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Brassica rapa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909440/introgressing-subgenome-components-from-brassica-rapa-and-b-carinata-to-b-juncea-for-broadening-its-genetic-base-and-exploring-intersubgenomic-heterosis
#1
Zili Wei, Meng Wang, Shihao Chang, Chao Wu, Peifa Liu, Jinling Meng, Jun Zou
Brassica juncea (A(j)A(j)B(j)B(j)), is an allotetraploid that arose from two diploid species, B. rapa (A(r)A(r)) and B. nigra (B(n)B(n)). It is an old oilseed crop with unique favorable traits, but the genetic improvement on this species is limited. We developed an approach to broaden its genetic base within several generations by intensive selection. The A(r) subgenome from the Asian oil crop B. rapa (A(r)A(r)) and the B(c) subgenome from the African oil crop B. carinata (B(c)B(c)C(c)C(c)) were combined in a synthesized allohexaploid (A(r)A(r)B(c)B(c)C(c)C(c)), which was crossed with traditional B...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896366/allelism-analysis-of-brrfp-locus-in-different-restorer-lines-and-map-based-cloning-of-a-fertility-restorer-gene-brrfp1-for-pol-cms-in-chinese-cabbage-brassica-rapa-l
#2
Huamin Zhang, Junqing Wu, Zihui Dai, Meiling Qin, Lingyu Hao, Yanjing Ren, Qingfei Li, Lugang Zhang
In Chinese cabbage, there are two Rf loci for pol CMS and one of them was mapped to a 12.6-kb region containing a potential candidate gene encoding PPR protein. In Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), polima cytoplasmic male sterility (pol CMS) is an important CMS type and is widely used for hybrid breeding. By extensive test crossing in Chinese cabbage, four restorer lines (92s105, 01s325, 00s109, and 88s148) for pol CMS were screened. By analyzing the allelism of the four restorer lines, it was found that 92s105, 01s325, and 00s109 had the same "restorers of fertility" (Rf) locus (designated as BrRfp1), but 88s148 had a different Rf locus (designated as BrRfp2)...
November 28, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889935/the-effects-of-becoming-taller-direct-and-pleiotropic-effects-of-artificial-selection-on-plant-height-in-brassica-rapa
#3
Pengjuan Zu, Florian P Schiestl
Plant height is an important trait for plant reproductive success. Plant height is often under pollinator-mediated selection, and has been shown to be correlated with various other traits. However, few studies have examined the evolutionary trajectory of plant height under selection and the pleiotropic effects of plant height evolution. We conducted a bi-directional artificial selection experiment on plant height with fast cycling Brassica rapa plants to estimate its heritability and genetic correlations and to reveal evolutionary responses to artificial selection on height and various correlated traits...
November 27, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885421/role-of-vernalization-mediated-demethylation-in-the-floral-transition-of-brassica-rapa
#4
Weike Duan, Huijun Zhang, Bei Zhang, Xiaoting Wu, Shuaixu Shao, Ying Li, Xilin Hou, Tongkun Liu
Vernalization-mediated demethylation of BrCKA2 (casein kinase II α-subunit) and BrCKB4 (casein kinase II β-subunit) shorten the period of the clock gene BrCCA1 (circadian clock associated 1) in Brassica rapa. Photoperiod and vernalization are two environmental cues involved in the regulation of floral transition, but the ways in which they interact remain unclear. DNA methylation is one of the main mechanisms involved in controlling the functional state of chromatin and gene expression in response to environmental signals...
November 24, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880793/seed-quality-traits-can-be-predicted-with-high-accuracy-in-brassica-napus-using-genomic-data
#5
Jun Zou, Yusheng Zhao, Peifa Liu, Lei Shi, Xiaohua Wang, Meng Wang, Jinling Meng, Jochen Christoph Reif
Improving seed oil yield and quality are central targets in rapeseed (Brassica napus) breeding. The primary goal of our study was to examine and compare the potential and the limits of marker-assisted selection and genome-wide prediction of six important seed quality traits of B. napus. Our study is based on a bi-parental population comprising 202 doubled haploid lines and a diverse validation set including 117 B. napus inbred lines derived from interspecific crosses between B. rapa and B. carinata. We used phenotypic data for seed oil, protein, erucic acid, linolenic acid, stearic acid, and glucosinolate content...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870873/herbivore-induced-dna-demethylation-changes-floral-signalling-and-attractiveness-to-pollinators-in-brassica-rapa
#6
Roman T Kellenberger, Philipp M Schlüter, Florian P Schiestl
Plants have to fine-tune their signals to optimise the trade-off between herbivore deterrence and pollinator attraction. An important mechanism in mediating plant-insect interactions is the regulation of gene expression via DNA methylation. However, the effect of herbivore-induced DNA methylation changes on pollinator-relevant plant signalling has not been systematically investigated. Here, we assessed the impact of foliar herbivory on DNA methylation and floral traits in the model crop plant Brassica rapa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856303/effects-of-tibetan-turnip-brassica-rapa-l-on-promoting-hypoxia-tolerance-in-healthy-humans
#7
Bingquan Chu, Chun Chen, Jiaojie Li, Xiaojian Chen, Yunhong Li, Weimin Tang, Lu Jin, Ying Zhang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tibetan turnip (Brassica rapa L.), widely distributed in Tibet region, is an edible and medical plant with effects of "tonic and anti-hypoxia" "heat-clearing and detoxification" and "alleviating fatigue" according to traditional Tibetan medical books. AIM OF THE STUDY: This research systematically studied the effects of Tibetan turnip on promoting hypoxia-tolerance in humans and the mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 7-day, self-control and single-blind human feeding trial was conducted among 27 healthy subjects with 8 males and 10 females in feeding group fed with 7...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844189/characterization-of-bcmf23a-and-bcmf23b-two-putative-pectin-methylesterase-genes-related-to-pollen-development-in-brassica-campestris-ssp-chinensis
#8
Sue Lin, Li Huang, Xiaolin Yu, Xingpeng Xiong, Xiaoyan Yue, Tingting Liu, Ying Liang, Meiling Lv, Jiashu Cao
Two homologous genes, Brassica campestris Male Fertility 23a (BcMF23a) and Brassica campestris Male Fertility 23b (BcMF23b), encoding putative pectin methylesterases (PMEs) were isolated from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis (syn. Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis). These two genes sharing high sequence identity with each other were highly expressed in the fertile flower buds but silenced in the sterile ones of genic male sterile line system ('Bcajh97-01A/B'). Results of RT-PCR and in situ hybridization suggested that BcMF23a and BcMF23b were pollen-expressed genes, whose transcripts were first detected at the binucleate pollen and maintained throughout to the mature pollen grains...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833632/genome-wide-identification-of-dicer-like-argonaute-and-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-gene-families-in-brassica-species-and-functional-analyses-of-their-arabidopsis-homologs-in-resistance-to-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum
#9
Jia-Yi Cao, You-Ping Xu, Wen Li, Shuang-Sheng Li, Hafizur Rahman, Xin-Zhong Cai
RNA silencing is an important mechanism to regulate gene expression and antiviral defense in plants. Nevertheless, RNA silencing machinery in the important oil crop Brassica napus and function in resistance to the devastating fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are not well-understood. In this study, gene families of RNA silencing machinery in B. napus were identified and their role in resistance to S. sclerotiorum was revealed. Genome of the allopolyploid species B. napus possessed 8 Dicer-like (DCL), 27 Argonaute (AGO), and 16 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) genes, which included almost all copies from its progenitor species B...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832102/cloning-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-brassica-napus-l-caffeic-acid-o-methyltransferase-1-gene-family-and-its-expression-pattern-under-drought-stress
#10
Wei Li, Junxing Lu, Kun Lu, Jianglian Yuan, Jieheng Huang, Hai Du, Jiana Li
For many plants, regulating lignin content and composition to improve lodging resistance is a crucial issue. Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a lignin monomer-specific enzyme that controls S subunit synthesis in plant vascular cell walls. Here, we identified 12 BnCOMT1 gene homologues, namely BnCOMT1-1 to BnCOMT1-12. Ten of 12 genes were composed of four highly conserved exons and three weakly conserved introns. The length of intron I, in particular, showed enormous diversification. Intron I of homologous BnCOMT1 genes showed high identity with counterpart genes in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, and intron I from positional close genes in the same chromosome were relatively highly conserved...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829069/fine-mapping-and-whole-genome-resequencing-identify-the-seed-coat-color-gene-in-brassica-rapa
#11
Yanhua Wang, Lu Xiao, Shaomin Guo, Fengyun An, Dezhi Du
A yellow seed coat is a desirable agronomic trait in the seeds of oilseed-type Brassica crops. In this study, we identified a candidate gene for seed coat color in Dahuang, a landrace of Brassica rapa. A previous study of Dahuang mapped the seed coat color gene Brsc1 to a 2.8-Mb interval on chromosome A9 of B. rapa. In the present study, the density of the linkage map for Brsc1 was increased by adding simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and the candidate region for Brsc1 was narrowed to 1.04 Mb. In addition, whole-genome resequencing with bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was conducted to identify candidate intervals for Brsc1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825945/deletion-of-a-stay-green-gene-associates-with-adaptive-selection-in-brassica-napus
#12
Lunwen Qian, Kai Voss-Fels, Yixin Cui, Habib U Jan, Birgit Samans, Christian Obermeier, Wei Qian, Rod J Snowdon
Chlorophyll levels provide important information about plant growth and physiological plasticity in response to changing environments. The stay-green gene NONYELLOWING 1 (NYE1) is believed to regulate chlorophyll degradation during senescence, concomitantly affecting the disassembly of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) and hence indirectly affecting photosynthesis. We identified Brassica napus accessions carrying an NYE1 deletion associated with increased chlorophyll content, and with upregulated expression of LHC and photosynthetic reaction center (PSI and PSII) genes...
November 4, 2016: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824028/structural-basis-for-specific-self-incompatibility-response-in-brassica
#13
Rui Ma, Zhifu Han, Zehan Hu, Guangzhong Lin, Xinqi Gong, Heqiao Zhang, June B Nasrallah, Jijie Chai
Self-incompatibility (SI) is a widespread mechanism in flowering plants which prevents self-fertilization and inbreeding. In Brassica, recognition of the highly polymorphic S-locus cysteine-rich protein (SCR; or S-locus protein 11) by the similarly polymorphic S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) dictates the SI specificity. Here, we report the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of SRK9 (eSRK9) in complex with SCR9 from Brassica rapa. SCR9 binding induces eSRK9 homodimerization, forming a 2:2 eSRK:SCR heterotetramer with a shape like the letter "A"...
December 2016: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795676/development-of-new-restorer-lines-for-cms-ogura-system-with-the-use-of-resynthesized-oilseed-rape-brassica-napus-l
#14
Laurencja Szała, Katarzyna Sosnowska, Wiesława Popławska, Alina Liersch, Anna Olejnik, Katarzyna Kozłowska, Jan Bocianowski, Teresa Cegielska-Taras
Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var...
September 2016: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790227/genome-wide-gene-expressions-respond-differently-to-a-subgenome-origins-in-brassica-napus-synthetic-hybrids-and-natural-allotetraploid
#15
Dawei Zhang, Qi Pan, Chen Tan, Bin Zhu, Xianhong Ge, Yujiao Shao, Zaiyun Li
The young allotetraploid Brassica napus (2n = 38, AACC) is one of models to study genomic responses to allopolyploidization. The extraction of AA component from natural B. napus and then restitution of progenitor B. rapa should provide a unique opportunity to reveal the genome interplay for gene expressions during the evolution. Herein, B. napus hybrids (2n = 19, AC) between the extracted and extant B. rapa (2n = 20, AA) and the same B. oleracea genotype (2n = 18, CC) were studied by RNA-seq and compared with natural B...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782804/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-compound-brassica-napus-rf-locus
#16
Lydiane Gaborieau, Gregory G Brown
BACKGROUND: The plant trait of cytoplasmically-inherited male sterility (CMS) and its suppression by nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can be viewed as a genetic arms race between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Most nuclear Rf genes have been shown to encode P-type pentatricopeptide repeat proteins (PPRs). Phylogenetic analysis of P-class PPRs from sequenced plants genomes has shown that Rf-proteins cluster in a distinct clade of P-class PPRs, RFL-PPRs, that display hallmarks of positive evolutionary selection...
October 26, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771409/a-new-traf-like-protein-from-b-oleracea-ssp-botrytis-with-lectin-activity-and-its-effect-on-macrophages
#17
Christiane E M Duarte, Monise V Abranches, Patrick F Silva, Sérgio O de Paula, Silvia A Cardoso, Leandro L Oliveira
Lectins are involved in a wide range of biological mechanisms, like immunomodulatory agent able to activate the innate immunity. In this study, we purified and characterized a new lectin from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea ssp. botrytis - BOL) by three sequential chromatographic steps and confirmed the purity by SDS-PAGE. Additionally, we evaluated the role of the lectin in innate immunity by a phagocytosis assay, production of H2O2 and NO. BOL was characterized like a non-glycosylated protein that showed a molecular mass of ∼34kDa in SDS-PAGE...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770360/analysis-of-dna-hydroxymethylation-using-colorimetric-assay
#18
Andrey Golubov, Igor Kovalchuk
Hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC or 5-hmC) is a nitrogen base occurring as a result of cytosine methylation followed by replacing a methyl group with a hydroxyl group through active oxidation. 5-hmC is considered to be one of the forms of epigenetic modification and is suggested as an intermediate step in a semi-active loss of DNA methylation mark. 5-hmC plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in animals, although its role in plants remains controversial. Here, we present a colorimetric method of quantification of 5-hmC using Brassica rapa DNA...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746810/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-two-brassica-napus-near-isogenic-lines-reveals-a-network-of-genes-that-influences-seed-oil-accumulation
#19
Jingxue Wang, Sanjay K Singh, Chunfang Du, Chen Li, Jianchun Fan, Sitakanta Pattanaik, Ling Yuan
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world's supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl-lipid metabolism (ALM) genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744489/genetic-dissection-of-seed-weight-by-qtl-analysis-and-detection-of-allelic-variation-in-indian-and-east-european-gene-pool-lines-of-brassica-juncea
#20
Namrata Dhaka, Kadambini Rout, Satish K Yadava, Yaspal Singh Sodhi, Vibha Gupta, Deepak Pental, Akshay K Pradhan
Seed weight QTL identified in different populations were synthesized into consensus QTL which were shown to harbor candidate genes by in silico mapping. Allelic variation inferred would be useful in breeding B. juncea lines with high seed weight. Seed weight is an important yield influencing trait in oilseed Brassicas and is a multigenic trait. Among the oilseed Brassicas, Brassica juncea harbors the maximum phenotypic variation wherein thousand seed weight varies from around 2.0 g to more than 7.0 g. In this study, we have undertaken quantitative trait locus/quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of seed weight in B...
October 15, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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