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Osteochondral defect

BanuPriya Sridharan, Amy D Laflin, Michael A Holtz, Donna M Pacicca, Nicholas K Wischmeier, Michael S Detamore
To date, many osteochondral regenerative approaches have utilized varied combinations of biocompatible materials and cells to engineer cartilage. Even in cell-based approaches, to date, no study has utilized stem cell aggregates alone for regenerating articular cartilage. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a novel stem cell-based aggregate approach in a fibrin carrier to regenerate osteochondral defects in the Sprague-Dawley rat trochlear groove model. Two different densities of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (rBMSC) aggregates were fabricated by the hanging drop technique...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
M Aurich, D Albrecht, P Angele, C Becher, S Fickert, J Fritz, P E Müller, P Niemeyer, M Pietschmann, G Spahn, M Walther
Background: Osteochondral lesions (OCL) of the ankle are a common cause of ankle pain. Although the precise pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated, it can be assumed that a variety of factors are responsible, mainly including traumatic events such as ankle sprains. Advances in arthroscopy and imaging techniques, in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have improved the possibilities for the diagnosis of OCLs of the ankle. Moreover, these technologies aim at developing new classification systems and modern treatment strategies...
October 21, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Andrea Schwab, Annick Meeuwsen, Franziska Ehlicke, Jan Hansmann, Lars Mulder, Anthal Smits, Heike Walles, Linda Kock
There is a great need for valuable ex vivo models that allow for assessment of cartilage repair strategies to reduce the high number of animal experiments. In this paper we present three studies with our novel ex vivo osteochondral culture platform. It consists of two separated media compartments for cartilage and bone which better represents the in vivo situation and enables supply of specific factors to the different needs of bone and cartilage. We investigated whether separation of the cartilage and bone compartments and/or culture media results in the maintenance of viability, structural and functional properties of cartilage tissue (study A)...
October 21, 2016: ALTEX
Kedong Song, Wenfang Li, Hai Wang, Yu Zhang, Liying Li, Yiwei Wang, Hong Wang, Ling Wang, Tianqing Liu
Biological treatment using engineered osteochondral composites has received growing attention for the repair of cartilage defects. Osteochondral composites combined with a dynamic culture provide great potential for improving the quality of constructs and cartilage regeneration as dynamic conditions mimic the in vivo condition where cells were constantly subjected to mechanical and chemical stimulation. In the present study, biophasic composites were produced in vitro consisting of cell-hydrogel (CH) and cell-cancellous bone (CB) constructs, followed by culturing in a dynamic system in a spinner flask...
October 21, 2016: Biomedical Materials
Joshua J Leeman, Daria Motamedi, Ben Wildman-Tobriner, Richard J O'Donnell, Thomas M Link
We present the case of an intra-articular osteoid osteoma at the femoral trochlea. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma can present a diagnostic challenge both clinically and with imaging because it presents differently from the classic cortical osteoid osteoma. Given the lesion's proximity to overlying cartilage, the patient underwent resection of the lesion with osteochondral autograft transplantation at the surgical defect. A comprehensive literature review and discussion of intra-articular osteoma will be provided...
June 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Hideyuki Maruki, Masato Sato, Toshiaki Takezawa, Yoshiki Tani, Munetaka Yokoyama, Takumi Takahashi, Eriko Toyoda, Eri Okada, Shigehisa Aoki, Joji Mochida, Yoshiharu Kato
We studied the ability of collagen vitrigel material to repair cartilage in vivo when used alone or with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). We measured the time course and quantity of TGF-β1 released from the collagen vitrigel in vitro to quantify the controlled release of TGF-β1. Over 14 days, 0.91 ng of TGF-β was released from the collagen vitrigel. Osteochondral defects were made in the femoral trochlear groove in 36 Japanese white rabbits, which were divided into three groups: untreated group (group A), collagen vitrigel-implanted group (group B), and TGF-β1-incorporated collagen vitrigel-implanted group (group C)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Gary M LiMarzi, Kurt F Scherer, Michael L Richardson, David R Warden, Christopher W Wasyliw, Jack A Porrino, Christopher R Pettis, Gideon Lewis, Christopher C Mason, Laura W Bancroft
A variety of surgical procedures exist for repair of both traumatic and degenerative osseous and soft-tissue pathologic conditions involving the foot and ankle. It is necessary for the radiologist to be familiar with these surgical procedures, so as to assess structural integrity, evaluate for complicating features, and avoid diagnostic pitfalls. Adequate interpretation of postoperative changes often requires access to surgical documentation to evaluate not only the surgery itself but the expected timeline for resolution of normal postoperative changes versus progressive disease...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Manami Makitsubo, Nobuo Adachi, Tomoyuki Nakasa, Tomohiro Kato, Ryo Shimizu, Mitsuo Ochi
BACKGROUND: Although differences in the results of the bone marrow stimulation technique between the knee and ankle have been reported, a detailed mechanism for those differences has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to examine whether morphological differences between the knee and ankle joint affect the results of drilling as treatment for osteochondral defects in a rabbit model. METHODS: Osteochondral defects were created at the knee and ankle joint in the rabbit...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
David Wasylynko
OBJECTIVE: To present a case of chronic elbow pain as a result of a hidden underlying osteochondral defect. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 17-year old baseball player presented with chronic lateral elbow pain. Examination revealed swelling of the elbow with signs of possible ligament, muscle, and tendon injury. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT: Although there was apparent soft-tissue injury, the elbow swelling created immediate suspicion of a more serious underlying condition...
September 2016: Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
Adam O'Reilly, Daniel John Kelly
Developing successful tissue engineering strategies requires an understanding of how cells within an implanted scaffold interacts with the host environment. The objective of this study was to use a computational mechanobiological model to explore how the design of a cell laden scaffold influences the spatial formation of cartilage and bone within an osteochondral defect. Tissue differentiation was predicted using a previously developed model in which cell fate depends on the local oxygen tension and the mechanical environment within a damaged joint...
October 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Paolo Giannoni, Federico Villa, Cinzia Cordazzo, Luciano Zardi, Paolo Fattori, Rodolfo Quarto, Mauro Fiorini
Three different heterologous substitutes for bone regeneration, manufactured with equine-derived cortical powder (CP), cancellous chips (CC) and demineralized bone matrix granules (DBM), were compared in in vitro and in vivo settings. We tested: a commercially available bone paste (Osteoplant-Activagen™, consisting of aqueous collagenous carrier, CP, DBM; named A); a second-generation injectable paste (20 kDa polyethylene glycol/hydroxypropyl-methyl cellulose-based hydrogel, CP, DBM; B); a pre-formed bone filler (400 kDa polyethylene oxide/hydroxypropyl-methyl cellulose-based hydrogel, CP, CC, DBM; C)...
November 18, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Darius Moezzi
Knee focal cartilage treatment depends on many variables including lesion size, location, age, and patient activity level. High level of evidence meta-analysis suggests that the osteochondral autograft transfer system is superior to microfracture for larger lesions and osteochondritis dissecans, but cartilage restoration indications must be individualized based on additional variables.
October 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Maki Itokazu, Shigeyuki Wakitani, Hisashi Mera, Yoshihiro Tamamura, Yasushi Sato, Mutsumi Takagi, Hiroaki Nakamura
OBJECTIVE: The object of this study was to determine culture conditions that create stable scaffold-free cartilage-like cell-sheets from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and to assess their effects after transplantation into osteochondral defects in nude rats. DESIGN: (Experiment 1) The hBMSCs were harvested from 3 males, the proliferative and chondrogenic capacities were assessed at passage 1, and the cells were expanded in 3 different culture conditions: (1) 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS), (2) 10% FBS, and (3) 5% FBS with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2)...
October 2016: Cartilage
Jan C Schagemann, Nicola Rudert, Michelle E Taylor, Sotcheadt Sim, Eric Quenneville, Martin Garon, Mathias Klinger, Michael D Buschmann, Hagen Mittelstaedt
OBJECTIVE: To compare the regenerative capacity of 2 distinct bilayer implants for the restoration of osteochondral defects in a preliminary sheep model. METHODS: Critical sized osteochondral defects were treated with a novel biomimetic poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) implant (Treatment No. 2; n = 6) or a combination of Chondro-Gide and Orthoss (Treatment No. 1; n = 6). At 19 months postoperation, repair tissue (n = 5 each) was analyzed for histology and biochemistry...
October 2016: Cartilage
Ryan M Degen, Danielle Tetreault, Greg T Mahony, Riley J Williams
Articular cartilage injuries, and corresponding surgical procedures, are occurring with increasing frequency as identified by a review of recent surgical trends. Concerns have grown in recent years regarding the longevity of results following microfracture, with a shift toward cartilage restoration procedures in recent years. This case report describes 2 cases of acute failure following the use of commercially available osteochondral allograft plugs used for the treatment of osteochondral defects of the distal femur...
October 2016: Cartilage
Tyler Novak, Kateri Fites, Xin Xu, Logan Worke, Aaron Ciesielski, Gert Breur, Corey P Neu
Interest in decellularized tissues has steadily gained as potential solutions for degenerative diseases and traumatic events, replacing sites of missing tissue and providing the relevant biochemistry and microstructure for tissue ingrowth and regeneration. Osteoarthritis, a progressive and debilitating disease, is often initiated with the formation of a focal defect in the otherwise smooth surface of articular cartilage. The use of decellularized cartilage tissue, which maintains the structural complexity of the native extracellular matrix, has the potential to provide a clinically relevant solution to focal defects or large tissue damage, possibly even circumventing or complementing current techniques such as microfracture and mosaicplasty...
September 27, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Cecilia Pascual-Garrido, Erika Daley, Nikhil N Verma, Brian J Cole
PURPOSE: To compare the results of focal metallic resurfacing with biologic procedures in patients more than 35 years of age with isolated, full thickness defects of the femoral condyle. METHODS: A total of 61 patients met the selection criteria resulting in 30 patients treated with biological procedures, including debridement, microfracture, osteochondral autograft transplantation, osteochondral allograft, and autologous chondrocyte implantation (BIO group), and 32 patients treated with focal metallic resurfacing (CAP group)...
September 20, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
E H Mrosek, H-W Chung, J S Fitzsimmons, S W O'Driscoll, G G Reinholz, J C Schagemann
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine if a durable bilayer implant composed of trabecular metal with autologous periosteum on top would be suitable to reconstitute large osteochondral defects. This design would allow for secure implant fixation, subsequent integration and remodeling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult sheep were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 8/group): 1. trabecular metal/periosteal graft (TMPG), 2. trabecular metal (TM), 3. empty defect (ED)...
September 2016: Bone & Joint Research
Michiel W Pot, Veronica K Gonzales, Pieter Buma, Joanna IntHout, Toin H van Kuppevelt, Rob B M de Vries, Willeke F Daamen
Microfracture surgery may be applied to treat cartilage defects. During the procedure the subchondral bone is penetrated, allowing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to migrate towards the defect site and form new cartilage tissue. Microfracture surgery generally results in the formation of mechanically inferior fibrocartilage. As a result, this technique offers only temporary clinical improvement. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine may improve the outcome of microfracture surgery. Filling the subchondral defect with a biomaterial may provide a template for the formation of new hyaline cartilage tissue...
2016: PeerJ
Aristides I Cruz, Kevin G Shea, Theodore J Ganley
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) can cause knee pain and dysfunction in children. The etiology of OCD remains unclear; theories on causes include inflammation, ischemia, ossification abnormalities, genetic factors, and repetitive microtrauma. Most OCD lesions in skeletally immature patients will heal with nonoperative treatment. The success of nonoperative treatment decreases once patients reach skeletal maturity. The goals of surgical treatment include maintenance of articular cartilage congruity, rigid fixation of unstable fragments, and repair of osteochondral defects with cells or tissues that can adequately replace lost or deficient cartilage...
October 2016: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
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