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Arabidopsis thaliana

Katrin Ehlers, Amey S Bhide, Dawit G Tekleyohans, Benjamin Wittkop, Rod J Snowdon, Annette Becker
Seed formation is a pivotal process in plant reproduction and dispersal. It begins with megagametophyte development in the ovule, followed by fertilization and subsequently coordinated development of embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed coat. Two closely related MADS-box genes, SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2) are involved in specifying ovule integument identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MADS box gene ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS or TT16) is required, together with SEEDSTICK (STK) for the formation of endothelium, part of the seed coat and innermost tissue layer formed by the maternal plant...
2016: PloS One
Ewelina Mnich, Ruben Vanholme, Paula Oyarce, Sarah Liu, Fachuang Lu, Geert Goeminne, Bodil Jørgensen, Mohammed Saddik Motawie, Wout Boerjan, John Ralph, Peter Ulvskov, Birger Lindberg Møller, Nanna Bjarnholt, Jesper Harholt
Lignin is a major polymer in the secondary plant cell wall and composed of hydrophobic interlinked hydroxyphenylpropanoid units. The presence of lignin hampers conversion of plant biomass into biofuels; plants with modified lignin are therefore being investigated for increased digestibility. The bacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilis produces lignin-degrading enzymes including LigD, LigF and LigG involved in cleaving the most abundant lignin inter-unit linkage, the β-aryl ether bond. In this study, we expressed the LigD, LigF and LigG (LigDFG) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana to introduce post-lignification modifications into the lignin structure...
October 24, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Vincent Hervé, Harold Duruflé, Hélène San Clemente, Cécile Albenne, Thierry Balliau, Michel Zivy, Christophe Dunand, Elisabeth Jamet
Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls playing many roles during development and in response to environmental constraints. Cell walls are mainly composed of polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins), but they also contain proteins which are critical players in cell wall remodelling processes. Today, the cell wall proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana, a major dicot model plant, comprises more than 700 proteins predicted to be secreted (CWPs) identified in different organs or in cell suspension cultures...
October 24, 2016: Proteomics
Anneke Kroes, Colette Broekgaarden, Marcos Castellanos Uribe, Sean May, Joop J A van Loon, Marcel Dicke
Plants are commonly attacked by multiple herbivorous species. Yet, little is known about transcriptional patterns underlying plant responses to multiple insect attackers feeding simultaneously. Here, we assessed transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to simultaneous feeding by Plutella xylostella caterpillars and Brevicoryne brassicae aphids in comparison to plants infested by P. xylostella caterpillars alone, using microarray analysis. We particularly investigated how aphid feeding interferes with the transcriptomic response to P...
October 22, 2016: Oecologia
Lili Gu, Hyun Ju Jung, Kyung Jin Kwak, Sy Nguyen Dinh, Yeon-Ok Kim, Hunseung Kang
Despite an increasing understanding of the essential role of the Mei2 gene encoding an RNA-binding protein (RBP) in premeiotic DNA synthesis and meiosis in yeasts and animals, the functional roles of the mei2-like genes in plant growth and development are largely unknown. Contrary to other mei2-like RBPs that contain three RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs), the mei2 C-terminal RRM only (MCT) is unique in that it harbors only the last C-terminal RRM. Although MCTs have been implicated to play important roles in plants, their functional roles in stress responses as well as plant growth and development are still unknown...
October 13, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Todd Blevins
Cells have evolved intricate RNA-directed mechanisms that destroy viruses, silence transposons, and regulate gene expression. These nucleic acid surveillance and gene silencing mechanisms rely upon the selective base-pairing of ~19-25 nt small RNAs to complementary RNA targets. This chapter describes northern blot hybridization techniques for the detection of such small RNAs. Blots spiked with synthetic standards are used to illustrate the detection specificity and sensitivity of DNA oligonucleotide probes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Martine Boccara, Alexis Sarazin, Bernard Billoud, Agnes Bulski, Louise Chapell, David Baulcombe, Vincent Colot
Epigenetic response to stress in plants involves changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and expression of small noncoding RNAs (sRNA). Here we present the method of analysis of differential expression of sRNA populations using DNA tiling arrays. sRNA extracted from Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to pathogen elicitor or control plants were reverse-transcribed into cDNAs, and subsequently hybridized after labeling to a custom-made DNA tiling array covering Arabidopsis chromosome 4. We first designed a control experiment with eight cDNA clones corresponding to sequences located on chromosome 4 and obtained robust and specific hybridization signals...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mauricio J Grisolia, Diego A Peralta, Hugo A Valdez, Julieta Barchiesi, Diego F Gomez-Casati, María V Busi
Starch binding domains of starch synthase III from Arabidopsis thaliana (SBD123) binds preferentially to cell wall polysaccharides rather than to starch in vitro. Transgenic plants overexpressing SBD123 in the cell wall are larger than wild type. Cell wall components are altered in transgenic plants. Transgenic plants are more susceptible to digestion than wild type and present higher released glucose content. Our results suggest that the transgenic plants have an advantage for the production of bioethanol in terms of saccharification of essential substrates...
October 21, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Dennis Walczyk, Markus Gößringer, Walter Rossmanith, Timofei S Zatsepin, Tatiana S Oretskaya, Roland K Hartmann
Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is the enzyme that endonucleolytically removes 5'-precursor sequences from tRNA transcripts in all domains of life. RNase P activities are either ribonucleoprotein (RNP) or protein-only (PRORP) enzymes, raising the question about the mechanistic strategies utilized by these architecturally different enzyme classes to catalyze the same type of reaction. Here we analyzed the kinetics and cleavage-site selection by PRORP3 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPRORP3) using precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs) with individual modifications at the canonical cleavage site, either Rp- or Sp-phosphorothioate, or 2'-deoxy, 2'-fluoro, 2'-amino or 2'-O-methyl substitutions...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Deepa Khare, Nobukata Mitsuda, Seungchul Lee, Won-Yong Song, Daehee Hwang, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Enrico Martinoia, Youngsook Lee, Jae-Ung Hwang
Plants reorganize their root architecture to avoid growth into unfavorable regions of the rhizosphere. In a screen based on chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology, we identified the Arabidopsis thaliana GeBP-LIKE 4 (GPL4) transcription factor as an inhibitor of root growth that is induced rapidly in root tips in response to cadmium (Cd). We tested the hypothesis that GPL4 functions in the root avoidance of Cd by analyzing root proliferation in split medium, in which only half of the medium contained toxic concentrations of Cd...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
Liangliang Chen, Yuancheng Peng, Juan Tian, Xiaohong Wang, Zhaosheng Kong, Tonglin Mao, Ming Yuan, Yunhai Li
How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1) mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Delphine Mieulet, Sylvie Jolivet, Maud Rivard, Laurence Cromer, Aurore Vernet, Pauline Mayonove, Lucie Pereira, Gaëtan Droc, Brigitte Courtois, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Raphael Mercier
Introduction of clonal reproduction through seeds (apomixis) in crops has the potential to revolutionize agriculture by allowing self-propagation of any elite variety, in particular F1 hybrids. In the sexual model plant Arabidopsis thaliana synthetic clonal reproduction through seeds can be artificially implemented by (i) combining three mutations to turn meiosis into mitosis (MiMe) and (ii) crossing the obtained clonal gametes with a line expressing modified CENH3 and whose genome is eliminated in the zygote...
October 21, 2016: Cell Research
Gaigai Yu, Hiroyuki Onodera, Yuki Aono, Fuun Kawano, Yoshibumi Ueda, Akihiro Furuya, Hideyuki Suzuki, Moritoshi Sato
Alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gα) are involved in a variety of cellular functions. Here we report an optogenetic strategy to spatially and temporally manipulate Gα in living cells. More specifically, we applied the blue light-induced dimerization system, known as the Magnet system, and an alternative red light-induced dimerization system consisting of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochrome B (PhyB) and phytochrome-interacting factor 6 (PIF6) to optically control the activation of two different classes of Gα (Gαq and Gαs)...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Saura R Silva, Yani C A Diaz, Helen Alves Penha, Daniel G Pinheiro, Camila C Fernandes, Vitor F O Miranda, Todd P Michael, Alessandro M Varani
Lentibulariaceae is the richest family of carnivorous plants spanning three genera including Pinguicula, Genlisea, and Utricularia. Utricularia is globally distributed, and, unlike Pinguicula and Genlisea, has both aquatic and terrestrial forms. In this study we present the analysis of the chloroplast (cp) genome of the terrestrial Utricularia reniformis. U. reniformis has a standard cp genome of 139,725bp, encoding a gene repertoire similar to essentially all photosynthetic organisms. However, an exclusive combination of losses and pseudogenization of the plastid NAD(P)H-dehydrogenase (ndh) gene complex were observed...
2016: PloS One
Alberto Campanaro, Raffaella Battaglia, Massimo Galbiati, Ari Sadanandom, Chiara Tonelli, Lucio Conti
SUMOylation and anther growth. During fertilization, stamen elongation needs to be synchronized with pistil growth. The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) promotes stamen growth by stimulating the degradation of growth repressing DELLA proteins. DELLA accumulation is negatively regulated by GAs through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a proportion of DELLAs is also conjugated to the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein, which stabilizes DELLAs. Increased DELLA levels occur in the SUMO protease-deficient OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT 1 and 2 (ots1 ots2) double mutants, especially under salt stress conditions...
October 19, 2016: Plant Reproduction
Mayuki Tanaka, Naoyuki Sotta, Yusuke Yamazumi, Yui Yamashita, Kyoko Miwa, Katsunori Murota, Yukako Chiba, Masami Yokota Hirai, Tetsu Akiyama, Hitoshi Onouchi, Satoshi Naito, Toru Fujiwara
Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are often translated ahead of the main ORF of a gene and regulate gene expression, sometimes in a condition-dependent manner, but such a role for the minimum uORF (hereafter referred to as 'AUG-stop') in living organisms is currently unclear. Here, we show that AUG-stop plays an important role in the boron (B)-dependent regulation of NIP5;1, encoding a boric acid channel required for normal growth under low B conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana. High B enhanced ribosome stalling at AUG-stop, which was accompanied by the suppression of translation and mRNA degradation...
October 19, 2016: Plant Cell
Yasuhiro Ishimaru, Takaya Oikawa, Takeshi Suzuki, Syohei Takeishi, Hideyuki Matsuura, Kosaku Takahashi, Shin Hamamoto, Nobuyuki Uozumi, Takafumi Shimizu, Mitsunori Seo, Hiroyuki Ohta, Minoru Ueda
Jasmonates are major plant hormones involved in wounding responses. Systemic wounding responses are induced by an electrical signal derived from damaged leaves. After the signaling, jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) are translocated from wounded to undamaged leaves, but the molecular mechanism of the transport remains unclear. Here, we found that a JA-Ile transporter, GTR1, contributed to these translocations in Arabidopsis thaliana. GTR1 was expressed in and surrounding the leaf veins both of wounded and undamaged leaves...
October 20, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Si Wu, Saleh Alseekh, Álvaro Cuadros-Inostroza, Corina M Fusari, Marek Mutwil, Rik Kooke, Joost B Keurentjes, Alisdair R Fernie, Lothar Willmitzer, Yariv Brotman
Plant primary metabolism is a highly coordinated, central, and complex network of biochemical processes regulated at both the genetic and post-translational levels. The genetic basis of this network can be explored by analyzing the metabolic composition of genetically diverse genotypes in a given plant species. Here, we report an integrative strategy combining quantitative genetic mapping and metabolite‒transcript correlation networks to identify functional associations between genes and primary metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Sarah Röhrig, Susan Schröpfer, Alexander Knoll, Holger Puchta
The stability of repetitive sequences in complex eukaryotic genomes is safeguarded by factors suppressing homologues recombination. Prominent in this is the role of the RTR complex. In plants, it consists of the RecQ helicase RECQ4A, the topoisomerase TOP3α and RMI1. Like mammals, but not yeast, plants harbor an additional complex partner, RMI2. Here, we demonstrate that, in Arabidopsis thaliana, RMI2 is involved in the repair of aberrant replication intermediates in root meristems as well as in intrastrand crosslink repair...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Jaewook Kim, Kijong Song, Eunae Park, Keunhwa Kim, Gabyong Bae, Giltsu Choi
Seedling hypocotyls display negative gravitropism in the dark but agravitropism in the light. The Arabidopsis thaliana pif quadruple mutant (pifQ), which lacks four PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs), is agravitropic in the dark. Endodermis-specific expression of PIF1 rescues gravitropism in pifQ mutant seedlings. Since phytochromes induce light responses by inhibiting PIFs and the COP1-SPA ubiquitin E3 ligase complex in the nucleus, we asked whether phyB can cell autonomously inhibit hypocotyl negative gravitropism in the endodermis...
October 6, 2016: Plant Cell
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