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Brassica clubroot

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661147/genotyping-of-plasmodiophora-brassicae-reveals-the-presence-of-distinct-populations
#1
Michael D Holtz, Sheau-Fang Hwang, Stephen E Strelkov
BACKGROUND: Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soilborne pathogen of the family Brassicaceae and the causal agent of clubroot disease. In Canada, P. brassicae is now one of the most important constraints to canola (Brassica napus) production, and is managed mainly by the deployment of resistant cultivars. In recent years, however, new strains of the pathogen have emerged that are capable of overcoming host resistance, posing new challenges for disease management. Despite its economic significance, molecular studies of P...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607585/arabidopsis-thaliana-expressing-pbbsmt-a-gene-encoding-a-sabath-type-methyltransferase-from-the-plant-pathogenic-protist-plasmodiophora-brassicae-show-leaf-chlorosis-and-altered-host-susceptibility
#2
Simon Bulman, Franziska Richter, Sabine Marschollek, Freia Benade, Sabine Jülke, Jutta Ludwig-Müller
The plant pathogenic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae causes the clubroot disease of Brassicaceae. The biotrophic organism has the capacity to downregulate plant defence responses. The previously characterised P. brassicae PbBSMT methyltransferase has substrate specificity for salicylic, benzoic and anthranilic acids. We therefore propose a role for the methylation of SA in attenuating the plant's defence response in infected roots as a novel strategy for intracellular parasitism. To further elucidate the function of PbBSMT, we overexpressed the gene under the control of an inducible promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana and performed physiological, molecular and phytopathological analyses with these transgenic plants under control and induced conditions in comparison to wild type...
April 1, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576079/genome-wide-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-chitinase-gene-family-in-brassica-rapa-reveals-its-role-in-clubroot-resistance
#3
Jingjing Chen, Yinglan Piao, Yiming Liu, Xiaonan Li, Zhongyun Piao
Chitinases, a category of pathogenesis-related proteins, are responsible for catalyzing the hydrolysis of chitin into the N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. Therefore, chitinases are believed to function as a guardian against chitin-containing pathogens. Here, we examined the role of the Brassica rapa chitinase family genes in clubroot disease. A total of 33 chitinase genes were identified and grouped into five classes based on their conserved domain. They were distributed unevenly across eight chromosomes in B. rapa, and 31 of them contained few introns (≤2)...
May 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564648/transcriptome-analysis-of-brassica-juncea-var-tumida-tsen-responses-to-plasmodiophora-brassicae-primed-by-the-biocontrol-strain-zhihengliuella-aestuarii
#4
Yuanli Luo, Daiwen Dong, Yu Su, Xuyi Wang, Yumei Peng, Jiang Peng, Changyong Zhou
Mustard clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is a serious disease that affects Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen, a mustard plant that is the raw material for a traditional fermented food manufactured in Chongqing, China. In our laboratory, we screened the antagonistic bacteria Zhihengliuella aestuarii against P. brassicae. To better understand the biocontrol mechanism, three transcriptome analyses of B. juncea var. tumida Tsen were conducted using Illumina HiSeq 4000, one from B. juncea only inoculated with P...
March 22, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541081/genome-wide-identification-and-expression-profiling-of-sweet-genes-family-reveals-its-role-during-plasmodiophora-brassicae-induced-formation-of-clubroot-in-brassica-rapa
#5
Hong Li, Xiaonan Li, Yuanhu Xuan, Jing Jiang, Yangdou Wei, Zhongyun Piao
Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil borne pathogen and the causal agent of clubroot, a devastating disease of Brassica crops. The pathogen lives inside roots, and hijacks nutrients from the host plants. It is suggested that clubroot galls created an additional nutrient sink in infected roots. However, the molecular mechanism underlying P. brassicae infection and sugar transport is unclear. Here, we analyzed sugar contents in leaves and roots before and after P. brassicae infection using a pair of Chinese cabbage near-isogenic lines (NILs), carrying either a clubroot resistant (CR) or susceptible (CS) allele at the CRb locus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444111/genome-wide-identification-and-role-of-mkk-and-mpk-gene-families-in-clubroot-resistance-of-brassica-rapa
#6
Yinglan Piao, Kaining Jin, Ying He, Jiaxiu Liu, Shuang Liu, Xiaonan Li, Zhongyun Piao
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MPK) cascades play key roles in responses to various biotic stresses, as well as in plant growth and development. However, the responses of MPK and MPK kinase (MKK) in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) to Plasmodiophora brassicae, a causal agent of clubroot disease in Brassica crops, are still not clear. In the present study, a total of 11 B. rapa MKK (BraMKK) and 30 BraMPK genes were identified and unevenly distributed in 6 and 10 chromosomes, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381451/mapkk-inhibitor-u0126-inhibit-plasmodiophora-brassicae-development
#7
Tao Chen, Kai Bi, Yanli Zhao, Xueliang Lyu, Zhixiao Gao, Ying Zhao, Yanping Fu, Jiasen Cheng, Jiatao Xie, Daohong Jiang
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play a central role in cellular growth, proliferation and survival. MAPK cascade genes have been extensively investigated in model plants, mammals, yeast and fungi, but are not characterized in Plasmodiophora brassicae, which causes clubroot disease in cruciferous plants. Here, we identified 7 PbMAPK, 3 PbMAPKK and 9 PbMAPKKK genes in the P. brassicae genome. Transcriptional profiling analysis demonstrated that several MAPK, MAPKK and MAPKKK genes were preferentially expressed in three different zoosporic stages...
January 30, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304736/transcriptome-analysis-of-response-to-plasmodiophora-brassicae-infection-in-the-arabidopsis-shoot-and-root
#8
Solmaz Irani, Brett Trost, Matthew Waldner, Naghabushana Nayidu, Jiangying Tu, Anthony J Kusalik, Christopher D Todd, Yangdou Wei, Peta C Bonham-Smith
BACKGROUND: Clubroot is an important disease caused by the obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae that infects the Brassicaceae. As a soil-borne pathogen, P. brassicae induces the generation of abnormal tissue in the root, resulting in the formation of galls. Root infection negatively affects the uptake of water and nutrients in host plants, severely reducing their growth and productivity. Many studies have emphasized the molecular and physiological effects of the clubroot disease on root tissues...
January 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163558/current-status-and-challenges-in-identifying-disease-resistance-genes-in-brassica-napus
#9
REVIEW
Ting Xiang Neik, Martin J Barbetti, Jacqueline Batley
Brassica napus is an economically important crop across different continents including temperate and subtropical regions in Europe, Canada, South Asia, China and Australia. Its widespread cultivation also brings setbacks as it plays host to fungal, oomycete and chytrid pathogens that can lead to serious yield loss. For sustainable crop production, identification of resistance ( R ) genes in B. napus has become of critical importance. In this review, we discuss four key pathogens affecting Brassica crops: Clubroot ( Plasmodiophora brassicae) , Blackleg ( Leptosphaeria maculans and L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065162/endosphere-microbiome-comparison-between-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-roots-of-brassica-napus-infected-with-plasmodiophora-brassicae
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ying Zhao, Zhixiao Gao, Binnian Tian, Kai Bi, Tao Chen, Huiquan Liu, Jiatao Xie, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Daohong Jiang
Clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is a severe disease of cruciferous crops that causes large hypertrophic galls in the roots. The plant microbiome is important for growth promotion and disease suppression. In this study, using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing techniques, we compared the endosphere microbiome of symptomatic and asymptomatic B. napus roots infected with P. brassicae collected from the same natural clubroot field. The results showed that the microbial population and its relative abundance in the asymptomatic roots was far higher than that in the symptomatic roots, and that many microorganisms in asymptomatic roots have biological control and plant growth promotion functions that may be related to clubroot symptoms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894454/fine-mapping-of-a-clubroot-resistance-gene-in-chinese-cabbage-using-snp-markers-identified-from-bulked-segregant-rna-sequencing
#11
Zhen Huang, Gary Peng, Xunjia Liu, Abhinandan Deora, Kevin C Falk, Bruce D Gossen, Mary R McDonald, Fengqun Yu
Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is an important disease of canola (Brassica napus) in western Canada and worldwide. In this study, a clubroot resistance gene (Rcr2) was identified and fine mapped in Chinese cabbage cv. "Jazz" using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers identified from bulked segregant RNA sequencing (BSR-Seq) and molecular markers were developed for use in marker assisted selection. In total, 203.9 million raw reads were generated from one pooled resistant (R) and one pooled susceptible (S) sample, and >173,000 polymorphic SNP sites were identified between the R and S samples...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674416/genotyping-by-sequencing-reveals-three-qtl-for-clubroot-resistance-to-six-pathotypes-of-plasmodiophora-brassicae-in-brassica-rapa
#12
Fengqun Yu, Xingguo Zhang, Gary Peng, Kevin C Falk, Stephen E Strelkov, Bruce D Gossen
Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is an important disease of Brassica crops worldwide. F1 progeny from the Brassica rapa lines T19 (resistant) × ACDC (susceptible) were backcrossed with ACDC, then self-pollinated to produce BC1S1 lines, From genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of the parental lines and BC1 plants, about 1.32 M sequences from T19 were aligned into the reference genome of B. rapa with 0.4-fold coverage, and 1.77 M sequences with 0.5-fold coverage in ACDC. The number of aligned short reads per plant in the BC1 ranged from 0...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505203/cytological-and-morphological-analysis-of-hybrids-between-brassicoraphanus-and-brassica-napus-for-introgression-of-clubroot-resistant-trait-into-brassica-napus-l
#13
Zongxiang Zhan, Chinedu Charles Nwafor, Zhaoke Hou, Jianfang Gong, Bin Zhu, Yingfen Jiang, Yongming Zhou, Jiangsheng Wu, Zhongyun Piao, Yue Tong, Chao Liu, Chunyu Zhang
Interspecific hybridization is a powerful tool for improvement of crop species, it has the potential to broaden the genetic base and create new plant forms for breeding programs. Synthetic allopolyploid is a widely-used model for the study of genetic recombination and fixed heterosis in Brassica. In Brassica napus breeding, identification and introgression of new sources of clubroot resistance trait from wild or related species into it by hybridization is a long-term crop management strategy for clubroot disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484434/transcriptome-analysis-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-in-response-to-plasmodiophora-brassicae-during-early-infection
#14
Ying Zhao, Kai Bi, Zhixiao Gao, Tao Chen, Huiquan Liu, Jiatao Xie, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Daohong Jiang
Clubroot disease is a serious threat to cruciferous plants worldwide, especially to oilseed rape. However, knowledge on pathogenic molecular mechanisms and host interaction is limited. We presume that the recognition between Arabidopsis thaliana and Plasmodiophora brassicae occurs at the early stage of infection and within a relatively short period. In this study, we demonstrated changes on gene expression and pathways in A. thaliana during early infection with P. brassicae using transcriptome analysis. We identified 1,903 and 1,359 DEGs at 24 and 48 h post-inoculation (hpi), respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265986/manipulation-of-auxin-and-cytokinin-balance-during-the-plasmodiophora-brassicae-arabidopsis-thaliana-interaction
#15
Jutta Ludwig-Müller, Susann Auer, Sabine Jülke, Sabine Marschollek
The symptoms of the clubroot disease on Brassica species caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae relies, among other factors, on the modulation of plant hormones. Signaling, transport as well as biosynthesis and metabolism are key features how the levels of auxins and cytokinins are controlled. We here describe (a) how to inoculate the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with P. brassicae, (b) qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate disease severity in auxin and cytokinin mutants,...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054984/detection-of-ribosomal-dna-sequence-polymorphisms-in-the-protist-plasmodiophora-brassicae-for-the-identification-of-geographical-isolates
#16
Rawnak Laila, Arif Hasan Khan Robin, Kiwoung Yang, Gyung Ja Choi, Jong-In Park, Ill-Sup Nou
Clubroot is a soil-borne disease caused by the protist Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae). It is one of the most economically important diseases of Brassica rapa and other cruciferous crops as it can cause remarkable yield reductions. Understanding P. brassicae genetics, and developing efficient molecular markers, is essential for effective detection of harmful races of this pathogen. Samples from 11 Korean field populations of P. brassicae (geographic isolates), collected from nine different locations in South Korea, were used in this study...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050618/clubroot-resistance-qtl-are-modulated-by-nitrogen-input-in-brassica-napus
#17
A Laperche, Y Aigu, M Jubault, M Ollier, S Guichard, P Glory, S E Strelkov, A Gravot, M J Manzanares-Dauleux
Nitrogen levels can modulate the effectiveness of clubroot resistance in an isolate- and host-specific manner. While the same QTL were detected under high and low nitrogen, their effects were altered. Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most damaging diseases of oilseed rape and is known to be affected by nitrogen fertilization. However, the genetic factors involved in clubroot resistance have not been characterized under nitrogen-limiting conditions. This study aimed to assess the variability of clubroot resistance under different nitrogen levels and to characterize the impact of nitrogen supply on genetic resistance factors...
April 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013378/the-tandem-repeated-organization-of-nb-lrr-genes-in-the-clubroot-resistant-crb-locus-in-brassica-rapa-l
#18
Katsunori Hatakeyama, Tomohisa Niwa, Takeyuki Kato, Takayoshi Ohara, Tomohiro Kakizaki, Satoru Matsumoto
To facilitate prevention of clubroot disease, a major threat to the successful cultivation of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.), we bred clubroot-resistant (CR) cultivars by introducing resistance genes from CR turnips via conventional breeding. Among 11 CR loci found in B. rapa, we identified CRb in Chinese cabbage cultivar 'CR Shinki' as a single dominant gene for resistance against Plasmodiophora brassicae pathotype group 3, against which the stacking of Crr1 and Crr2 loci was not effective. However, the precise location and pathotype specificity of CRb have been controversial, because CRa and Rcr1 also map near this locus...
April 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874080/integrated-omics-study-of-lipid-droplets-from-plasmodiophora-brassicae
#19
Kai Bi, Zhangchao He, Zhixiao Gao, Ying Zhao, Yanping Fu, Jiasen Cheng, Jiatao Xie, Daohong Jiang, Tao Chen
Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot disease in cruciferous. In this report, lipid droplets were observed in the resting spores of P. brassicae. 295 lipid droplet-associated proteins were identified and categorized into nine groups. Transcriptome analysis of these proteins during three different zoosporic stages revealed differences in gene expression pattern. GO enrichment analysis revealed that these proteins associated with lipid droplets were mainly linked to biosynthesis and metabolism. GC-MS analysis revealed that lipid droplets contain seven types of free fatty acids: saturated fatty acids C16:0 and C18:0, and unsaturated fatty acids C18:1Δ9, C18:1Δ11, C18:2, C20:4 and C20:5...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835985/hypoxia-response-in-arabidopsis-roots-infected-by-plasmodiophora-brassicae-supports-the-development-of-clubroot
#20
Antoine Gravot, Gautier Richard, Tanguy Lime, Séverine Lemarié, Mélanie Jubault, Christine Lariagon, Jocelyne Lemoine, Jorge Vicente, Alexandre Robert-Seilaniantz, Michael J Holdsworth, Maria J Manzanares-Dauleux
BACKGROUND: The induction of alcohol fermentation in roots is a plant adaptive response to flooding stress and oxygen deprivation. Available transcriptomic data suggest that fermentation-related genes are also frequently induced in roots infected with gall forming pathogens, but the biological significance of this induction is unclear. In this study, we addressed the role of hypoxia responses in Arabidopsis roots during infection by the clubroot agent Plasmodiophora brassicae. RESULTS: The hypoxia-related gene markers PYRUVATE DECARBOXYLASE 1 (PDC1), PYRUVATE DECARBOXYLASE 2 (PDC2) and ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE 1 (ADH1) were induced during secondary infection by two isolates of P...
November 11, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
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