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Brassica rapa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081489/protective-effect-of-chitosan-on-photosynthesis-and-antioxidative-defense-system-in-edible-rape-brassica-rapa-l-in-the-presence-of-cadmium
#1
Haiying Zong, Song Liu, Ronge Xing, Xiaolin Chen, Pengcheng Li
Chitosan (CTS) induces plant tolerance against several abiotic stresses, including salinity and drought exposure. However, the role of CTS in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. In the present study, a hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the roles of CTS with different molecular weight (Mw) (10kDa,5kDa and 1kDa) in alleviating Cd toxicity in edible rape (Brassica rapa L .). The results showed that Cd stress significantly decreased plant growth, leaf chlorophyll contents and increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in rape leaves...
January 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069590/identification-of-ssr-markers-closely-linked-to-the-yellow-seed-coat-color-gene-in-heading-chinese-cabbage-brassica-rapa-l-ssp-pekinensis
#2
Yanjing Ren, Junqing Wu, Jing Zhao, Lingyu Hao, Lugang Zhang
Research on the yellow-seeded variety of heading Chinese cabbage will aid in broadening its germplasm resources and lay a foundation for AA genome research in Brassica crops. Here, an F2 segregating population of 1,575 individuals was constructed from two inbred lines (brown-seeded '92S105' and yellow-seeded '91-125'). This population was used to identify the linkage molecular markers of the yellow seed coat trait using simple sequence repeat (SSR) techniques combined with a bulk segregant analysis (BSA). Of the 144 SSR primer pairs on the A01- A10 chromosomes from the Brassica database (http://brassicadb...
January 9, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054984/detection-of-ribosomal-dna-sequence-polymorphisms-in-the-protist-plasmodiophora-brassicae-for-the-identification-of-geographical-isolates
#3
Rawnak Laila, Arif Hasan Khan Robin, Kiwoung Yang, Gyung Ja Choi, Jong-In Park, Ill-Sup Nou
Clubroot is a soil-borne disease caused by the protist Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae). It is one of the most economically important diseases of Brassica rapa and other cruciferous crops as it can cause remarkable yield reductions. Understanding P. brassicae genetics, and developing efficient molecular markers, is essential for effective detection of harmful races of this pathogen. Samples from 11 Korean field populations of P. brassicae (geographic isolates), collected from nine different locations in South Korea, were used in this study...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028464/hairiness-the-missing-link-between-pollinators-and-pollination
#4
Jamie R Stavert, Gustavo Liñán-Cembrano, Jacqueline R Beggs, Brad G Howlett, David E Pattemore, Ignasi Bartomeus
BACKGROUND: Functional traits are the primary biotic component driving organism influence on ecosystem functions; in consequence, traits are widely used in ecological research. However, most animal trait-based studies use easy-to-measure characteristics of species that are at best only weakly associated with functions. Animal-mediated pollination is a key ecosystem function and is likely to be influenced by pollinator traits, but to date no one has identified functional traits that are simple to measure and have good predictive power...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018375/genome-wide-identification-localization-and-expression-analysis-of-proanthocyanidin-associated-genes-in-brassica
#5
Xianjun Liu, Ying Lu, Mingli Yan, Donghong Sun, Xuefang Hu, Shuyan Liu, Sheyuan Chen, Chunyun Guan, Zhongsong Liu
Proanthocyanidins (PA) is a type of prominent flavonoid compound deposited in seed coats which controls the pigmentation in all Brassica species. Annotation of Brassica juncea genome survey sequences showed 72 PA genes; however, a functional description of these genes, especially how their interactions regulate seed pigmentation, remains elusive. In the present study, we designed 19 primer pairs to screen a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of B. juncea. A total of 284 BAC clones were identified and sequenced...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013378/the-tandem-repeated-organization-of-nb-lrr-genes-in-the-clubroot-resistant-crb-locus-in-brassica-rapa-l
#6
Katsunori Hatakeyama, Tomohisa Niwa, Takeyuki Kato, Takayoshi Ohara, Tomohiro Kakizaki, Satoru Matsumoto
To facilitate prevention of clubroot disease, a major threat to the successful cultivation of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.), we bred clubroot-resistant (CR) cultivars by introducing resistance genes from CR turnips via conventional breeding. Among 11 CR loci found in B. rapa, we identified CRb in Chinese cabbage cultivar 'CR Shinki' as a single dominant gene for resistance against Plasmodiophora brassicae pathotype group 3, against which the stacking of Crr1 and Crr2 loci was not effective. However, the precise location and pathotype specificity of CRb have been controversial, because CRa and Rcr1 also map near this locus...
December 24, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011427/heavy-metals-in-sludge-during-anaerobic-sanitary-landfill-speciation-transformation-and-phytotoxicity
#7
Kai Yang, Ying Zhu, Ranran Shan, Yanqiu Shao, Chao Tian
Sanitary landfill persists as a predominant sludge disposal method in particular in China. In this study, successive subsurface sludge samples (0.3 m deep) were collected from a bioreactor landfill unit where an anaerobic process took place during a 500 d period. The sludge samples were analyzed for total concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and their species distributions, together with selected sludge chemical properties. In addition, the sludge samples were subjected to phytotoxicity testing...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005058/a-complex-dominance-hierarchy-is-controlled-by-polymorphism-of-small-rnas-and-their-targets
#8
Shinsuke Yasuda, Yuko Wada, Tomohiro Kakizaki, Yoshiaki Tarutani, Eiko Miura-Uno, Kohji Murase, Sota Fujii, Tomoya Hioki, Taiki Shimoda, Yoshinobu Takada, Hiroshi Shiba, Takeshi Takasaki-Yasuda, Go Suzuki, Masao Watanabe, Seiji Takayama
In diploid organisms, phenotypic traits are often biased by effects known as Mendelian dominant-recessive interactions between inherited alleles. Phenotypic expression of SP11 alleles, which encodes the male determinants of self-incompatibility in Brassica rapa, is governed by a complex dominance hierarchy(1-3). Here, we show that a single polymorphic 24 nucleotide small RNA, named SP11 methylation inducer 2 (Smi2), controls the linear dominance hierarchy of the four SP11 alleles (S44 > S60 > S40 > S29)...
December 22, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999578/genome-wide-survey-of-flavonoid-biosynthesis-genes-and-gene-expression-analysis-between-black-and-yellow-seeded-brassica-napus
#9
Cunmin Qu, Huiyan Zhao, Fuyou Fu, Zhen Wang, Kai Zhang, Yan Zhou, Xin Wang, Rui Wang, Xinfu Xu, Zhanglin Tang, Kun Lu, Jia-Na Li
Flavonoids, the compounds that impart color to fruits, flowers, and seeds, are the most widespread secondary metabolites in plants. However, a systematic analysis of these loci has not been performed in Brassicaceae. In this study, we isolated 649 nucleotide sequences related to flavonoid biosynthesis, i.e., the Transparent Testa (TT) genes, and their associated amino acid sequences in 17 Brassicaceae species, grouped into Arabidopsis or Brassicaceae subgroups. Moreover, 36 copies of 21 genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, 53 were identified in Brassica rapa, 50 in Brassica oleracea, and 95 in B...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996963/genome-resequencing-and-comparative-variome-analysis-in-a-brassica-rapa-and-brassica-oleracea-collection
#10
Feng Cheng, Jian Wu, Chengcheng Cai, Lixia Fu, Jianli Liang, Theo Borm, Mu Zhuang, Yangyong Zhang, Fenglan Zhang, Guusje Bonnema, Xiaowu Wang
The closely related species Brassica rapa and B. oleracea encompass a wide range of vegetable, fodder and oil crops. The release of their reference genomes has facilitated resequencing collections of B. rapa and B. oleracea aiming to build their variome datasets. These data can be used to investigate the evolutionary relationships between and within the different species and the domestication of the crops, hereafter named morphotypes. These data can also be used in genetic studies aiming at the identification of genes that influence agronomic traits...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966738/fine-mapping-and-candidate-gene-analysis-of-brtri1-a-gene-controlling-trichome-development-in-chinese-cabbage-brassica-rapa-l-ssp-pekinensis
#11
X L Ye, F Y Hu, J Ren, S N Huang, W J Liu, H Feng, Z Y Liu
Trichomes are derived from the epidermis and constitute an ideal system for studying cell division in plants. Here, a Chinese cabbage doubled haploid (DH) line (FT) without trichomes was crossed with another DH line (PurDH-1) with trichomes to develop an F2 population for fine mapping of trichome control genes. Genetic analysis showed that the trichome phenotype was controlled by a single dominant gene, Brtri1. Using 1226 glabrous individuals in the F2 segregation population, Brtri1 was localized to a 16.84 kb region between markers Pur6-31 and Pur6-39 on chromosome A06...
December 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909440/introgressing-subgenome-components-from-brassica-rapa-and-b-carinata-to-b-juncea-for-broadening-its-genetic-base-and-exploring-intersubgenomic-heterosis
#12
Zili Wei, Meng Wang, Shihao Chang, Chao Wu, Peifa Liu, Jinling Meng, Jun Zou
Brassica juncea (A(j)A(j)B(j)B(j)), is an allotetraploid that arose from two diploid species, B. rapa (A(r)A(r)) and B. nigra (B(n)B(n)). It is an old oilseed crop with unique favorable traits, but the genetic improvement on this species is limited. We developed an approach to broaden its genetic base within several generations by intensive selection. The A(r) subgenome from the Asian oil crop B. rapa (A(r)A(r)) and the B(c) subgenome from the African oil crop B. carinata (B(c)B(c)C(c)C(c)) were combined in a synthesized allohexaploid (A(r)A(r)B(c)B(c)C(c)C(c)), which was crossed with traditional B...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896366/allelism-analysis-of-brrfp-locus-in-different-restorer-lines-and-map-based-cloning-of-a-fertility-restorer-gene-brrfp1-for-pol-cms-in-chinese-cabbage-brassica-rapa-l
#13
Huamin Zhang, Junqing Wu, Zihui Dai, Meiling Qin, Lingyu Hao, Yanjing Ren, Qingfei Li, Lugang Zhang
In Chinese cabbage, there are two Rf loci for pol CMS and one of them was mapped to a 12.6-kb region containing a potential candidate gene encoding PPR protein. In Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), polima cytoplasmic male sterility (pol CMS) is an important CMS type and is widely used for hybrid breeding. By extensive test crossing in Chinese cabbage, four restorer lines (92s105, 01s325, 00s109, and 88s148) for pol CMS were screened. By analyzing the allelism of the four restorer lines, it was found that 92s105, 01s325, and 00s109 had the same "restorers of fertility" (Rf) locus (designated as BrRfp1), but 88s148 had a different Rf locus (designated as BrRfp2)...
November 28, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889935/the-effects-of-becoming-taller-direct-and-pleiotropic-effects-of-artificial-selection-on-plant-height-in-brassica-rapa
#14
Pengjuan Zu, Florian P Schiestl
Plant height is an important trait for plant reproductive success. Plant height is often under pollinator-mediated selection, and has been shown to be correlated with various other traits. However, few studies have examined the evolutionary trajectory of plant height under selection and the pleiotropic effects of plant height evolution. We conducted a bi-directional artificial selection experiment on plant height with fast cycling Brassica rapa plants to estimate its heritability and genetic correlations and to reveal evolutionary responses to artificial selection on height and various correlated traits...
November 27, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885421/role-of-vernalization-mediated-demethylation-in-the-floral-transition-of-brassica-rapa
#15
Weike Duan, Huijun Zhang, Bei Zhang, Xiaoting Wu, Shuaixu Shao, Ying Li, Xilin Hou, Tongkun Liu
Vernalization-mediated demethylation of BrCKA2 (casein kinase II α-subunit) and BrCKB4 (casein kinase II β-subunit) shorten the period of the clock gene BrCCA1 (circadian clock associated 1) in Brassica rapa. Photoperiod and vernalization are two environmental cues involved in the regulation of floral transition, but the ways in which they interact remain unclear. DNA methylation is one of the main mechanisms involved in controlling the functional state of chromatin and gene expression in response to environmental signals...
November 24, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880793/seed-quality-traits-can-be-predicted-with-high-accuracy-in-brassica-napus-using-genomic-data
#16
Jun Zou, Yusheng Zhao, Peifa Liu, Lei Shi, Xiaohua Wang, Meng Wang, Jinling Meng, Jochen Christoph Reif
Improving seed oil yield and quality are central targets in rapeseed (Brassica napus) breeding. The primary goal of our study was to examine and compare the potential and the limits of marker-assisted selection and genome-wide prediction of six important seed quality traits of B. napus. Our study is based on a bi-parental population comprising 202 doubled haploid lines and a diverse validation set including 117 B. napus inbred lines derived from interspecific crosses between B. rapa and B. carinata. We used phenotypic data for seed oil, protein, erucic acid, linolenic acid, stearic acid, and glucosinolate content...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870873/herbivore-induced-dna-demethylation-changes-floral-signalling-and-attractiveness-to-pollinators-in-brassica-rapa
#17
Roman T Kellenberger, Philipp M Schlüter, Florian P Schiestl
Plants have to fine-tune their signals to optimise the trade-off between herbivore deterrence and pollinator attraction. An important mechanism in mediating plant-insect interactions is the regulation of gene expression via DNA methylation. However, the effect of herbivore-induced DNA methylation changes on pollinator-relevant plant signalling has not been systematically investigated. Here, we assessed the impact of foliar herbivory on DNA methylation and floral traits in the model crop plant Brassica rapa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856303/effects-of-tibetan-turnip-brassica-rapa-l-on-promoting-hypoxia-tolerance-in-healthy-humans
#18
Bingquan Chu, Chun Chen, Jiaojie Li, Xiaojian Chen, Yunhong Li, Weimin Tang, Lu Jin, Ying Zhang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tibetan turnip (Brassica rapa L.), widely distributed in Tibet region, is an edible and medical plant with effects of "tonic and anti-hypoxia" "heat-clearing and detoxification" and "alleviating fatigue" according to traditional Tibetan medical books. AIM OF THE STUDY: This research systematically studied the effects of Tibetan turnip on promoting hypoxia-tolerance in humans and the mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 7-d, self-control and single-blind human feeding trial was conducted among 27 healthy subjects with 8 males and 10 females in feeding group fed with 7...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844189/characterization-of-bcmf23a-and-bcmf23b-two-putative-pectin-methylesterase-genes-related-to-pollen-development-in-brassica-campestris-ssp-chinensis
#19
Sue Lin, Li Huang, Xiaolin Yu, Xingpeng Xiong, Xiaoyan Yue, Tingting Liu, Ying Liang, Meiling Lv, Jiashu Cao
Two homologous genes, Brassica campestris Male Fertility 23a (BcMF23a) and Brassica campestris Male Fertility 23b (BcMF23b), encoding putative pectin methylesterases (PMEs) were isolated from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis (syn. Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis). These two genes sharing high sequence identity with each other were highly expressed in the fertile flower buds but silenced in the sterile ones of genic male sterile line system ('Bcajh97-01A/B'). Results of RT-PCR and in situ hybridization suggested that BcMF23a and BcMF23b were pollen-expressed genes, whose transcripts were first detected at the binucleate pollen and maintained throughout to the mature pollen grains...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833632/genome-wide-identification-of-dicer-like-argonaute-and-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-gene-families-in-brassica-species-and-functional-analyses-of-their-arabidopsis-homologs-in-resistance-to-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum
#20
Jia-Yi Cao, You-Ping Xu, Wen Li, Shuang-Sheng Li, Hafizur Rahman, Xin-Zhong Cai
RNA silencing is an important mechanism to regulate gene expression and antiviral defense in plants. Nevertheless, RNA silencing machinery in the important oil crop Brassica napus and function in resistance to the devastating fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are not well-understood. In this study, gene families of RNA silencing machinery in B. napus were identified and their role in resistance to S. sclerotiorum was revealed. Genome of the allopolyploid species B. napus possessed 8 Dicer-like (DCL), 27 Argonaute (AGO), and 16 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) genes, which included almost all copies from its progenitor species B...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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