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Brassica rapa clubroot

Tao Song, Mingguang Chu, Rachid Lahlali, Fengqun Yu, Gary Peng
Clubroot, caused by the plasmodiophorid pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most serious diseases on Brassica crops worldwide and a major threat to canola production in western Canada. Host resistance is the key strategy for clubroot management on canola. Several clubroot resistance (CR) genes have been identified, but the mechanisms associated with these CR genes are poorly understood. In the current study, a label-free shotgun proteomic approach was used to profile and compare the proteomes of Brassica rapa carrying and not carrying the CR gene Rcr1 in response to P...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fengqun Yu, Xingguo Zhang, Zhen Huang, Mingguang Chu, Tao Song, Kevin C Falk, Abhinandan Deora, Qilin Chen, Yan Zhang, Linda McGregor, Bruce D Gossen, Mary Ruth McDonald, Gary Peng
Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is an important disease on Brassica species worldwide. A clubroot resistance gene, Rcr1, with efficacy against pathotype 3 of P. brassicae, was previously mapped to chromosome A03 of B. rapa in pak choy cultivar "Flower Nabana". In the current study, resistance to pathotypes 2, 5 and 6 was shown to be associated with Rcr1 region on chromosome A03. Bulked segregant RNA sequencing was performed and short read sequences were assembled into 10 chromosomes of the B. rapa reference genome v1...
2016: PloS One
Kazutaka Kawamura, Takahiro Kawanabe, Motoki Shimizu, Keiichi Okazaki, Makoto Kaji, Elizabeth S Dennis, Kenji Osabe, Ryo Fujimoto
Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis) is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful...
March 2016: Data in Brief
Jonghoon Lee, Nur Kholilatul Izzah, Beom-Soon Choi, Ho Jun Joh, Sang-Choon Lee, Sampath Perumal, Joodeok Seo, Kyounggu Ahn, Eun Ju Jo, Gyung Ja Choi, Ill-Sup Nou, Yeisoo Yu, Tae-Jin Yang
Clubroot is a devastating disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae and results in severe losses of yield and quality in Brassica crops. Many clubroot resistance genes and markers are available in Brassica rapa but less is known in Brassica oleracea. Here, we applied the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique to construct a high-resolution genetic map and identify clubroot resistance (CR) genes. A total of 43,821 SNPs were identified using GBS data for two parental lines, one resistant and one susceptible lines to clubroot, and 18,187 of them showed >5× coverage in the GBS data...
February 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Mingguang Chu, Tao Song, Kevin C Falk, Xingguo Zhang, Xunjia Liu, Adrian Chang, Rachid Lahlali, Linda McGregor, Bruce D Gossen, Gary Peng, Fengqun Yu
BACKGROUND: The protist Plasmodiophora brassicae is a biotrophic soil-borne pathogen that causes clubroot on Brassica crops worldwide. Clubroot disease is a serious threat to the 8 M ha of canola (Brassica napus) grown annually in western Canada. While host resistance is the key to clubroot management, sources of resistance are limited. RESULTS: To identify new sources of clubroot resistance (CR), we fine mapped a CR gene (Rcr1) from B. rapa ssp. chinensis to the region between 24...
2014: BMC Genomics
Rachid Lahlali, Linda McGregor, Tao Song, Bruce D Gossen, Kazuhiko Narisawa, Gary Peng
An endophytic fungus, Heteroconium chaetospira isolate BC2HB1 (Hc), suppressed clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae -Pb) on canola in growth-cabinet trials. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that Hc penetrated canola roots and colonized cortical tissues. Based on qPCR analysis, the amount of Hc DNA found in canola roots at 14 days after treatment was negatively correlated (r = 0.92, P<0.001) with the severity of clubroot at 5 weeks after treatment at a low (2×10(5) spores pot(-1)) but not high (2×10(5) spores pot(-1)) dose of pathogen inoculum...
2014: PloS One
Jingjing Chen, Jing Jing, Zhongxiang Zhan, Teng Zhang, Chunyu Zhang, Zhongyun Piao
Plasmodiophora brassicae, the causal agent of clubroot disease of the Brassica crops, is widespread in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for partial resistance to 4 different isolates of P. brassicae (Pb2, Pb4, Pb7, and Pb10) were investigated using a BC1F1 population from a cross between two subspecies of Brassica rapa, i.e. Chinese cabbage inbred line C59-1 as a susceptible recurrent parent and turnip inbred line ECD04 as a resistant donor parent. The BC1F2 families were assessed for resistance under controlled conditions...
2013: PloS One
Takeyuki Kato, Katsunori Hatakeyama, Nobuko Fukino, Satoru Matsumoto
In Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), the clubroot resistance (CR) gene CRb is effective against Plasmodiophora brassicae isolate No. 14, which is classified as pathotype group 3. Although markers linked to CRb have been reported, an accurate position in the genome and the gene structure are unknown. To determine the genomic location and estimate the structure of CRb, we developed 28 markers (average distance, 20.4 kb) around CRb and constructed a high-density partial map. The precise position of CRb was determined by using a population of 2,032 F2 plants generated by selfing B...
March 2013: Breeding Science
Katsunori Hatakeyama, Keita Suwabe, Rubens Norio Tomita, Takeyuki Kato, Tsukasa Nunome, Hiroyuki Fukuoka, Satoru Matsumoto
Clubroot disease, caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin, is one of the most economically important diseases of Brassica crops in the world. Although many clubroot resistance (CR) loci have been identified through genetic analysis and QTL mapping, the molecular mechanisms of defense responses against P. brassicae remain unknown. Fine mapping of the Crr1 locus, which was originally identified as a single locus, revealed that it comprises two gene loci, Crr1a and Crr1b. Here we report the map-based cloning and characterization of Crr1a, which confers resistance to clubroot in Brassica rapa...
2013: PloS One
Takeyuki Kato, Katsunori Hatakeyama, Nobuko Fukino, Satoru Matsumoto
In Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), the clubroot resistance (CR) genes Crr1 and Crr2 are effective against the mild Plasmodiophora brassicae isolate Ano-01 and the more virulent isolate Wakayama-01, but not against isolate No. 14, classified into pathotype group 3. 'Akiriso', a clubroot-resistant F(1) cultivar, showed resistance to isolate No. 14. To increase the durability of resistance, we attempted to identify the CR locus in 'Akiriso'. CR in 'Akiriso' segregated as a single dominant gene and was linked to several molecular markers that were also linked to CRb, a CR locus from cultivar 'CR Shinki'...
September 2012: Breeding Science
Keita Suwabe, Go Suzuki, Tsukasa Nunome, Katsunori Hatakeyama, Yasuhiko Mukai, Hiroyuki Fukuoka, Satoru Matsumoto
Genome evolution is a continuous process and genomic rearrangement occurs both within and between species. With the sequencing of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, comparative genetics and genomics offer new insights into plant biology. The genus Brassica offers excellent opportunities with which to compare genomic synteny so as to reveal genome evolution. During a previous genetic analysis of clubroot resistance in Brassica rapa, we identified a genetic region that is highly collinear with Arabidopsis chromosome 4...
June 2012: Breeding Science
Hiroki Ueno, Etsuo Matsumoto, Daisuke Aruga, Satoshi Kitagawa, Hideo Matsumura, Nobuaki Hayashida
Clubroot disease is one of the major diseases affecting Brassicaceae crops, and a number of these crops grown commercially, such as Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), are known to be highly susceptible to clubroot disease. To provide protection from this disease, plant breeders have introduced genes for resistance to clubroot from the European turnip into susceptible lines. The CRa gene confers specific resistance to the clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae isolate M85. Fine mapping of the CRa locus using synteny to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome and partial genome sequences of B...
December 2012: Plant Molecular Biology
Geoffrey Wagner, Sophie Charton, Christine Lariagon, Anne Laperche, Raphaël Lugan, Julie Hopkins, Pierre Frendo, Alain Bouchereau, Régine Delourme, Antoine Gravot, Maria J Manzanares-Dauleux
Clubroot disease affects all Brassicaceae spp. and is caused by the obligate biotroph pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. The development of galls on the root system is associated with the establishment of a new carbon metabolic sink. Here, we aimed to deepen our knowledge of the involvement of primary metabolism in the Brassica napus response to clubroot infection. We studied the dynamics and the diversity of the metabolic responses to the infection. Root system metabotyping was carried out for 18 rapeseed genotypes displaying different degrees of symptom severity, under inoculated and noninoculated conditions at 42 days postinoculation (dpi)...
November 2012: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Kalpana Sharma, Bruce D Gossen, Mary Ruth McDonald
A study was conducted to assess the effect of temperature on infection and development of Plasmodiophora brassicae in the root cortex of Shanghai pak choy (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) and on subsequent clubroot severity. Ten-day-old seedlings were grown individually, inoculated with resting spores, and maintained in growth cabinets at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30?C. Seedlings were harvested at 2-day intervals, starting 8 days after inoculation (DAI) and continuing until 42 DAI. Roots were assessed at 4-day intervals for the incidence of cortical infection and stage of infection (young plasmodia, mature plasmodia, and resting spores), at 2-day intervals for symptom development and clubroot severity, and at 8-day intervals for the number of spores per gram of gall...
December 2011: Phytopathology
Rieko Niwa, Ai Kawahara, Hiroharu Murakami, Shuhei Tanaka, Tatsuhiro Ezawa
Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil-borne obligate intracellular parasite in the phylum Cercozoa of the Rhizaria that causes clubroot disease of crucifer crops. To control the disease, understanding the distribution and infection routes of the pathogen is essential, and thus development of reliable molecular markers to discriminate geographic populations is required. In this study, the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) repeat unit of P. brassicae was determined, with particular emphasis on the structure of large subunit (LSU) rDNA, in which polymorphic regions were expected to be present...
July 2011: Protist
Toshiki Ishikawa, Keiichi Okazaki, Haruka Kuroda, Kimiko Itoh, Toshiaki Mitsui, Hidetaka Hori
SUMMARY Three isoforms of nitrilase were cloned from turnip, Brassica rapa L., and their expression during clubroot development caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae was investigated. The isoforms were designated BrNIT-T1, BrNIT-T2 and BrNIT-T4 based on homology to known nitrilases. BrNIT-T1 and BrNIT-T2 have 80% homology to three nitrilases from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtNIT1, AtNIT2 and AtNIT3). BrNIT-T4 showed 90% homology to AtNIT4. To confirm their enzyme activity, the recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli...
September 2007: Molecular Plant Pathology
Sugihiro Ando, Seiya Tsushima, Akemi Tagiri, Shinichiro Kamachi, Ken-Ichi Konagaya, Takashi Hagio, Yutaka Tabei
SUMMARY In clubroot disease, gall formation is induced by infection with the obligate biotroph Plasmodiophora brassicae due to increased levels of auxins and cytokinins. Because aldehyde oxidase (AO) may be involved in auxin biosynthesis in plants, we isolated two AO genes (BrAO1 and BrAO2) from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis cv. Muso), which are the most similar to AAO1 among Arabidopsis AO genes, and examined their expressions during clubroot development. The expression of BrAO1 was enhanced in inoculated roots from 15 days post-inoculation (dpi) when visible clubroots were still undetectable...
July 2006: Molecular Plant Pathology
T Nagaoka, M A U Doullah, S Matsumoto, S Kawasaki, T Ishikawa, H Hori, K Okazaki
To perform comparative studies of CR (clubroot resistance) loci in Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa and to develop marker-assisted selection in B. oleracea, we constructed a B. oleracea map, including specific markers linked to CR genes of B. rapa. We also analyzed CR-QTLs using the mean phenotypes of F(3) progenies from the cross of a resistant double-haploid line (Anju) with a susceptible double-haploid line (GC). In the nine linkage groups obtained (O1-O9), the major QTL, pb-Bo(Anju)1, was derived from Anju with a maximum LOD score (13...
May 2010: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Akito Kamei, Masato Tsuro, Nakao Kubo, Takeshi Hayashi, Ning Wang, Tatsuhito Fujimura, Masashi Hirai
A QTL analysis for clubroot resistance (CR) of radish was performed using an F(2) population derived from a crossing of a CR Japanese radish and a clubroot-susceptible (CS) Chinese radish. F(3) plants obtained by selfing of F(2) plants were used for the CR tests. The potted seedlings were inoculated and the symptom was evaluated 6 weeks thereafter. The mean disease indexes of the F(3) plants were used for the phenotype of the F(2). The results of two CR tests were analyzed for the presence of QTL. A linkage map was constructed using AFLP and SSR markers; it spanned 554 cM and contained 18 linkage groups...
March 2010: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
T Asano, K Kageyama, M Hyakumachi
ABSTRACT Resting spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae were surface-disinfested by treatment with 2% chloramine-T for 20 min and then with an antibiotic solution (1,000 ppm of colistin sulfate, 1,000 ppm of vancomycin hydrochloride, and 6,000 ppm of cefotaxime sodium) for 1 day. The disinfested resting spores were used to inoculate hairy roots of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Fuji Wase), Chinese cabbage (B. pekinensis cv. Musou Hakusai), turnip (B. rapa var. rapifera cv. Wase Okabu), and rape (B...
April 1999: Phytopathology
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