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Brassica rapa

Jieyong Ou, Hong Li, Zengguang Yan, Youya Zhou, Liping Bai, Chaoyan Zhang, Xuedong Wang, Guikui Chen
Clay minerals have been proposed as amendments for remediating metal-contaminated soils owing to their abundant reserves, high performance, simplicity of use and low cost. Two novel clay minerals, Maifan stone and illite/smectite clay, were examined in the in situ immobilisation of soil metals. The application of 0.5% Maifan stone or illite/smectite clay to field soils significantly decreased the fractions of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu and Pb. Furthermore, reductions of 35...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hong Li, Xiaonan Li, Yuanhu Xuan, Jing Jiang, Yangdou Wei, Zhongyun Piao
Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil borne pathogen and the causal agent of clubroot, a devastating disease of Brassica crops. The pathogen lives inside roots, and hijacks nutrients from the host plants. It is suggested that clubroot galls created an additional nutrient sink in infected roots. However, the molecular mechanism underlying P. brassicae infection and sugar transport is unclear. Here, we analyzed sugar contents in leaves and roots before and after P. brassicae infection using a pair of Chinese cabbage near-isogenic lines (NILs), carrying either a clubroot resistant (CR) or susceptible (CS) allele at the CRb locus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yan Liu, Xiaoyu Guan, Shengnan Liu, Meng Yang, Junhui Ren, Meng Guo, Zhihui Huang, Yaowei Zhang
Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp . pekinensis ) is a widely cultivated and economically important vegetable crop with typical leaf curvature. The TCP (Teosinte branched1, Cycloidea, Proliferating cell factor) family proteins are plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) and play important roles in many plant biological processes, especially in the regulation of leaf curvature. In this study, 39 genes encoding TCP TFs are detected on the whole genome of B. rapa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of TCPs between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa , TCP genes of Chinese cabbage are named from BrTCP1a to BrTCP24b ...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aditi Jain, Saurabh Anand, Neer K Singh, Sandip Das
The impact of polyploidy on functional diversification of cis-regulatory elements is poorly understood. This is primarily on account of lack of well-defined structure of cis-elements and a universal regulatory code. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of sequence and functional diversification of paralogous and homeologous promoter elements associated with MIR164 from Brassica. The availability of whole genome sequence allowed us to identify and isolate a total of 42 homologous copies of MIR164 from diploid species-Brassica rapa (A-genome), Brassica nigra (B-genome), Brassica oleracea (C-genome), and allopolyploids-Brassica juncea (AB-genome), Brassica carinata (BC-genome) and Brassica napus (AC-genome)...
March 12, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Gregory Poi, Esmaeil Shahsavari, Arturo Aburto-Medina, Puah Chum Mok, Andrew S Ball
Bioaugmentation or the addition of microbes to contaminated sites has been widely used to treat contaminated soil or water; however this approach is often limited to laboratory based studies. In the present study, large scale bioaugmentation has been applied to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-contaminated groundwater at a petroleum facility. Initial TPH concentrations of 1564 mg L-1 in the field were reduced to 89 mg L-1 over 32 days. This reduction was accompanied by improved ecotoxicity, as shown by Brassica rapa germination numbers that increased from 52 at day 0 to 82% by the end of the treatment...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Papaiah Sardaru, Laura Sinausía, Silvia López-González, Jelena Zindovic, Flora Sánchez, Fernando Ponz
Two different isolates of Turnip mosaic virus (UK 1 and JPN 1) belonging to different virus strains were tested on three different Brassica species, namely turnip (Brassica rapa L.), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.), and Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun). Whereas all three hosts were readily infected by isolate UK 1, isolate JPN 1 was able to establish a visible systemic infection only in the first two. Ethiopian mustard plants showed no local or systemic symptoms, and no virus antigens could be detected by ELISA...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Andrej A Arsovski, Joseph Zemke, Benjamin D Haagen, Soo-Hyung Kim, Jennifer L Nemhauser
Crop biomass and yield are tightly linked to how the light signaling network translates information about the environment into allocation of resources, including photosynthates. Once activated, the phytochrome (phy) class of photoreceptors signal and re-deploy carbon resources to alter growth, plant architecture and reproductive timing. Most of the previous characterization of the light-modulated growth program has been performed in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we use Brassica rapa as a crop model to test for conservation of the phytochrome-carbon network...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yong Li, Ling Long, Huangqian Yan, Jing Ge, Jinjin Cheng, Lijun Ren, Xiangyang Yu
The accumulation of pesticides in vegetables may have serious effects on human health and ecosystems via food chains; therefore, it is of great importance to investigate the uptake and accumulation behaviours of pesticides in vegetable tissues. In the present study, the uptake, translocation and accumulation of five neonicotinoids, thiamethoxam (THIM), clothianidin (CLO), thiacloprid (THID), acetamiprid (ACE) and dinotefuran (DIN), in komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis, a vegetable) were investigated...
February 20, 2018: Chemosphere
Pirjo Mattila, Sari Mäkinen, Merja Eurola, Taina Jalava, Juha-Matti Pihlava, Jarkko Hellström, Anne Pihlanto
The goal of this work was to analyze nutritional value of various minimally processed commercial products of plant protein sources such as faba bean (Vicia faba), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), rapeseed press cake (Brassica rapa/napus subsp. Oleifera), flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum), oil hemp seed (Cannabis sativa), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Basic composition and various nutritional components like amino acids, sugars, minerals, and dietary fiber were determined. Nearly all the samples studied could be considered as good sources of essential amino acids, minerals and dietary fiber...
March 2, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Liming Miao, Yanxia Lv, Lijun Kong, Qizhen Chen, Chaoquan Chen, Jia Li, Fanhuan Zeng, Shenyun Wang, Jianbin Li, Li Huang, Jiashu Cao, Xiaolin Yu
BACKGROUND: Members of the MtN3/saliva/SWEET gene family are present in various organisms and are highly conserved. Their precise biochemical functions remain unclear, especially in Chinese cabbage. Based on the whole genome sequence, this study aims to identify the MtN3/saliva/SWEETs family members in Chinese cabbage and to analyze their classification, gene structure, chromosome distribution, phylogenetic relationship, expression pattern, and biological functions. RESULTS: We identified 34 SWEET genes in Chinese cabbage and analyzed their localization on chromosomes and transmembrane regions of their corresponding proteins...
March 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Qinfei Li, Yangui Chen, Fang Yue, Wei Qian, Hongyuan Song
The strategies of crossing B. napus with parental species play important role in broadening and improving the genetic basis of B. napus by the introgression of genetic resources from parental species. With these strategies, it is easy to select new types of B. napus, but difficult to select new types of B. rapa or B. oleracea by self-pollination. This characteristic may be a consequence of high competition with B. napus gametes. To verify the role of gamete viability in producing new B. napus individuals, the meiotic chromosome behavior of the interspecific hybrid between B...
2018: PloS One
Roman T Kellenberger, Gaylord A Desurmont, Philipp M Schlüter, Florian P Schiestl
Biotic stress can induce plastic changes in fitness-relevant plant traits. Recently, it has been shown that such changes can be transmitted to subsequent generations. However, the occurrence and extent of transmission across different types of traits is still unexplored. Here, we assessed the emergence and transmission of herbivory-induced changes in Brassica rapa and their impact on interactions with insects. We analysed changes in morphology and reproductive traits as well as in flower and leaf volatile emission during two generations with leaf herbivory by Mamestra brassicae and Pieris brassicae and two subsequent generations without herbivory...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
S Leanne Dillard, Ana I Roca-Fernández, Melissa D Rubano, Kyle R Elkin, Kathy J Soder
The aim of the current study was to determine nutrient digestibility, VFA production, N metabolism, and CH4 production of canola (Brassica napus L.), rapeseed (B. napus L.), turnip (B. rapa L.), and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) fed with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) in continuous culture. Diets were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 × 4 Latin square design using 7 d for adaptation and 3 d for collection. Diets were: 1) 50% orchardgrass + 50% annual ryegrass (ARG); 2) 50% orchardgrass + 50% canola (CAN); 3) 50% orchardgrass + 50% rapeseed (RAP); and 4) 50% orchardgrass + 50% turnip (TUR)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Wenqing Ren, Han Wang, Jinjuan Bai, Feijie Wu, Yuke He
Many vegetable crops of Brassica rapa are characterized by their typical types of leaf curvature. Leaf curvature in the right direction and to the proper degree is important for the yield and quality of green vegetable products, when cultivated under stress conditions. Recent research has unveiled some of the roles of miRNAs in Brassica crops such as how they regulate the timing of leafy head initiation and shape of the leafy head. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the variability in leaf curvature in B...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Robert L Baker, Wen F Leong, Stephen Welch, Cynthia Weinig
Predicting phenotypes based on genotypes and understanding the effects of complex multi-locus traits on plant performance requires a description of the underlying developmental processes, growth trajectories, and their genomic architecture. Using data from Brassica rapa genotypes grown in multiple density settings and seasons, we applied a hierarchical Bayesian Function-Valued Trait (FVT) approach to fit logistic growth curves to leaf phenotypic data (length and width) and characterize leaf development. We found evidence of genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity of rate and duration of leaf growth to growing season...
February 21, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Carmen K Blubaugh, Jacob S Asplund, Sanford D Eigenbrode, Matthew J Morra, Christopher R Philips, Inna E Popova, John P Reganold, William E Snyder
Plant defenses often mediate whether competing chewing and sucking herbivores indirectly benefit or harm one another. Dual guild herbivory also can muddle plant signals used by specialist natural enemies to locate prey, further complicating the net impact of herbivore-herbivore interactions in naturally diverse settings. While dual guild herbivore communities are common in nature, their community trilevel consequences are unclear, as chemically mediated tri-trophic interactions are rarely evaluated in field environments...
February 21, 2018: Ecology
Md Tabibul Islam, Bok-Rye Lee, Protiva Rani Das, Van Hien La, Ha-Il Jung, Tae-Hwan Kim
To characterize the p-coumaric acid (pCA)-induced phenolic metabolites in relation to the disease resistance against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc.), the responses of soluble- and cell wall-bound flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acids compounds to the pretreatment of pCA or the inhibitor of the 4-coumarate-CoA ligase, 3,4-(methylenedioxy) cinnamic acid (MDCA), following Xcc inoculation were assessed, and the resulting data were interpreted with regard to susceptibility to Xcc in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var...
February 13, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yong Ji, Peijun Wu, Jie Zhang, Jun Zhang, Youfeng Zhou, Yongwen Peng, Shifeng Zhang, Gaotang Cai, Guiqing Gao
In this research, Ganzhou Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa pekinensis), Native Purple Garlic (Allium sativum L) and Leping Radish (Raphanus sativus L) widely planted and distributed along the Le'an River were chosen in the present study. Soil physical-chemical properties, nutrients contents as well as heavy metals elements accumulated in both soils and vegetables collected from 24 sites were analyzed by lab analysis combined with statistical method which was also used for calculation of contamination factor, pollution indexes and hazardous index...
February 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Yinglan Piao, Kaining Jin, Ying He, Jiaxiu Liu, Shuang Liu, Xiaonan Li, Zhongyun Piao
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MPK) cascades play key roles in responses to various biotic stresses, as well as in plant growth and development. However, the responses of MPK and MPK kinase (MKK) in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) to Plasmodiophora brassicae, a causal agent of clubroot disease in Brassica crops, are still not clear. In the present study, a total of 11 B. rapa MKK (BraMKK) and 30 BraMPK genes were identified and unevenly distributed in 6 and 10 chromosomes, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Iva Pavlović, Aleš Pěnčík, Ondřej Novák, Valerija Vujčić, Sandra Radić Brkanac, Hrvoje Lepeduš, Miroslav Strnad, Branka Salopek-Sondi
Salinity is one of major abiotic stresses affecting Brassica crop production. Here we present investigations into the physiological, biochemical, and hormonal components of the short-term salinity stress response in Chinese cabbage seedlings, with particular emphasis on the biosynthesis and metabolism of auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Upon salinity treatments (50-200 mM NaCl) IAA level was elevated in a dose dependent manner reaching 1.6-fold increase at the most severe salt treatment in comparison to the control...
February 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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