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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432538/superoxide-generated-in-the-chloroplast-stroma-causes-photoinhibition-of-photosystem-i-in-the-shade-establishing-tree-species-psychotria-henryi
#1
Wei Huang, Ying-Jie Yang, Jiao-Lin Zhang, Hong Hu, Shi-Bao Zhang
Our previous studies indicated that high light induced significant photoinhibition of photosystem I (PSI) in the shade-establishing tree species Psychotria henryi. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. In the present study, in order to investigate the mechanism of PSI photoinhibition in P. henryi, we treated detached leaves with constant high light in the presence of methyl viologen (MV) or a soluble α-tocopherol analog, 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-chromanol (PMC). We found that MV significantly depressed photochemical quantum yields in PSI and PSII when compared to PMC...
April 21, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432338/crispr-cas9-mediated-inactivation-of-argonaute-2-reveals-its-differential-involvement-in-antiviral-responses
#2
Márta Ludman, József Burgyán, Károly Fátyol
RNA silencing constitutes an important antiviral mechanism in plants. Small RNA guided Argonaute proteins fulfill essential role in this process by acting as executors of viral restriction. Plants encode multiple Argonaute proteins of which several exhibit antiviral activities. A recent addition to this group is AGO2. Its involvement in antiviral responses is established predominantly by studies employing mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. In the virological model plant, Nicotiana benthamiana, the contribution of AGO2 to antiviral immunity is much less certain due to the lack of appropriate genetic mutants...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432258/lil3-a-light-harvesting-complex-protein-links-terpenoid-and-tetrapyrrole-biosynthesis
#3
Daniel Hey, Maxi Rothbart, Josephine Herbst, Peng Wang, Jakob Müller, Daniel Wittmann, Kirsten Gruhl, Bernhard Grimm
LIL3 of Arabidopsis thaliana belongs to the light-harvesting complex (LHC) family, which also includes the light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding proteins of photosystems 1 and 2, the early-light-inducible proteins, PsbS involved in non-photochemical quenching, the one-helix-proteins and their cyanobacterial homologs designated high-light-inducible proteins. Each member of this family is characterized by one or two LHC transmembrane domains (referred to as the LHC motif) to which potential functions such as chlorophyll binding, protein interaction and integration of interacting partners into the plastid membranes have been attributed...
April 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432195/n-terminal-proteomics-assisted-profiling-of-the-unexplored-translation-initiation-landscape-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Patrick Willems, Elvis Ndah, Veronique Jonckheere, Simon Stael, Adriaan Sticker, Lennart Martens, Frank Van Breusegem, Kris Gevaert, Petra Van Damme
Proteogenomics is an emerging research field yet lacking a uniform method of analysis. Proteogenomic studies in which N-terminal proteomics and ribosome profiling are combined, suggest that a high number of protein start sites are currently missing in genome annotations. We constructed a proteogenomic pipeline specific for the analysis of N-terminal proteomics data, with the aim of discovering novel translational start sites outside annotated protein coding regions. In summary, unidentified MS/MS spectra were matched to a specific N-terminal peptide library encompassing protein N-termini encoded in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome...
April 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430985/arabidopsis-cp12-mutants-have-reduced-levels-of-phosphoribulokinase-and-impaired-function-of-the-calvin-benson-cycle
#5
Patricia Elena López-Calcagno, Amani Omar Abuzaid, Tracy Lawson, Christine Anne Raines
CP12 is a small, redox-sensitive protein, the most detailed understanding of which is the thioredoxin-mediated regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle, where it facilitates the formation of a complex between glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) in response to changes in light intensity. In most organisms, CP12 proteins are encoded by small multigene families, where the importance of each individual CP12 gene in vivo has not yet been reported. We used Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA mutants and RNAi transgenic lines with reduced levels of CP12 transcript to determine the relative importance of each of the CP12 genes...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430886/intrinsic-protein-disorder-reduces-small-scale-gene-duplicability
#6
Sanghita Banerjee, Felix Feyertag, David Alvarez-Ponce
Whereas the rate of gene duplication is relatively high, only certain duplications survive the filter of natural selection and can contribute to genome evolution. However, the reasons why certain genes can be retained after duplication whereas others cannot remain largely unknown. Many proteins contain intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), whose structures fluctuate between alternative conformational states. Due to their high flexibility, IDRs often enable protein-protein interactions and are the target of post-translational modifications...
April 19, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428341/ctf4-related-protein-recruits-lhp1-prc2-to-maintain-h3k27me3-levels-in-dividing-cells-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#7
Yue Zhou, Emmanuel Tergemina, Haitao Cui, Alexander Förderer, Benjamin Hartwig, Geo Velikkakam James, Korbinian Schneeberger, Franziska Turck
Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC) 2 catalyzes the H3K27me3 modification that warrants inheritance of a repressive chromatin structure during cell division, thereby assuring stable target gene repression in differentiated cells. It is still under investigation how H3K27me3 is passed on from maternal to filial strands during DNA replication; however, cell division can reinforce H3K27me3 coverage at target regions. To identify novel factors involved in the Polycomb pathway in plants, we performed a forward genetic screen for enhancers of the like heterochromatin protein 1 (lhp1) mutant, which shows relatively mild phenotypic alterations compared with other plant PRC mutants...
April 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426703/effects-of-over-expressing-a-native-gene-encoding-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate-synthase-epsps-on-glyphosate-resistance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Xiao Yang, Zachery T Beres, Lin Jin, Jason T Parrish, Wanying Zhao, David Mackey, Allison A Snow
Widespread overuse of the herbicide glyphosate, the active ingredient in RoundUp®, has led to the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes, some of which persist by overproducing the herbicide's target enzyme, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). EPSPS is a key enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway for biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids, lignin, and defensive compounds, but little is known about how overproducing EPSPS affects downstream metabolites, growth, or lifetime fitness in the absence of glyphosate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426669/a-dynamic-genetic-hormonal-regulatory-network-model-explains-multiple-cellular-behaviors-of-the-root-apical-meristem-of-arabidopsis-thalian
#9
Mónica L García-Gómez, Eugenio Azpeitia, Elena R Álvarez-Buylla
The study of the concerted action of hormones and transcription factors is fundamental to understand cell differentiation and pattern formation during organ development. The root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model to address this. It has a stem cell niche near its tip conformed of a quiescent organizer and stem or initial cells around it, then a proliferation domain followed by a transition domain, where cells diminish division rate before transiting to the elongation zone; here, cells grow anisotropically prior to their final differentiation towards the plant base...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425481/differences-in-salicylic-acid-glucose-conjugations-by-ugt74f1-and-ugt74f2-from-arabidopsis-thaliana
#10
Alayna M George Thompson, Cristina V Iancu, Kenneth E Neet, John V Dean, Jun-Yong Choe
Salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule utilized by plants in response to various stresses. Through conjugation with small organic molecules such as glucose, an inactive form of SA is generated which can be transported into and stored in plant vacuoles. In the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, SA glucose conjugates are formed by two homologous enzymes (UGT74F1 and UGT74F2) that transfer glucose from UDP-glucose to SA. Despite being 77% identical and with conserved active site residues, these enzymes catalyze the formation of different products: UGT74F1 forms salicylic acid glucoside (SAG), while UGT74F2 forms primarily salicylic acid glucose ester (SGE)...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423470/quantification-of-near-attomole-gibberellins-in-floral-organs-dissected-from-single-arabidopsis-thaliana-flower
#11
Dongmei Li, Zhenpeng Guo, Cuimei Liu, Jincheng Li, Wenzhong Xu, Yi Chen
There remains a methodological bottleneck in the quantification of ultra-trace plant hormones in very tiny plant organs at a fresh weights below milligram. The challenge becomes even more serious in the determination of endogenous gibberellins (GAs), which are a class of compounds that are difficult to separate and detect. Herein, a quantitation method by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed, combined with a derivatization technique in which GAs react with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide in ethanol...
April 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423006/transcriptome-and-proteome-responses-in-rnalater-preserved-tissue-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#12
Colin P S Kruse, Proma Basu, Darron R Luesse, Sarah E Wyatt
Tissue preservation is a minimal requirement for the success of plant RNA and protein expression studies. The standard of snap-freezing in liquid nitrogen is not always practical or possible. RNAlater, a concentrated solution of ammonium and cesium sulfates, has become a standard preservative in the absence of liquid nitrogen. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of RNAlater in preserving both RNA and proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana tissues for use in RNAseq and LC-MS/MS analysis of proteins. While successful in preserving plant material, a transcriptomic and proteomic response is evident...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422493/triazolide-strigolactone-mimics-influence-root-development-in-arabidopsis
#13
Marcela Dvorakova, Petr Soudek, Tomas Vanek
Strigolactones are the most recently recognized class of phytohormones, which are also known to establish plant symbiosis with arbuscular mycorhizal fungi or induce germination of parasitic plants. Their relatively complex structures and low stability urgently calls for simple derivatives with maintained biological function. We have prepared a series of triazolide strigolactone mimics and studied their ability to affect root development of Arabidopsis thaliana. The strigolactone mimics significantly induced root elongation and lateral root formation while resembling the effect of the reference compound GR24...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421861/the-plant-dependent-life-cycle-of-thecaphora-thlaspeos-a-smut-fungus-adapted-to-brassicaceae
#14
Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Kaitlyn J Courville, Lesley Plücker, Ronny Kellner, Julia Kruse, Andreas Brachmann, Michael Feldbrügge, Vera Göhre
Smut fungi are globally distributed plant pathogens that infect agriculturally important crop plants such as maize or potato. To date, molecular studies on plant responses to smut fungi are challenging due to the genetic complexity of their host plants. Therefore, we set out to investigate the known smut fungus of Brassicaceae hosts, Thecaphora thlaspeos. T. thlaspeos infects different Brassicaceae plant species throughout Europe, including the perennial model plant Arabis alpina. In contrast to characterized smut fungi, mature and dry T...
April 19, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421450/the-level-of-proapoptotic-gene-transcripts-in-wheat-leaves-under-high-temperature-stress
#15
L V Topchieva, I A Nilova, A F Titov
Under exposure of wheat plants to high temperatures (33, 37, and 43°C), the level of transcripts of the genes encoding proapoptotic proteins-TaMCAII (encodes type II metacaspase) and TaBAX (functional homologue of the CDF1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana)-in leaf cells increased. This process at temperatures of 37 and 43°C passed ahead of (in the case of TaBAX mRNA) or was accompanied by (in the case of TaMCAII mRNA) the emergence of signs of nucleosomal DNA degradation in leaves. The accumulation of malondialdehyde in the leaves of seedlings exposed to temperatures of 37 and 43°C coincided in time with a change in the TaMCAII gene expression and the emergence of signs of programmed cell death...
January 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421094/cucumber-csbpcs-regulate-the-expression-of-csabi3-during-seed-germination
#16
Ying Mu, Yumei Liu, Longqiang Bai, Shuzhen Li, Chaoxing He, Yan Yan, Xianchang Yu, Yansu Li
Cucumber seeds with shallow dormancy start to germinate in fruit that are harvested late. ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), a transcription factor in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, is one of the most important regulators in the transition from late embryogenesis to germination. Our analysis found a candidate cis-regulatory motif for cucumber BASIC PENTACYSTEINE (CsBPC) in the promoter of CsABI3. Yeast one-hybrid and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that CsBPCs bound to the promoter of CsABI3...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421092/manipulation-of-aba-content-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-modifies-sensitivity-and-oxidative-stress-response-to-dickeya-dadantii-and-influences-peroxidase-activity
#17
Frédérique Van Gijsegem, Jacques Pédron, Oriane Patrit, Elizabeth Simond-Côte, Alessandra Maia-Grondard, Pierre Pétriacq, Raphaël Gonzalez, Lydie Blottière, Yvan Kraepiel
The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the first defense reactions induced in Arabidopsis in response to infection by the pectinolytic enterobacterium Dickeya dadantii. Previous results also suggest that abscisic acid (ABA) favors D. dadantii multiplication and spread into its hosts. Here, we confirm this hypothesis using ABA-deficient and ABA-overproducer Arabidopsis plants. We investigated the relationships between ABA status and ROS production in Arabidopsis after D. dadantii infection and showed that ABA status modulates the capacity of the plant to produce ROS in response to infection by decreasing the production of class III peroxidases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421087/evolutionary-analysis-of-the-lafl-genes-involved-in-the-land-plant-seed-maturation-program
#18
Jing-Dan Han, Xia Li, Chen-Kun Jiang, Gane K-S Wong, Carl J Rothfels, Guang-Yuan Rao
Seeds are one of the most significant innovations in the land plant lineage, critical to the diversification and adaptation of plants to terrestrial environments. From perspective of seed evo-devo, the most crucial developmental stage in this innovation is seed maturation, which includes accumulation of storage reserves, acquisition of desiccation tolerance, and induction of dormancy. Based on previous studies of seed development in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, seed maturation is mainly controlled by the LAFL regulatory network, which includes LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) of the NF-YB gene family, and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and LEC2 (LEAFY COTYLEDON2) of the B3-AFL gene family...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421083/ltrtype-an-efficient-tool-to-characterize-structurally-complex-ltr-retrotransposons-and-nested-insertions-on-genomes
#19
Fan-Chun Zeng, You-Jie Zhao, Que-Jie Zhang, Li-Zhi Gao
The amplification and recombination of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons have proven to determine the size, organization, function, and evolution of most host genomes, especially very large plant genomes. However, the limitation of tools for an efficient discovery of structural complexity of LTR retrotransposons and the nested insertions is a great challenge to confront ever-growing amount of genomic sequences for many organisms. Here we developed a novel software, called as LTRtype, to characterize different types of structurally complex LTR retrotransposon elements as well as nested events...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420793/regulating-plant-physiology-with-organic-electronics
#20
David J Poxson, Michal Karady, Roger Gabrielsson, Aziz Y Alkattan, Anna Gustavsson, Siamsa M Doyle, Stéphanie Robert, Karin Ljung, Markus Grebe, Daniel T Simon, Magnus Berggren
The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) provides flow-free and accurate delivery of small signaling compounds at high spatiotemporal resolution. To date, the application of OEIPs has been limited to delivery of nonaromatic molecules to mammalian systems, particularly for neuroscience applications. However, many long-standing questions in plant biology remain unanswered due to a lack of technology that precisely delivers plant hormones, based on cyclic alkanes or aromatic structures, to regulate plant physiology...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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