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Brassica rapa

Jingxue Wang, Sanjay K Singh, Chunfang Du, Chen Li, Jianchun Fan, Sitakanta Pattanaik, Ling Yuan
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world's supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl-lipid metabolism (ALM) genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Namrata Dhaka, Kadambini Rout, Satish K Yadava, Yaspal Singh Sodhi, Vibha Gupta, Deepak Pental, Akshay K Pradhan
Seed weight QTL identified in different populations were synthesized into consensus QTL which were shown to harbor candidate genes by in silico mapping. Allelic variation inferred would be useful in breeding B. juncea lines with high seed weight. Seed weight is an important yield influencing trait in oilseed Brassicas and is a multigenic trait. Among the oilseed Brassicas, Brassica juncea harbors the maximum phenotypic variation wherein thousand seed weight varies from around 2.0 g to more than 7.0 g. In this study, we have undertaken quantitative trait locus/quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of seed weight in B...
October 15, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Sampurna Garai, Naveen Chandra Joshi, Baishnab C Tripathy
Uroporphyrinogen III methyl transferase (UPM1) and Sirohydrochlorin ferrochelatase (SIRB) are the important genes involved in the biosynthesis of siroheme, the prosthetic group of nitrite reductases (NiR) and sulfite reductases (SiR) involved in nitrogen and sulfur assimilation. Both UPM1 and SIRB could be potential candidate genes targeted for sustainable agriculture especially in N-deficient soil. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that these genes are highly conserved among algae, bryophytes and vascular plants including dicots and monocots...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Chen Tan, Qi Pan, Cheng Cui, Yi Xiang, Xianhong Ge, Zaiyun Li
Gene/genome dosage balance is an essential evolutionary mechanism for organisms to ensure a normal function, but the underlying causes of dosage-imbalance regulation remain poorly understood. Herein, the serial Brassica hybrids/polyploids (AC, AAC, CCA, CCAA) with different copies of A and C subgenomes from the same two parents of Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea were synthesized to investigate the effects of genome dosages on gene expressions and interactions by using RNA-Seq. The expression changes of A- and C-subgenome genes were consistent with dosage alterations...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jana Sochorová, Olivier Coriton, Alena Kuderová, Jana Lunerová, Anne-Marie Chèvre, Aleš Kovařík
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Brassica napus (AACC, 2n = 38, oilseed rape) is a relatively recent allotetraploid species derived from the putative progenitor diploid species Brassica rapa (AA, 2n = 20) and Brassica oleracea (CC, 2n = 18). To determine the influence of intensive breeding conditions on the evolution of its genome, we analysed structure and copy number of rDNA in 21 cultivars of B. napus, representative of genetic diversity. METHODS: We used next-generation sequencing genomic approaches, Southern blot hybridization, expression analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
October 5, 2016: Annals of Botany
Chunyang Li, Changwen Du, Yin Zeng, Fei Ma, Yazhen Shen, Zhe Xing, Jianmin Zhou
Understanding nitrogen (N) status in the leaves of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa Chinensis) is of significance to both vegetable growth and quality control. Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to perform rapid qualification of N distribution in leaf, a partial least squares algorithm was used to develop a model for prediction of N content, and N distribution in individual leaves was mapped based on interpolation analysis, which was found to be variable. A reasonable N input level (12 mmol L-1 N) showed the largest variance of N content, benefiting N redistribution and use efficiency, but variance decreased at old stage...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Katayoun Javidnia, Ehsan Faghih-Mirzaei, Ramin Miri, Mahshid Attarroshan, Kamiar Zomorodian
2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a valuable bulk chemical owing to its extensive application in chemical and pharmaceutical industry with diverse applications in drug, cosmetics and food products. In the present study, the biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-BD by five plant species (Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Daucuscarota, Pastinaca sativa, and Raphnussativus) and five microorganisms (Aspergillusfoetidus, Penicillumcitrinum, Saccharomyces carlbergensis, Pichiafermentans, and Rhodotrulaglutinis) was investigated as a method for the production of 2,3-BD, which can serve as an alternative to the common pentoses and hexoses fermentation by microorganisms...
July 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Bin Zhu, Yuqin Tu, Pan Zeng, Xianhong Ge, Zaiyun Li
As the dynamic nature of progenitor genomes accompanies the speciation by interspecific hybridization, the extraction of the constituent subgenome(s) from a natural allopolyploid species of long history and then restitution of the progenitor(s) provides the unique opportunity to study the genome evolution and interplay. Herein, A-subgenome from the allotetraploid oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., AACC) was extracted through inducing the preferential elimination of C-subgenome chromosomes in intertribal crosses and the progenitor B...
September 16, 2016: Genetics
Soo-In Sohn, Young-Ju Oh, Kyeong-Ryeol Lee, Ho-Cheol Ko, Hyun-Suk Cho, Yeon-Hee Lee, Ancheol Chang
A number of studies have been conducted on hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus and B. rapa or backcross of F1 hybrid to their parents. However, trait changes must be analyzed to evaluate hybrid sustainability in nature. In the present study, B. rapa and transgenic (BrAGL20) B. napus were hybridized to verify the early flowering phenomenon of F1 hybrids, and F1 hybrid traits were analyzed to predict their impact on sustainability. Flowering of F1 hybrid has been induced slightly later than that of the transgenic B...
2016: PloS One
Amanullah Mahar, Ping Wang, Amjad Ali, Zhanyu Guo, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Altaf Hussain Lahori, Quan Wang, Feng Shen, Ronghua Li, Zengqiang Zhang
Soil heavy metals pollution is a serious problem worldwide due to its potential human health risks through food chain. Therefore, a sustainable solution is needed to efficiently remediate HMs contaminated soils. Our study aimed to assess the impact of CaO, fly ash, sulfur, and Na2S on the immobilization of Cd, Cu, and Pb and their uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa chinensis) in a contaminated soil. The concentration of DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, and Pb was significantly decreased as compared to control in treated soil...
September 6, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Dong Xiao, Shi-Tuo Liu, Yan-Ping Wei, Dao-Yun Zhou, Xi-Lin Hou, Ying Li, Chun-Mei Hu
Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is one of the main green leafy vegetables in the world, especially in China, with significant economic value. Hyaloperonospora parasitica is a fungal pathogen responsible for causing downy mildew disease in Chinese cabbage, which greatly affects its production. The objective of this study was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during incompatible interactions between non-heading Chinese cabbage and H. parasitica using complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP)...
2016: Horticulture Research
Lulu Xie, Fei Li, Shifan Zhang, Hui Zhang, Wei Qian, Peirong Li, Shujiang Zhang, Rifei Sun
Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
John M Braverman, Matthew B Hamilton, Brent A Johnson
There are marked variations among loci and among lineages in rates of nucleotide substitution. The generation time hypothesis (GTH) is a neutral explanation for substitution rate heterogeneity that has genomewide application, predicting that species with shorter generation times accumulate DNA sequence substitutions faster than species with longer generation times do since faster genome replication provides more opportunities for mutations to occur and reach fixation by genetic drift. Relatively few studies have rigorously evaluated the GTH in plants, and there are numerous alternative hypotheses for plant substitution rate variation...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Alexandre Pelé, Gwenn Trotoux, Frédérique Eber, Maryse Lodé, Marie Gilet, Gwenaelle Deniot, Cyril Falentin, Sylvie Nègre, Jérôme Morice, Mathieu Rousseau-Gueutin, Anne-Marie Chèvre
Constitutive genomes of allopolyploid species evolve throughout their life span. However, the consequences of long-term alterations on the interdependency between each original genome have not been established. Here, we attempted an approach corresponding to subgenome extraction from a previously sequenced natural allotetraploid, offering a unique opportunity to evaluate plant viability and structural evolution of one of its diploid components. We employed two different strategies to extract the diploid AA component of the Brassica napus variety 'Darmor' (AACC, 2n = 4x = 38) and we assessed the genomic structure of the latest AA plants obtained (after four to five rounds of selection), using a 60K single nucleotide polymorphism Illumina array...
August 30, 2016: New Phytologist
Christine E Edwards, Brent E Ewers, Cynthia Weinig
BACKGROUND: Plant performance in agricultural and natural settings varies with moisture availability, and understanding the range of potential drought responses and the underlying genetic architecture is important for understanding how plants will respond to both natural and artificial selection in various water regimes. Here, we raised genotypes of Brassica rapa under well-watered and drought treatments in the field. Our primary goal was to understand the genetic architecture and yield effects of different drought-escape and dehydration-avoidance strategies...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Douglas L Wendell, Anoumid Vaziri, Gurbaksh Shergill
Rapid cycling Brassica rapa, also known as Wisconsin Fast Plants, are a widely used organism in both K-12 and college science education. They are an excellent system for genetics laboratory instruction because it is very easy to conduct genetic crosses with this organism, there are numerous seed stocks with variation in both Mendelian and quantitative traits, they have a short generation time, and there is a wealth of educational materials for instructors using them. Their main deficiency for genetics education is that none of the genetic variation in RCBr has yet been characterized at the molecular level...
2016: PloS One
Liping Ran, Mingxue Pi, Jian Wu, Jinjin Jiang, Youping Wang
Brassicaceae is at the forefront of evolution because of its frequent hybridization. Hybridization is responsible for the induction of widespread genetic and phenotype changes, making it important in agricultural production. In this study, we obtained resynthesized allotetraploid Brassica napus by performing interspecific crossing of B. rapa × B. oleracea combined with embryo rescue. We applied light microscopy and electronic microscopy to analyze the microstructure and ultrastructure of seeds of diploid parents and their allotetraploid progeny...
August 19, 2016: Protoplasma
Ye Rin Park, Min Ji Choi, Su Jung Park, Hunseung Kang
Despite the increasing understanding of the stress-responsive roles of zinc-finger RNA-binding proteins (RZs) in several plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, wheat (Triticum aestivum), and rice (Oryza sativa), the functions of RZs in cabbage (Brassica rapa) have not yet been elucidated. In this study, the functional roles of the three RZ family members present in the cabbage genome, designated as BrRZ1, BrRZ2, and BrRZ3, were investigated in transgenic Arabidopsis under normal and environmental stress conditions...
August 16, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Minghui Fei, Jeffrey A Harvey, Berhane T Weldegergis, Tzeyi Huang, Kimmy Reijngoudt, Louise M Vet, Rieta Gols
Experience of insect herbivores and their natural enemies in the natal habitat is considered to affect their likelihood of accepting a similar habitat or plant/host during dispersal. Growing phenology of food plants and the number of generations in the insects further determines lability of insect behavioural responses at eclosion. We studied the effect of rearing history on oviposition preference in a multivoltine herbivore (Pieris brassicae), and foraging behaviour in the endoparasitoid wasp (Cotesia glomerata) a specialist enemy of P...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Feng Cheng, Rifei Sun, Xilin Hou, Hongkun Zheng, Fenglan Zhang, Yangyong Zhang, Bo Liu, Jianli Liang, Mu Zhuang, Yunxia Liu, Dongyuan Liu, Xiaobo Wang, Pingxia Li, Yumei Liu, Ke Lin, Johan Bucher, Ningwen Zhang, Yan Wang, Hui Wang, Jie Deng, Yongcui Liao, Keyun Wei, Xueming Zhang, Lixia Fu, Yunyan Hu, Jisheng Liu, Chengcheng Cai, Shujiang Zhang, Shifan Zhang, Fei Li, Hui Zhang, Jifang Zhang, Ning Guo, Zhiyuan Liu, Jin Liu, Chao Sun, Yuan Ma, Haijiao Zhang, Yang Cui, Micheal R Freeling, Theo Borm, Guusje Bonnema, Jian Wu, Xiaowu Wang
Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B...
October 2016: Nature Genetics
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