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Brassica rapa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437729/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-polymeric-chitosan-tripolyphosphate-and-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-on-germination-of-zea-mays-brassica-rapa-and-pisum-sativum
#1
Daniele Y Nakasato, Anderson E S Pereira, Jhones L Oliveira, Halley C Oliveira, Leonardo F Fraceto
Although the potential toxicity of many metallic and carbon nanoparticles to plants has been reported, few studies have evaluated the phytotoxic effects of polymeric and solid lipid nanoparticles. The present work described the preparation and characterization of chitosan/tripolyphosphate (CS/TPP) nanoparticles and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and evaluated the effects of different concentrations of these nanoparticles on germination of Zea mays, Brassica rapa, and Pisum sativum. CS/TPP nanoparticles presented an average size of 233...
April 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432881/improvement-in-cadmium-tolerance-of-edible-rape-brassica-rapa-l-with-exogenous-application-of-chitooligosaccharide
#2
Haiying Zong, Kecheng Li, Song Liu, Lin Song, Ronge Xing, Xiaolin Chen, Pengcheng Li
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, which is readily taken up by plant roots and has deleterious effects on crop yield and quality. The study investigated the potential cross-protection roles of chitooligosaccharide (COS) in alleviating Cd toxicity in edible rape (Brassica rapa L.) under greenhouse conditions. The results demonstrated that spraying COS onto the leaves of edible rape could promote the plant growth and leaf chlorophyll contents, decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in leaves as well as the Cd(2+) concentration in shoots and roots of edible rape under Cd stress...
April 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424711/genomic-molecular-evolution-and-expression-analysis-of-genes-encoding-putative-classical-agps-lysine-rich-agps-and-ag-peptides-in-brassica-rapa
#3
Tianyu Han, Heng Dong, Jie Cui, Ming Li, Sue Lin, Jiashu Cao, Li Huang
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) belong to a class of Pro/Hyp-rich glycoproteins and are some of the most complex types of macromolecules found in plants. In the economically important plant species, Brassica rapa, only chimeric AGPs have been identified to date. This has significantly limited our understanding of the functional roles of AGPs in this plant. In this study, 64 AGPs were identified in the genome of B. rapa, including 33 classical AGPs, 28 AG peptides and three lys-rich AGPs. Syntenic gene analysis between B...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418033/a-genome-wide-snp-based-genetic-map-and-qtl-mapping-for-agronomic-traits-in-chinese-cabbage
#4
Li Huang, Yafei Yang, Fang Zhang, Jiashu Cao
The aim of this work was to construct a high-resolution genetic map for the dissection of complex morphological and agronomic traits in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. syn. B. campestris). Chinese cabbage, an economically important vegetable, is a good model plant for studies on the evolution of morphologic variation. Herein, two high-generation inbred Chinese cabbage lines, 'Huangxiaoza' and 'Bqq094-11', were crossed. Then restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was performed on the parents and 120 F2 individuals...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371014/genomic-inferences-of-domestication-events-are-corroborated-by-written-records-in-brassica-rapa
#5
Xinshuai Qi, Hong An, Aaron Ragsdale, Tara E Hall, Ryan N Gutenkunst, J Chris Pires, Michael S Barker
Demographic modeling is often used with population genomic data to infer the relationships and ages among populations. However, relatively few analyses are able to validate these inferences with independent data. Here, we leverage written records that describe distinct Brassica rapa crops to corroborate demographic models of domestication. Brassica rapa crops are renowned for their outstanding morphological diversity, but the relationships and order of domestication remains unclear. We generated genome-wide SNPs from 126 accessions collected globally using high-throughput transcriptome data...
April 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369291/parasitoid-diaeretiella-rapae-hymenoptera-braconidae-adjusts-reproductive-strategy-when-competing-for-hosts
#6
Rashmi Kant, Maria A Minor
Parasitoid fitness depends on its ability to manipulate reproductive strategies when in competition. This study investigated the parasitism and sex allocation strategies of the parasitic wasp Diaeretiella rapae McIntosh at a range of host (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) and conspecific densities. The results suggest that D. rapae females adjust their progeny production and progeny sex ratio with changing competition. When foraging alone, female D. rapae parasitize larger number of B. brassicae nymphs when the number of available hosts is increased, but the overall proportion of parasitized hosts decreases with increase in host density...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367152/genome-wide-identification-evolution-and-expression-analysis-of-the-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-gene-family-in-brassica-rapa
#7
Chao Yan, Weike Duan, Shanwu Lyu, Ying Li, Xilin Hou
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins can act as transporters of different substrates across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. However, little information is available about ABC transporters in Brassica rapa, an important leafy vegetable. In the present study, we carried out genome-wide identification, characterization and molecular evolution analyses of ABC gene family in B. rapa and 9 other plant species. A total of 179 B. rapa ABC genes (BraABCs) were identified. Among them, 173 BraABCs were identified on 10 chromosomes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363779/genome-wide-analysis-and-expression-profiling-of-the-grf-gene-family-in-oilseed-rape-brassica-napus-l
#8
Jin-Qi Ma, Hong-Ju Jian, Bo Yang, Kun Lu, Ao-Xiang Zhang, Pu Liu, Jia-Na Li
Growth regulating-factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that help regulate plant growth and development. Genome-wide identification and evolutionary analyses of GRF gene families have been performed in Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Brassica rapa, but a comprehensive analysis of the GRF gene family in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has not yet been reported. In the current study, we identified 35 members of the BnGRF family in B. napus. We analyzed the chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships (Bayesian Inference and Neighbor Joining method), gene structures, and motifs of the BnGRF family members, as well as the cis-acting regulatory elements in their promoters...
March 28, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362994/identification-of-genes-related-to-floral-organ-development-in-pak-choi-by-expression-profiling
#9
H X Song, A M Ping, M X Sun, X H Qi, M Y Gao, X Y Xu, Z J Zhu, M L Li, L P Hou
Pak choi is a highly nutritious vegetable that is widely grown in China, Southeast Asia, and other parts of the world. Because it reproduces by seed, it is very important to understand the mechanism of floral organ development. Therefore, using the Chinese cabbage genome as a reference, this study analyzed the expression profiles of shoot apex genes at flower bud differentiation stages 1 and 5, in order to identify genes related to floral organ development. The results showed that the proportion of mapped genes was high, with 84...
March 30, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348571/population-structure-and-phylogenetic-relationships-in-a-diverse-panel-of-brassica-rapa-l
#10
Kevin A Bird, Hong An, Elodie Gazave, Michael A Gore, J Chris Pires, Larry D Robertson, Joanne A Labate
The crop species Brassica rapa L. has significant economic importance around the world. However, the global distribution and complex evolutionary history of the species has made investigating its genetic population structure difficult. Crop domestication and improvement has resulted in extreme phenotypic diversity and subspecies that are used for oilseed, food for human consumption, and fodder for livestock. These subspecies include the oilseed morphotypes. oleifera (turnip rape), ssp. dichotoma (brown sarson/toria), ssp...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332757/selective-modes-determine-evolutionary-rates-gene-compactness-and-expression-patterns-in-brassica
#11
Yue Guo, Jing Liu, Jiefu Zhang, Shengyi Liu, Jianchang Du
It has been well documented that most nuclear protein-coding genes in organisms can be classified into two categories, i.e., positively selected genes (PSGs) and negatively selected genes (NSGs). The characteristics and evolutionary fates of different types of genes, however, have been poorly understood. In this study, the rates of nonsynonymous substitution (Ka) and the synonymous substitution (Ks) were investigated by comparing the orthologs between the two sequenced Brassica species, Brassica rapa, and Brassica oleracea, and the evolutionary rates, gene structures, expression patterns, and codon bias were compared between PSGs and NSGs...
March 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330247/production-of-glucosinolates-phenolic-compounds-and-associated-gene-expression-profiles-of-hairy-root-cultures-in-turnip-brassica-rapa-ssp-rapa
#12
Ill-Min Chung, Kaliyaperumal Rekha, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Muthu Thiruvengadam
Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) is an important vegetable crop producing glucosinolates (GSLs) and phenolic compounds. The GSLs, phenolic compound contents and transcript levels in hairy root cultures, as well as their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity were studied in turnip. Transgenic hairy root lines were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR. GSLs levels (glucoallysin, glucobrassicanapin, gluconasturtiin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin) and their gene expression levels (BrMYB28, BrMYB29, BrMYB34, BrMYB51, BrMYB122, CYP79 and CYP83) significantly increased in hairy roots compared with that in non-transformed roots...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330158/a-simple-and-efficient-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-mediated-plant-transformation-of-brassica-rapa-ssp-pekinensis
#13
Venkidasamy Baskar, Baniekal H Gangadhar, Se Won Park, Shivraj Hariram Nile
The present study aims to investigate the numerous factors influencing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Factors affecting transformation efficiency, such as age of explants, Agrobacterium concentration, and effect of acetosyringone, pre-cultivation, infection and co-cultivation time of Agrobacterium were examined. The pre-cultured hypocotyls from young seedlings prior to exposure to Agrobacterium showed higher shoot regeneration. The plant transformation with the modest A...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324819/impact-of-different-feedstocks-derived-biochar-amendment-with-cadmium-low-uptake-affinity-cultivar-of-pak-choi-brassica-rapa-ssb-chinensis-l-on-phytoavoidation-of-cd-to-reduce-potential-dietary-toxicity
#14
Kiran Yasmin Khan, Barkat Ali, Xiaoqiang Cui, Ying Feng, Xiaoe Yang, Peter Joseph Stoffella
Biochar has become eco-friendly amendment used for phytoavoidation with low cadmium (Cd) accumulating cultivars of crops to ensure food safety in Cd contaminated soils. In this study, biochar with different waste feedstock material were evaluated for their effectiveness on essential trace metals mobility, Cd bioavailability and its accumulation in two contrasting Cd accumulating cultivars of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis L.) grown in Cd contaminated Mollisol soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with plants grown in Cd contaminated soil that had been amended with biochar derived from barley straw, tomato green waste, chicken manure, duck manure and swine manure at application rate of 0%, 2...
March 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316286/brassica-aphid-hemiptera-aphididae-populations-are-conditioned-by-climatic-variables-and-parasitism-level-a-study-case-of-tri%C3%A3-ngulo-mineiro-brazil
#15
M V Sampaio, A P Korndörfer, J Pujade-Villar, J E A Hubaide, S E Ferreira, S O Arantes, D M Bortoletto, C M Guimarães, J A Sánchez-Espigares, B Caballero-López
Cosmopolitan pests such as Brevicoryne brassicae, Lipaphis pseudobrassicae, and Myzus persicae (Aphididae) cause significant damage to Brassicaceae crops. Assessment of the important biotic and abiotic factors that regulate these pests is an essential step in the development of effective Integrated Pest Management programs for these aphids. This study evaluated the influence of leaf position, precipitation, temperature, and parasitism on populations of L. pseudobrassicae, M. persicae, and B. brassicae in collard greens fields in the Triângulo Mineiro region (Minas Gerais state), Brazil...
March 20, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291771/real-time-divergent-evolution-in-plants-driven-by-pollinators
#16
Daniel D L Gervasi, Florian P Schiestl
Pollinator-driven diversification is thought to be a major source of floral variation in plants. Our knowledge of this process is, however, limited to indirect assessments of evolutionary changes. Here, we employ experimental evolution with fast cycling Brassica rapa plants to demonstrate adaptive evolution driven by different pollinators. Our study shows pollinator-driven divergent selection as well as divergent evolution in plant traits. Plants pollinated by bumblebees evolved taller size and more fragrant flowers with increased ultraviolet reflection...
March 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288105/reduction-of-antinutritional-glucosinolates-in-brassica-oilseeds-by-mutation-of-genes-encoding-transporters
#17
Hussam Hassan Nour-Eldin, Svend Roesen Madsen, Steven Engelen, Morten Egevang Jørgensen, Carl Erik Olsen, Jonathan Sonne Andersen, David Seynnaeve, Thalia Verhoye, Rudy Fulawka, Peter Denolf, Barbara Ann Halkier
The nutritional value of Brassica seed meals is reduced by the presence of glucosinolates, which are toxic compounds involved in plant defense. Mutation of the genes encoding two glucosinolate transporters (GTRs) eliminated glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, but translation of loss-of-function phenotypes into Brassica crops is challenging because Brassica is polyploid. We mutated one of seven and four of 12 GTR orthologs and reduced glucosinolate levels in seeds by 60-70% in two different Brassica species (Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea)...
April 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270829/cadmium-disrupts-the-balance-between-hydrogen-peroxide-and-superoxide-radical-by-regulating-endogenous-hydrogen-sulfide-in-the-root-tip-of-brassica-rapa
#18
Wenjing Lv, Lifei Yang, Cunfa Xu, Zhiqi Shi, Jinsong Shao, Ming Xian, Jian Chen
Cd (cadmium) stress always alters the homeostasis of ROS (reactive oxygen species) including H2O2 (hydrogen sulfide) and [Formula: see text] (superoxide radical), leading to the oxidative injury and growth inhibition in plants. In addition to triggering oxidative injury, ROS has been suggested as important regulators modulating root elongation. However, whether and how Cd stress induces the inhibition of root elongation by differentially regulating endogenous H2O2 and [Formula: see text], rather than by inducing oxidative injury, remains elusive...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258381/a-glabra1-ortholog-on-lg-a9-controls-trichome-number-in-the-japanese-leafy-vegetables-mizuna-and-mibuna-brassica-rapa-l-subsp-nipposinica-l-h-bailey-evidence-from-qtl-analysis
#19
Yaichi Kawakatsu, Hokuto Nakayama, Kaori Kaminoyama, Kaori Igarashi, Masaki Yasugi, Hiroshi Kudoh, Atsushi J Nagano, Kentaro Yano, Nakao Kubo, Seisuke Kimura
Brassica rapa show a wide range of morphological variations. In particular, the leaf morphologies of the Japanese traditional leafy vegetables Mizuna and Mibuna (Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica L. H. Bailey) are distinctly different, even though they are closely related cultivars that are easy to cross. In addition to the differences in the gross morphology of leaves, some cultivars of Mibuna (Kyo-nishiki) have many trichomes on its leaves, whereas Mizuna (Kyo-mizore) does not. To identify the genes responsible for the different number of trichomes, we performed a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of Mizuna and Mibuna...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239387/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-cdpk-snrk-superfamily-genes-in-chinese-cabbage-and-its-evolutionary-implications-in-plants
#20
Peng Wu, Wenli Wang, Weike Duan, Ying Li, Xilin Hou
The CDPK-SnRK (calcium-dependent protein kinase/Snf1-related protein kinase) gene superfamily plays important roles in signaling pathways for disease resistance and various stress responses, as indicated by emerging evidence. In this study, we constructed comparative analyses of gene structure, retention, expansion, whole-genome duplication (WGD) and expression patterns of CDPK-SnRK genes in Brassica rapa and their evolution in plants. A total of 49 BrCPKs, 14 BrCRKs, 3 BrPPCKs, 5 BrPEPRKs, and 56 BrSnRKs were identified in B...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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