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Brassica rapa

Seung Hee Eom, Seung-A Baek, Jae Kwang Kim, Tae Kyung Hyun
Although drought stress is one of the most limiting factors in growth and production of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), the underlying biochemical and molecular causes are poorly understood. In the present study, to address the mechanisms underlying the drought responses, we analyzed the transcriptome profile of Chinese cabbage grown under drought conditions. Drought stress transcriptionally activated several transcription factor genes, including AP2 / ERFs , bHLHs , NACs and bZIPs , and was found to possibly result in transcriptional variation in genes involved in organic substance metabolic processes...
May 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Feiyi Huang, Tongkun Liu, Jin Wang, Xilin Hou
BcFLC2 functioned as a repressor of flowering by directly regulating BcTEM1, BcMAF2, BcSOC1 and BcSPL15 in Pak-choi. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) plays an important role in regulating flowering time. Here, we functionally described an FLC homologous gene, BcFLC2, that negatively regulated flowering in Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis). The sequence comparison to Arabidopsis FLC showed that BcFLC2 also had a MADS-box domain at the N terminus. BcFLC2 was highly expressed in the leaves, roots, stems and stamens, and its expression was repressed by vernalization in Pak-choi...
May 14, 2018: Planta
Gaofeng Liu, Yudong Xia, Tongkun Liu, Shaojun Dai, Xilin Hou
Cytosine DNA methylation is a critical epigenetic mechanism in the silencing of transposable elements, imprinting and regulating gene expression. However, little is known about the potential role of mC in response to heat stress. To determine and explore the functions of the dynamic DNA methylome during heat stress, we characterized single-base resolution methylome maps of Brassica rapa and assessed the dynamic changes of mC under heat stress using whole genome bisulfite sequencing. On average, the DNA methylation levels of CG, CHG and CHH are 39...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rebecca Klopsch, Katja Witzel, Anna Artemyeva, Silke Ruppel, F Hanschen
An in-depth glucosinolate (GLS) profiling was performed on a core collection of 91 Brassica rapa accessions, representing divers morphotypes of heterogenous geographical origin, to better understand the natural variation in GLS accumulation and GLS breakdown product formation. Leaves of the 91 B. rapa accessions were analyzed for their GLS composition by UHPLC-DAD and the corresponding breakdown products by GC-MS. Fifteen different GLS were identified and aliphatic GLS prevailed regarding diversity and concentration...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yue Zhang, Chunfang Zheng, David Sankoff
BACKGROUND: Fractionation is the genome-wide process of losing one gene per duplicate pair following whole genome multiplication (doubling, tripling, …). This is important in the evolution of plants over tens of millions of years, because of their repeated cycles of genome multiplication and fractionation. One type of evidence in the study of these processes is the frequency distribution of similarities between the two genes, over all the duplicate pairs in the genome. RESULTS: We study modeling and inference problems around the processes of fractionation and whole genome multiplication focusing first on the frequency distribution of similarities of duplicate pairs in the genome...
May 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
Chang-Kug Kim, Young-Joo Seol, Sampath Perumal, Jonghoon Lee, Nomar Espinosa Waminal, Murukarthick Jayakodi, Sang-Choon Lee, Seungwoo Jin, Beom-Soon Choi, Yeisoo Yu, Ho-Cheol Ko, Ji-Weon Choi, Kyoung-Yul Ryu, Seong-Han Sohn, Isobel Parkin, Tae-Jin Yang
The concept of U's triangle, which revealed the importance of polyploidization in plant genome evolution, described natural allopolyploidization events in Brassica using three diploids [B. rapa (A genome), B. nigra (B), and B. oleracea (C)] and derived allotetraploids [B. juncea (AB genome), B. napus (AC), and B. carinata (BC)]. However, comprehensive understanding of Brassica genome evolution has not been fully achieved. Here, we performed low-coverage (2-6×) whole-genome sequencing of 28 accessions of Brassica as well as of Raphanus sativus [R genome] to explore the evolution of six Brassica species based on chloroplast genome and ribosomal DNA variations...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lesley G Campbell, Stephanie J Melles, Eric Vaz, Rebecca J Parker, Kevin S Burgess
Premise of the Study: We present an innovative technique for sampling, identifying, and locating plant populations that release pollen, without extensive ground surveys. This method (1) samples pollen at random locations within the target species' habitat, (2) detects species' presence using morphological pollen analysis, and (3) uses kriging to predict likely locations of populations to focus future search efforts. Methods: To demonstrate, we applied the pollen sleuthing system to search for artificially constructed populations of Brassica rapa in an old field...
January 2018: Applications in Plant Sciences
Sheila McCormick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jonathan R Pleban, D Scott Mackay, Timothy L Aston, Brent E Ewers, Cynthia Weinig
Agronomists have used statistical crop models to predict yield on a genotype-by-genotype basis. Mechanistic models, based on fundamental physiological processes common across plant taxa, will ultimately enable yield prediction applicable to diverse genotypes and crops. Here, genotypic information is combined with multiple mechanistically based models to characterize photosynthetic trait differentiation among genotypes of Brassica rapa . Infrared leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence observations are analyzed using Bayesian methods...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yan Liu, Cui Xu, Xuebing Tang, Surui Pei, Di Jin, Minghao Guo, Meng Yang, Yaowei Zhang
Inbreeding depression is the reduction in fitness observed in inbred populations. In plants, it leads to disease, weaker resistance to adverse environmental conditions, inhibition of growth, and decrease of yield. To elucidate molecular mechanisms behind inbreeding depression, we compared global DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles of a normal and a highly inbred heading degenerated variety of the Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). DNA methylation was reduced in inbred plants, suggesting a change in the epigenetic landscape...
April 26, 2018: Gene
Guoqing Li, Xiaochen Hu, Lulu Hou, Lin Cao, Qinhu Wang, Dandan Wang, Xiaoqian Mu, Yanfeng Zhang, Xiaona Zhou, Yang Zhao, Chang Gen Xie
Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling is a vital physiological step that is used by many land plants to fight against environmental stress. As components of the linear ABA signaling pathway, clade A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2C-As) are mainly inhibited by PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE1/PYR1-LIKE/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (PYLs)-type receptors upon their binding to ABA. Here, we show that the genome of Brassica rapa encodes 14 putative clade A PP2C-like proteins (BrPP2C-As). Two of these BrPP2C-As, Bra025964 and Bra016595, show high similarity to the HAB2 (Homology to ABI2) protein in Arabidopsis...
April 25, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nobuyoshi Ishii, Masashi Murakami, Takahiro Suzuki, Keiko Tagami, Shigeo Uchida, Nobuhito Ohte
The effects of the Japanese horned beetle larvae on the transfer of 137 Cs from a contaminated leaf litter to the leaf vegetable, komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was studied. Feces of the larvae which were fed 137 Cs-contaminated leaf litter were added to a potting mix in which komatsuna plants were cultivated. The presence of feces increased the harvest yield of komatsuna, suggesting that feces provided nutrients for the plant growth. In addition, the amount of exchangeable 137 Cs in leaf litter was experimentally confirmed to be enhanced by the presence of feces which were excreted by larvae feeding...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wenting Zhang, Shirin Shirin Mirlohi, Xiaorong Li, Yuke He
Leaf traits affect plant agronomic performance; for example, leaf hair number provides a morphological indicator of drought and insect resistance. Brassica rapa crops have diverse phenotypes and many B. rapa single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified and used as molecular markers for plant breeding. However, which SNPs are functional for leaf hair traits and therefore effective for breeding purposes remains unknown. Here we identify a set of SNPs in the B. rapa ssp. pekinenesis candidate gene BrpHAIRY LEAVES1 (BrpHL1) and a number of SNPs of BrpHL1 in a natural population of 210 B...
April 23, 2018: Plant Physiology
Nicolas Denancé, Boris Szurek, Erin L Doyle, Emmanuelle Lauber, Lisa Fontaine-Bodin, Sébastien Carrère, Endrick Guy, Ahmed Hajri, Aude Cerutti, Tristan Boureau, Stéphane Poussier, Matthieu Arlat, Adam J Bogdanove, Laurent D Noël
Xanthomonas transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are injected inside plant cells to promote host susceptibility by enhancing transcription of host susceptibility genes. TALE-encoding (tal) genes were thought to be absent from Brassicaceae-infecting Xanthomonas campestris (Xc) genomes based on four reference genomic sequences. We discovered tal genes in 26 of 49 Xc strains isolated worldwide and used a combination of single molecule real time (SMRT) and tal amplicon sequencing to yield a near-complete description of the TALEs found in Xc (Xc TALome)...
April 20, 2018: New Phytologist
Waleed Amjad Khan, Xilin Hou, Ke Han, Nadeem Khan, Huijie Dong, Muhammad Saqib, Zhishuo Zhang, Emal Naseri, Chun-Mei Hu
Non-heading chinese cabbage (NHCC) (Brassica rapa ssp. chinenisis) is an important Brassica vegetable which is also known for its wide range of cultivars that differ in their appearance, leaf color, size and shape. For the purpose to investigate the effect of these phenotypic differences on their lipid composition, seven morphotypes of NHCC (Suzhouqing, Aijaohuang, Wutacai, Yellowrose, Ziluolan, Xiangqingcai and Zicaitai) were selected for this study. For this reason, extensive metabolic approach was adopted which was mainly focused on lipidomics...
April 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Zakir Hossain, Bhinu V-S Pillai, Margaret Y Gruber, Min Yu, Lisa Amyot, Abdelali Hannoufa
BACKGROUND: Brassica crops are cultivated widely for human consumption and animal feed purposes, and oilseed rape/canola (Brassica napus and rapa) is the second most important oilseed worldwide. Because of its natural diversity and genetic complexity, genomics studies on oilseed rape will be a useful resource base to modify the quantity and quality of biomass in various crops, and therefore, should have a positive impact on lignocellulosic biofuel production. The objective of this study was to perform microarray analysis on two variable lignin containing oilseed rape cultivars to target novel genes and transcription factors of importance in Brassica lignin regulation for applied research...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
Ghazala Nawaz, Kwanuk Lee, Su Jung Park, Yeon-Ok Kim, Hunseung Kang
Although the roles of many DEAD-box RNA helicases (RHs) have been determined in the nucleus as well as in cytoplasm during stress responses, the importance of chloroplast-targeted DEAD-box RHs in stress response remains largely unknown. In this study, we determined the function of BrRH22, a chloroplast-targeted DEAD-box RH in cabbage (Brassica rapa), in abiotic stress responses. The expression of BrRH22 was markedly increased by drought, heat, salt, or cold stress and by ABA treatment, but was largely decreased by UV stress...
April 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jingxue Wang, Xiaoming Wang, Siyu Geng, Sanjay K Singh, Yaohui Wang, Sitakanta Pattanaik, Ling Yuan
Genome-wide identification, expression analysis, and functional characterization of previously uncharacterized hexokinase family of oil crop, Brassica napus, underscore the importance of this gene family in plant growth and development. In plants, the multi-gene family of dual-function hexokinases (HXKs) plays important roles in sugar metabolism and sensing that affect growth and development. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop; however, little is known about the B. napus HXK gene family...
April 11, 2018: Planta
Aurélien Blary, Adrián Gonzalo, Frédérique Eber, Aurélie Bérard, Hélène Bergès, Nadia Bessoltane, Delphine Charif, Catherine Charpentier, Laurence Cromer, Joelle Fourment, Camille Genevriez, Marie-Christine Le Paslier, Maryse Lodé, Marie-Odile Lucas, Nathalie Nesi, Andrew Lloyd, Anne-Marie Chèvre, Eric Jenczewski
Meiotic crossovers (COs) are essential for proper chromosome segregation and the reshuffling of alleles during meiosis. In WT plants, the number of COs is usually small, which limits the genetic variation that can be captured by plant breeding programs. Part of this limitation is imposed by proteins like FANCM, the inactivation of which results in a 3-fold increase in COs in Arabidopsis thaliana . Whether the same holds true in crops needed to be established. In this study, we identified EMS induced mutations in FANCM in two species of economic relevance within the genus Brassica ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Faria Nisar, Muhammad Aslam Mirza, Riffat Naseem Malik, Muhammad Aziz Ch, Kauser Yasmeen
The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity of Brassica oleracea (Cabbage), Brassica rapa (Turnip) and Raphanus sativus (Radish). All of the three selected vegetables were ultrasonically extracted in water and acetone. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and H2O2. Highest phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents were found among water extract of Raphanus sativus, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa respectively. Highest %age of DPPH inhibition was exhibited by water extract of Brassica rapa and highest OH◦ radical scavenging activity was shown by water extract of Raphanus sativus...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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