M Buck, Alysse S Morris, Sydney J Weber, Jacob Raber, Jessica A Siegel
The neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (MA) exposure in the developing and adult brain can lead to behavioral alterations and cognitive deficits in adults. Previous increases in the rates of adolescent MA use necessitate that we understand the behavioral and cognitive effects of MA exposure during adolescence on the adolescent brain. Adolescents using MA exhibit high rates of nicotine (NIC) use, but the effects of concurrent MA and NIC in the adolescent brain have not been examined, and it is unknown if NIC mediates any of the effects of MA in the adolescent...
January 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078086/unusual-aerobic-performance-at-high-temperatures-in-juvenile-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#5
Jamilynn B Poletto, Dennis E Cocherell, Sarah E Baird, Trinh X Nguyen, Valentina Cabrera-Stagno, Anthony P Farrell, Nann A Fangue
Understanding how the current warming trends affect fish populations is crucial for effective conservation and management. To help define suitable thermal habitat for juvenile Chinook salmon, the thermal performance of juvenile Chinook salmon acclimated to either 15 or 19°C was tested across a range of environmentally relevant acute temperature changes (from 12 to 26°C). Swim tunnel respirometers were used to measure routine oxygen uptake as a measure of routine metabolic rate (RMR) and oxygen uptake when swimming maximally as a measure of maximal metabolic rate (MMR) at each test temperature...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077004/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-modulation-as-a-target-for-ameliorating-effects-of-blast-induced-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Brandon Peter Lucke-Wold, Aric Logsdon, Ryan C Turner, Jason D Huber, Charles L Rosen
Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has been shown to contribute to progressive neurodegenerative disease. Recent evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a mechanistic link between acute neurotrauma and progressive tauopathy. We propose that ER stress contributes to extensive behavioral changes associated with a CTE-like phenotype. Targeting ER stress is a promising option for the treatment of neurotrauma related neurodegeneration warranting investigation. Utilizing our validated and clinically relevant Sprague-Dawley blast model, we investigated a time course of mechanistic changes that occur following bTBI (50 PSI) including: ER stress activation, iron mediated toxicity, and tauopathy via western blot and immunohistochemistry...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073545/a-validated-uplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-surveillance-of-ten-aquatic-biotoxins-in-european-brackish-and-freshwater-systems
#7
Brett Greer, Sara E McNamee, Bas Boots, Lucia Cimarelli, Delphine Guillebault, Karim Helmi, Stefania Marcheggiani, Stefan Panaiotov, Ulrich Breitenbach, Reyhan Akçaalan, Linda K Medlin, Katrin Kittler, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Over the past few decades, there has been an increased frequency and duration of cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in freshwater systems globally. These can produce secondary metabolites called cyanotoxins, many of which are hepatotoxins, raising concerns about repeated exposure through ingestion of contaminated drinking water or food or through recreational activities such as bathing/swimming. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) multi-toxin method has been developed and validated for freshwater cyanotoxins; microcystins-LR, -YR, -RR, -LA, -LY and -LF, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxin-a and the marine diatom toxin domoic acid...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070278/entanglement-is-a-costly-life-history-stage-in-large-whales
#8
Julie van der Hoop, Peter Corkeron, Michael Moore
Individuals store energy to balance deficits in natural cycles; however, unnatural events can also lead to unbalanced energy budgets. Entanglement in fishing gear is one example of an unnatural but relatively common circumstance that imposes energetic demands of a similar order of magnitude and duration of life-history events such as migration and pregnancy in large whales. We present two complementary bioenergetic approaches to estimate the energy associated with entanglement in North Atlantic right whales, and compare these estimates to the natural energetic life history of individual whales...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063342/linking-genomic-responses-of-gonads-with-reproductive-impairment-in-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-exposed-chronically-to-the-chemopreventive-and-antifouling-agent-3-3-diindolylmethane-dim
#9
Lianguo Chen, Doris W T Au, Chenyan Hu, Weipeng Zhang, Bingsheng Zhou, Lin Cai, John P Giesy, Pei-Yuan Qian
3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) has been promoted as an effective chemopreventive and antifouling additive. However, the concurrent risks or side effects of DIM are not fully understood, especially on tissues responsive to estrogen. Therefore, this study employed marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a test model to evaluate relative safety and explore mechanisms of toxic action of DIM on development and function of gonad after chronic (28days) aqueous exposure to relatively low doses (0μg/L or 8.5μg/L). Integration of comprehensive toxicogenomic analysis at the transcriptome and proteome levels with apical endpoints, such as production of eggs and swimming performance of larvae, elucidated the molecular linkage in gonad from bottom up along the reproductive adverse outcome pathway...
December 30, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060275/automated-analysis-of-c-elegans-swim-behavior-using-celest-software
#10
Carolina Ibáñez-Ventoso, Christopher Herrera, Esteban Chen, Douglas Motto, Monica Driscoll
Dissecting the neuronal and neuromuscular circuits that regulate behavior remains a major challenge in biology. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an invaluable model organism in helping to tackle this challenge, from inspiring technological approaches, building the human brain connectome, to actually shedding light on the specific molecular drivers of basic functional patterns. The bulk of the behavioral studies in C. elegans have been performed on solid substrates. In liquid, animals exhibit behavioral patterns that include movement at a range of speeds in 3D, as well as partial body movements, such as a posterior curl without anterior shape change, which introduce new challenges for quantitation...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058114/protective-effects-of-co-enzyme-q10-on-thioacetamide-induced-acute-liver-damage-and-its-correlation-with-behavioral-biochemical-and-pathological-factors
#11
Soheil Ashkani-Esfahani, Fereshteh Bagheri, Yasaman Emami, Elmira Esmaeilzadeh, Negar Azarpira, Nazila Hassanabadi, Marzieh Keshtkar, Mojtaba Farjam, Omid Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Ali Noorafshan
BACKGROUND: Acute liver damage may be followed by biochemical, behavioral, and pathological alterations, which can result in serious complications and even death. OBJECTIVES: In this experimental study we determined whether coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a common supplementary medicine known to have protective, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects in cells, has any protective effect against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver damage and its related neurobehavioral alterations in rats...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057525/lipopolysaccharide-administration-induces-sex-dependent-behavioural-and-serotonergic-neurochemical-signatures-in-mice
#12
Jonathon Sens, Eric Schneider, Joseph Mauch, Anna Schaffstein, Sara Mohamed, Kathryn Fasoli, Joseph Saurine, Aikaterini Britzolaki, Connor Thelen, Pothitos M Pitychoutis
Challenging the innate immune machinery with the pro-inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in the development of a sickness syndrome characterized by numerous depressive-like behavioural and physiological manifestations, most of which overlap with the clinical symptoms of major depression. Although women are known to mount stronger pro-inflammatory responses during infections and being at higher risk to develop depressive disorders compared to men, the vast majority of experimental studies investigating the neurobiological effects of LPS administration have been conducted in males...
January 3, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050954/comparison-of-two-sperm-processing-techniques-for-low-complexity-assisted-fertilization-sperm-washing-followed-by-swim-up-and-discontinuous-density-gradient-centrifugation
#13
Cássio L Fácio, Lígia F Previato, Ligiane A Machado-Paula, Paulo Cs Matheus, Edilberto Araújo
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess and compare sperm motility, concentration, and morphology recovery rates, before and after processing through sperm washing followed by swim-up or discontinuous density gradient centrifugation in normospermic individuals. METHODS: Fifty-eight semen samples were used in double intrauterine insemination procedures; 17 samples (group 1) were prepared with sperm washing followed by swim-up, and 41 (group 2) by discontinuous density gradient centrifugation...
December 1, 2016: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050715/workflow-lexicons-in-healthcare-validation-of-the-swim-lexicon
#14
Chris Meenan, Bradley Erickson, Nancy Knight, Jewel Fossett, Elizabeth Olsen, Prerna Mohod, Joseph Chen, Steve G Langer
For clinical departments seeking to successfully navigate the challenges of modern health reform, obtaining access to operational and clinical data to establish and sustain goals for improving quality is essential. More broadly, health delivery organizations are also seeking to understand performance across multiple facilities and often across multiple electronic medical record (EMR) systems. Interpreting operational data across multiple vendor systems can be challenging, as various manufacturers may describe different departmental workflow steps in different ways and sometimes even within a single vendor's installed customer base...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046858/su-f-i-68-longitudinal-neurochemical-changes-on-rat-prefrontal-cortex-of-single-prolonged-stress-model-by-using-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-at-9-4t
#15
S-I Lim, K-H Song, C-H Yoo, D-C Woo, B-Y Choe
PURPOSE: Single prolonged stress (SPS) is an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it has not been known how PTSD develops from the first exposure to traumatic events and neurochemical differences between acute/single stress and PTSD-triggering stress. Therefore, the object of this study is to determine time-dependent neurochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14; body weight=200-220g) were used...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043809/physical-training-associated-with-enalapril-but-not-to-losartan-results-in-better-cardiovascular-autonomic-effects
#16
Karina Delgado Maida, Ada Clarice Gastaldi, Tabata de Paula Facioli, João Eduardo de Araújo, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza
BACKGROUND: We investigated the cardiovascular autonomic effects of physical training associated with Enalapril or Losartan pharmacological treatments in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: SHRs, 18weeks of age (N=48) was assigned to either sedentary (N=24) and trained (N=24; aerobic training by swimming for 10wk). Each group was subdivided in 3 subgroups (N=8) vehicle (control); Enalapril (10mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)); and Losartan (5mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)). All animals received a 10-week treatment in drinking water...
December 24, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032933/swimming-attendance-during-childhood-and-development-of-asthma-a-meta-analysis
#17
F Valeriani, C Protano, M Vitali, V Romano Spica
BACKGROUND: The association between asthma and swimming pool attendance has not been demonstrated and contrasting results emerged. In order to clarify the association between asthma diagnosis in children and swimming pool attendance, and to assess the consistency of findings of the available epidemiological studies, we completed a literature analysis focusing on literature about the relationship between the exposure to disinfection by-products in indoor swimming pool during childhood and asthma diagnosis...
December 29, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032063/carcinogen-risk-assessment-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-drinking-water-using-probabilistic-approaches
#18
Hamid Karyab, Masud Yunesian, Simin Nasseri, Noushin Rastkari, Amirhosein Mahvi, Ramin Nabizadeh
BACKGROUND: This study was focused on the probability of carcinogen risk of low-level ingestion and dermal exposure with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from drinking water in Tehran, capital of Iran. METHODS: Concentrations of 16 PAHs were measured in the tap, bottled and heated tap water in four different seasons. Using a questionnaire-based survey, exposure with PAHs from drinking water was evaluated via direct ingestion, swimming, washing and showering...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031765/physical-performance-during-water-polo-matches-the-effect-of-the-players-competitive-level
#19
Petros G Botonis, Argyris G Toubekis, Theodoros I Platanou
The purpose of the study was to compare playing intensity and performance changes within a water-polo match in players of different competitive levels. High-level (n = 7) and lower-level (n = 7) players performed a progressively increasing speed test of 5 x 200 m swimming and speed corresponding to lactate concentration of 4.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol•l-1 was calculated. Repeated sprint ability (8 x 20 m) was tested at pre-, the middle and post-match and a 400 m swimming test was completed at pre and post in five water-polo matches...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028518/study-of-the-effects-of-controlled-morphine-administration-for-treatment-of-anxiety-depression-and-cognition-impairment-in-morphine-addicted-rats
#20
Majid Motaghinejad, Sulail Fatima, Sanaz Banifazl, Mohammad Yasan Bangash, Morteza Karimian
BACKGROUND: Morphine dependency usually results in undesired outcomes such as anxiety, depression, and cognitive alterations. In this study, morphine was used to manage morphine dependence-induced anxiety, depression, and learning and memory disturbances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty rats were divided equally into five groups. Group 1 received saline for 21 days. Groups 2-5 were dependent by increasing administration of morphine (15-45 mg/kg) for 7 days. For the next 14 days, morphine was administered as the following regimen: Group 2: once daily; 45 mg/kg (positive controls), Group 3: the same dose with an increasing interval (6 h longer than the previous intervals each time), Group 4: the same dose with an irregular intervals (12, 24, 36 h intervals interchangeably), and Group 5: decreasing doses once daily (every time 2...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
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