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Osteochondral defect

Anne Bernhardt, Birgit Paul, Michael Gelinsky
BACKGROUND: Collagens of marine origin are applied increasingly as alternatives to mammalian collagens in tissue engineering. The aim of the present study was to develop a biphasic scaffold from exclusively marine collagens supporting both osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation and to find a suitable setup for in vitro chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stroma cells (hMSC). METHODS: Biphasic scaffolds from biomimetically mineralized salmon collagen and fibrillized jellyfish collagen were fabricated by joint freeze-drying and crosslinking...
March 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Kristina Linnea Welton, Stephanie Logterman, Justin H Bartley, Armando F Vidal, Eric C McCarty
Focal cartilage defects in the knee are commonly found on MRI and arthroscopically. When these lesions are symptomatic and fail nonoperative management several surgical strategies are available. Common surgical techniques include reparative (ie, microfracture) and restorative procedures (ie, autologous chondrocyte implantation, particulated juvenile allograft cartilage, osteochondral autograft transfer, and osteochondral allograft). Each of these surgical procedures have shared and novel complications associated with their use...
April 2018: Clinics in Sports Medicine
Mohammad-Hossein Beigi, Atefeh Atefi, Hamid-Reza Ghanaei, Sheyda Labbaf, Fatemeh Ejeian, Mohammad-Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
In the current study the effect of superimposing platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on different culture mediums in a three-dimensional (3D) alginate scaffold encapsulated with adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) for cartilage tissue repair is reported. The 3D alginate scaffolds with co-administration of PRP and/or chondrogenic supplements had a significant effect on the differentiation of ADSCs into mature cartilage, as assessed by evaluation of the expression of cartilage related markers of Sox9, Collagen II, Aggrecan and collagen and glycosaminoglycan assays...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Raymond Leung, Panos Thomas
Osteochondral defects (OCD) are rare conditions that usually present in young adolescents. The causes include trauma, inflammation, ischaemia, genetics and changes at secondary ossification centres. The case report presents a 27-year-old man with chronic intermittent left knee pain for about 3 years. He typically develops the symptom after prolonged standing or when rising from a prolonged seated position. An initial MRI scan in 2014 did not identify and report an OCD that was present in his left lateral tibial plateau...
March 7, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Charles A Baumann, John R Baumann, Chantelle C Bozynski, Aaron M Stoker, James P Stannard, James L Cook
Articular defects are a major problem with few effective treatment options. Osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation can be an effective treatment; however, lack of OCA bone integration can cause failure. This controlled laboratory study was designed to compare clinically applicable methods for marrow element removal and enhanced delivery of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMC) to OCA bone. We hypothesized that compressed carbon dioxide (CO2 ) treatment of OCA bone would result in significantly better marrow element removal, significantly more retention and distribution of viable osteoprogenitor cells, and significantly higher osteoinductive protein elution from OCAs compared with other preimplantation treatments...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Nicholas N DePhillipo, Mark E Cinque, Nicholas I Kennedy, Jorge Chahla, Gilbert Moatshe, Robert F LaPrade
Background and Purpose: Early sport specialization (ESS) refers to intense training year round in a specific sport starting at a young age with no or limited participation in other sports. This approach to training is highly controversial; recent literature suggests that this type of specialized training could be a contributing source to overuse injuries in youth athletes. The purpose of this case report was to describe a patellofemoral articular cartilage defect of the knee in a preadolescent skier due to overuse and repetitive microtrauma as a result of ESS...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Matteo Baldassarri, Luca Perazzo, Marco Ricciarelli, Simone Natali, Francesca Vannini, Roberto Buda
OBJECTIVES: Osteochondral lesions of the distal tibial plafond (OLTP) are rare and far less common than osteochondral lesions of the talus. Literature data do not report clinical records with significant number of cases and follow-up. The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical and MRI outcomes following arthroscopic treatment of distal tibia osteochondral lesions and to report our results with treating these rare lesions. METHODS: Between October 2010 and November 2011, a consecutive series of 27 patients, 15 males and 12 females, were treated arthroscopically with the one-step BMDCT for OLTPs...
February 23, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Varun Arora, Pierre Navarre, Mathias Russ, Max Esser
Fracture of the femoral head (OTA 31-C1.3) following anterior obturator dislocations are a challenging problem as the fractures are often communited, impacted and with loose osteochondral fragments, making surgical fixation difficult. This can result in residual articular defects if the fragments cannot be internally fixed and need be excised, predisposing to secondary osteoarthritis. Treatment options for these defects are limited, have variable results and with limited literature to guide us on outcomes due to the rarity of these injuries...
2018: SICOT-J
L F Mendes, H Katagiri, W L Tam, Y C Chai, L Geris, S J Roberts, F P Luyten
BACKGROUND: Chondrogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have not yet been used to address the clinical demands of large osteochondral joint surface defects. In this study, self-assembling tissue intermediates (TIs) derived from human periosteum-derived stem/progenitor cells (hPDCs) were generated and validated for stable cartilage formation in vivo using two different animal models. METHODS: hPDCs were aggregated and cultured in the presence of a novel growth factor (GF) cocktail comprising of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2, growth differentiation factor (GDF)5, BMP6, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2...
February 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Lucía Sentchordi-Montané, Miriam Aza-Carmona, Sara Benito-Sanz, Ana C Barreda-Bonis, Consuelo Sánchez-Garre, Pablo Prieto-Matos, Pablo Ruiz-Ocaña, Alfonso Lechuga-Sancho, Atilano Carcavilla-Urquí, Inés Mulero-Collantes, Gabriel A Martos-Moreno, Angela Del Pozo, Elena Vallespín, Amaka Offiah, Manuel Parrón-Pajares, I Dinis, Sergio B Sousa, Purificación Ros-Pérez, Isabel González-Casado, Karen E Heath
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the aggrecan gene (ACAN) have been identified in two autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias, Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Kimberley type (SEDK) and osteochondritis dissecans, as well as in a severe recessive dysplasia, Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, aggrecan type. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has aided the identification of heterozygous ACAN mutations in individuals with short stature, minor skeletal defects and mild facial dysmorphisms, some of whom have advanced bone age (BA), poor pubertal spurt and early growth cessation as well as precocious osteoarthritis...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Ahmed Aly Elghawy, Carlos Sesin, Michael Rosselli
Objective: To provide a review of osteochondral lesions of the talus, to discuss the evidence of the risks and benefits of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a viable treatment option, and to measure the efficacy of PRP using MRI evidence of cartilage regeneration, as well as scales that measure improvement in 'pain' and 'functionality'. Eligibility criteria: Studies that use PRP in either conservative or intraoperative settings to treat osteochondral defects of the talus...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Jan M Pestka, Nam H Luu, Norbert P Südkamp, Peter Angele, Gunther Spahn, Wolfgang Zinser, Philipp Niemeyer
Background: Various operative strategies have been introduced to restore the integrity of articular cartilage when injured. The frequency of revision surgery after cartilage regenerative surgery remains incompletely understood. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to identify the reasons for revision surgery after cartilage regenerative surgery of the knee. We hypothesized that in a large patient cohort, revision rates would differ from those in the current literature...
February 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Qian Wang, Hui Zhang, Hongquan Gan, Hui Wang, Qijia Li, Zhiqiang Wang
PURPOSE: Porous tantalum (PT) has been widely used in orthopaedic applications for low modulus of elasticity, excellent biocompatibility, and the microstructures similar to cancellous bone. In order to improve the biological activity of PT, biologically active factors can be combined with the material. The purpose of this study was to investigate if bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) modifications could enhance the repairing of cartilage of PT in osteochondral defect in medial femoral condyle of rabbits...
February 14, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Kelechi R Okoroha, Timothy J Evans, Jeffrey P Stephens, Eric C Makhni, Vasilios Moutzouros
The use of three-dimensional (3D) printing has seen a vast expansion over recent years, with an increased application for its use in orthopaedics. This report details the use of 3D printing technology to aid in the treatment of a medial femoral condyle osteochondral defect in a 26-year-old female who had previously undergone a failed autograft procedure. A preoperative computed tomography scan of the knee and chondral defect was used to generate a 3D printed, one-to-one scale replica of the distal femur. This replica was then used to size a patient-specific allograft plug for the osteochondral transplantation procedure...
February 13, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Helen Lydon, Roger Brooks, Andrew McCaskie, Frances Henson
BACKGROUND: Recent research has demonstrated that circulating peripheral blood mononuclear fractions (PBMC) containing haematopoietic stem (HSC)/progenitor cells have the potential to play a crucial role in regenerative medicine strategies. Work in our laboratory has shown that a peripheral blood mononuclear cell fraction (PBMC) enhances cartilage repair in an osteochondral defect model in sheep and has a significant effect on cells in the joint niche. In order to obtain PBMC rich blood containing HSCs for further studies, we have performed, for the first time, apheresis on adult sheep...
February 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Janani Radhakrishnan, Amrutha Manigandan, Prabu Chinnaswamy, Anuradha Subramanian, Swaminathan Sethuraman
Fabrication of anisotropic osteochondral-mimetic scaffold with mineralized subchondral zone and gradient interface remains challenging. We have developed an injectable semi-interpenetrating network hydrogel construct with chondroitin sulfate nanoparticles (ChS-NPs) and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) (∼30-90 nm) in chondral and subchondral hydrogel zones respectively. Mineralized subchondral hydrogel exhibited significantly higher osteoblast proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity (p < 0.05). Osteochondral hydrogel exhibited interconnected porous structure and spatial variation with gradient interface of nHA and ChS-NPs...
February 3, 2018: Biomaterials
Ruzanna Shkhyan, Ben Van Handel, Jacob Bogdanov, Siyoung Lee, Yifan Yu, Mila Scheinberg, Nicholas W Banks, Sean Limfat, Arthur Chernostrik, Carlos Eduardo Franciozi, Mohammad Parvez Alam, Varghese John, Ling Wu, Gabriel B Ferguson, Ali Nsair, Frank A Petrigliano, C Thomas Vangsness, Kanagasabai Vadivel, Paul Bajaj, Liming Wang, Nancy Q Liu, Denis Evseenko
OBJECTIVE: Human adult articular cartilage (AC) has little capacity for repair, and joint surface injuries often result in osteoarthritis (OA), characterised by loss of matrix, hypertrophy and chondrocyte apoptosis. Inflammation mediated by interleukin (IL)-6 family cytokines has been identified as a critical driver of proarthritic changes in mouse and human joints, resulting in a feed-forward process driving expression of matrix degrading enzymes and IL-6 itself. Here we show that signalling through glycoprotein 130 (gp130), the common receptor for IL-6 family cytokines, can have both context-specific and cytokine-specific effects on articular chondrocytes and that a small molecule gp130 modulator can bias signalling towards anti-inflammatory and antidegenerative outputs...
February 7, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Jonathan A Godin, Zaamin B Hussain, Anthony Sanchez, George Sanchez, Márcio B Ferrari, Mark E Cinque, Nicholas I Kennedy, Matthew T Provencher
Chondral lesions of the knee can occur secondary to limb malalignment. To address these interrelated problems, a high tibial osteotomy with concomitant osteochondral allograft transfer may be performed. It is important to address these chondral lesions as they often affect the young and active population and cause morbidity in an otherwise healthy population. Although numerous approaches for the treatment of chondral lesions have been described, long-term results demonstrating regeneration of hyaline cartilage have yet to be reported...
October 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
Dean Wang, Brian J Rebolledo, David M Dare, Mollyann D Pais, Matthew R Cohn, Kristofer J Jones, Riley J Williams
Objective To characterize the graft survivorship and clinical outcomes of osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) of the knee in patients with an elevated body mass index (BMI). Design Prospective data on 38 consecutive patients with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 treated with OCA from 2000 to 2015 were reviewed. Complications, reoperations, and patient responses to validated outcome measures were examined. Failures were defined by any removal/revision of the allograft or conversion to arthroplasty. Results Thirty-one knees in 31 patients (mean age, 35...
February 1, 2018: Cartilage
João Espregueira-Mendes, Renato Andrade, Alberto Monteiro, Hélder Pereira, Manuel Vieira da Silva, J Miguel Oliveira, Rui L Reis
Autologous mosaicplasty has been widely used for the treatment of focal, full-thickness, articular cartilage lesions of the knee and ankle joints. Commonly, the autografts are harvested from non-weight-bearing areas of the knee joint, leading to associated donor-site morbidity and representing a considerable disadvantage. This Technical Note presents a mosaicplasty procedure for harvesting autologous osteochondral plugs from the upper tibiofibular joint to repair articular cartilage defects. With this technique, it is possible to achieve low or no risk of donor-site morbidity, being therefore a safe and favorable option to treat large cartilage defects...
October 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
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