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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806733/the-interaction-between-endogenous-30s-ribosomal-subunit-protein-s11-and-cucumber-mosaic-virus-ls2b-protein-affects-viral-replication-infection-and-gene-silencing-suppressor-activity
#1
Ruilin Wang, Zhiyou Du, Zhenqing Bai, Zongsuo Liang
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a model virus for plant-virus protein interaction and mechanism research because of its wide distribution, high-level of replication and simple genome structure. The 2b protein is a multifunctional protein encoded by CMV that suppresses RNA silencing-based antiviral defense and contributes to CMV virulence in host plants. In this report, 12 host proteins were identified as CMV LS2b binding partners using the yeast two-hybrid screen system from the Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805882/plant-array-chip-for-the-germination-and-growth-screening-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#2
Youn-Hee Park, Nayoung Lee, Giltsu Choi, Je-Kyun Park
A screening process for the germination and growth of seed is generally required for plant research. Such a repetitive screening process is costly and time-consuming, and its bulky setup requires a lot of space. In particular, the control of the variables, such as light, nutrients, hormones and temperature, is difficult due to the limited space for incubation. In addition, small seeds such as Arabidopsis thaliana are difficult to handle as they are hundreds of microns in diameter and require a more precisely controllable screening environment...
August 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805485/transcriptional-activity-of-transposable-elements-may-contribute-to-gene-expression-changes-in-the-syncytium-formed-by-cyst-nematode-in-arabidopsis-roots
#3
Sarbottam Piya, Morgan Bennett, Aditi Rambani, Tarek Hewezi
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic materials that constitute a large fraction of plant genomes. Recent experimental evidences indicate that TEs can play key regulatory roles in controlling the expression of adjacent genes during plant development and stress responses. Nevertheless, information about the transcriptional activity of TEs and their impact on proximal genes during plant-nematode interaction remains largely unknown. Here, we identify of differentially expressed TEs and report their possible influence on the expression of nearby genes during the susceptible interaction between the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and Arabidopsis thaliana...
August 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805249/a-non-dna-binding-activity-for-the-athb4-transcription-factor-in-the-control-of-vegetation-proximity
#4
Marçal Gallemí, Maria Jose Molina-Contreras, Sandi Paulišić, Mercè Salla-Martret, Céline Sorin, Marta Godoy, Jose Manuel Franco-Zorrilla, Roberto Solano, Jaime F Martínez-García
In plants, perception of vegetation proximity by phytochrome photoreceptors activates a transcriptional network that implements a set of responses to adapt to plant competition, including elongation of stems or hypocotyls. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX 4 (ATHB4) regulates this and other responses, such as leaf polarity. To better understand the shade regulatory transcriptional network, we have carried out structure-function analyses of ATHB4 by overexpressing a series of truncated and mutated forms and analyzing three different responses: hypocotyl response to shade, transcriptional activity and leaf polarity...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803413/neovascularization-during-leafy-gall-formation-on-arabidopsis-thaliana-upon-rhodococcus-fascians-infection
#5
Alicja Dolzblasz, Alicja Banasiak, Danny Vereecke
Extensive de novo vascularization of leafy galls emerging upon Rhodococcus fascians infection is achieved by fascicular/interfascicular cambium activity and transdifferentiation of parenchyma cells correlated with increased auxin signaling. A leafy gall consisting of fully developed yet growth-inhibited shoots, induced by the actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians, differs in structure compared to the callus-like galls induced by other bacteria. To get insight into the vascular development accompanying the emergence of the leafy gall, the anatomy of infected axillary regions of the inflorescence stem of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0 plants and the auxin response in pDR5:GUS-tagged plants were followed in time...
August 12, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803204/silver-nanoparticles-or-free-silver-ions-work-an-enantioselective-phytotoxicity-study-with-a-chiral-tool
#6
Zunwei Chen, Xiaolin Sheng, Jia Wang, Yuezhong Wen
Nowadays, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have been widely used and there are raising concerns about their potential adverse effects on organism. As for the exact toxicity mechanism of AgNP, opinions still vary and whether the released silver ions (Ag(+)) or AgNP themselves are responsible for the toxicity remains debatable. In the present study, we have designed two exposure systems where Ag(+) and AgNP coexisted but differed in quantification by using photo-reduced method with cysteine enantiomers, and their toxicities to freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and model plant Arabidopsis thaliana were determined...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800532/cell-cycle-arrest-mediated-by-cd-induced-dna-damage-in-arabidopsis-root-tips
#7
Weina Cui, Hetong Wang, Jie Song, Xia Cao, Hilary J Rogers, Dennis Francis, Chunyun Jia, Lizong Sun, Meifang Hou, Yuesuo Yang, Peidong Tai, Wan Liu
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the aberrant expression of cell cycle regulation and DNA repair genes can result in abnormal cell proliferation and genomic instability in eukaryotic cells under different stresses. Herein, Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) seedlings were grown hydroponically on 0.5 × MS media containing cadmium (Cd) at 0-2.5mgL(-1) for 5d of treatment. Real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that expression of DNA damage repair and cell cycle regulation genes, including BRCA1, MRE11, WEE1, CDKA;1 and PCNA1, showed an inverted U-shaped dose-response...
August 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800125/large-introns-of-5-to-10-kilo-base-pairs-can-be-spliced-out-in-arabidopsis
#8
Ning Chang, Qingqing Sun, Jinglei Hu, Chuanjing An, And Hongbo Gao
Most of the eukaryotic genes contain introns, which are removed from the pre-RNA during RNA processing. In contrast to the introns in animals, which are usually several kilo base pairs (kb), those in plants generally are very small, which are mostly from dozens of base pairs (bp) to a few hundred bp. According to annotation version 10.0 of the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, there are 127,854 introns in the nuclear genes; 99.23% of them are less than 1 kb, and only 16 introns are annotated to be larger than 5 kb, which are extremely large introns (ELI) in Arabidopsis...
August 11, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799742/uptake-distribution-and-bioimaging-applications-of-aggregation-induced-emission-saponin-nanoparticles-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Alexander William Nicol, Kai Wong, Ryan T K Kwok, Zhegang Song, Ning Li, Ben Zhong Tang
The application of aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens) has heralded a new age in the analysis of subcellular events and has overcome many of the limitations of conventional fluorescent probes. Despite the extensive literature investigating AIEgens in mammalian cells, few reports exist of their bioimaging applications in plant cells. In this report, we describe the first systematic investigation of the uptake, distribution and bioimaging applications of AIEgens and AIE saponin nanoparticles in the plant model system Arabidopsis thaliana...
August 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798888/identical-active-sites-in-hydroxynitrile-lyases-show-opposite-enantioselectivity-and-reveal-possible-ancestral-mechanism
#10
Bryan J Jones, Zsófia Bata, Romas J Kazlauskas
Evolutionarily related hydroxynitrile lyases from rubber tree (HbHNL) and from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtHNL) follow different catalytic mechanisms with opposite enantioselectivity toward mandelonitrile. We hypothesized that the HbHNL-like mechanism evolved from an enzyme with an AtHNL-like mechanism. We created ancestor-like composite active-sites in each scaffold to elucidate how this transition may have occurred. Surprisingly, a composite active site in HbHNL maintained (S)-selectivity, while the identical set of active site residues in AtHNL maintained (R)-selectivity...
June 2, 2017: ACS Catalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798767/in-arabidopsis-thaliana-cadmium-impact-on-the-growth-of-primary-root-by-altering-scr-expression-and-auxin-cytokinin-cross-talk
#11
Leonardo Bruno, Marianna Pacenza, Ivano Forgione, Liam R Lamerton, Maria Greco, Adriana Chiappetta, Maria B Bitonti
Cadmium is one of the most widespread pollutant in both terrestrial and marine environment, and its inhibitory effect on plant growth has been largely demonstrated. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Cd toxicity in plant and mainly in root, as the first organ sensing soil heavy metals, need to be better investigated. To this aim, in the present work we analyzed the growth and the organization of Arabidopsis thaliana primary root in seedlings exposed to Cd (25 and 50 μM) for 8 days starting from germination...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797221/use-of-genotyping-by-sequencing-to-determine-the-genetic-structure-in-the-medicinal-plant-chamomile-and-to-identify-flowering-time-and-alpha-bisabolol-associated-snp-loci-by-genome-wide-association-mapping
#12
Lars-Gernot Otto, Prodyut Mondal, Jonathan Brassac, Susanne Preiss, Jörg Degenhardt, Sang He, Jochen Christoph Reif, Timothy Francis Sharbel
BACKGROUND: Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) has a long history of use in herbal medicine with various applications, and the flower heads contain numerous secondary metabolites which are medicinally active. In the major crop plants, next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are intensely applied to exploit genetic resources, to develop genomic resources and to enhance breeding. Here, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) has been used in the non-model medicinal plant chamomile to evaluate the genetic structure of the cultivated varieties/populations, and to perform genome wide association study (GWAS) focusing on genes with large effect on flowering time and the medicinally important alpha-bisabolol content...
August 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796499/studies-on-the-biochemical-formation-pathway-of-the-amino-acid-l-theanine-in-tea-camellia-sinensis-and-other-plants
#13
Sihua Cheng, Xiumin Fu, Xiaoqin Wang, Yinyin Liao, Lanting Zeng, Fang Dong, Ziyin Yang
Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage aside from water. The flavor of tea is conferred by certain metabolites, especially l-theanine, in C. sinensis. To determine why more l-theanine accumulates in C. sinensis than in other plants, we compare l-theanine contents between C. sinensis and other plant species (Camellia nitidissima, Camellia japonica, Zea mays, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Solanum lycopersicum) and use a stable isotope labeling approach to elucidate its biosynthetic route. We quantify relevant intermediates and metabolites by mass spectrometry...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796297/transfer-of-tomato-immune-receptor-ve1-confers-ave1-dependent-verticillium-resistance-in-tobacco-and-cotton
#14
Yin Song, Linlin Liu, Yidong Wang, Dirk-Jan Valkenburg, Xianlong Zhang, Longfu Zhu, Bart P H J Thomma
Verticillium wilts caused by soil-borne fungal species of the Verticillium genus are economically important plant diseases that affect a wide range of host plants, and are notoriously difficult to combat. Perception of pathogen(-induced) ligands by plant immune receptors is a key component of plant innate immunity. In tomato, race-specific resistance to Verticillium wilt is governed by the cell surface-localized immune receptor Ve1 through recognition of the effector protein Ave1 that is secreted by race 1 strains of Verticillium spp...
August 10, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793406/uptake-and-transformations-of-engineered-nanomaterials-critical-responses-observed-in-terrestrial-plants-and-the-model-plant-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
REVIEW
Angelina Montes, Mary A Bisson, Joseph A Gardella, Diana S Aga
With the applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) continually expanding and production quickly growing, residues of ENMs will end up in the environment at levels that may be harmful to non-target organisms. Many of the tunable properties that have made them desirable, such as type, size, charge, or coating, also contribute to the current difficulties in understanding the fate of ENMs in the environment. This review article focuses on studies that investigate plant-ENM interactions, including techniques used to study these interactions and documented plant responses due to the phytotoxic effects of ENMs...
August 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792639/circadian-rhythms-vary-over-the-growing-season-and-correlate-with-fitness-components
#16
Matthew J Rubin, Marcus T Brock, Amanda M Davis, Zachary M German, Mary Knapp, Stephen M Welch, Stacey L Harmer, Julin N Maloof, Seth J Davis, Cynthia Weinig
Circadian clocks have evolved independently in all three domains of life, suggesting that internal mechanisms of time-keeping are adaptive in contemporary populations. However, the performance consequences of either discrete or quantitative clock variation have rarely been tested in field settings. Clock sensitivity of diverse segregating lines to the environment remains uncharacterized as do the statistical genetic parameters that determine evolutionary potential. In field studies with Arabidopsis thaliana, we found that major perturbations to circadian cycle length (referred to as clock period) via mutation reduce both survival and fecundity...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792470/differential-mechanisms-of-photosynthetic-acclimation-to-light-and-low-temperature-in-arabidopsis-and-the-extremophile-eutrema-salsugineum
#17
Nityananda Khanal, Geoffrey E Bray, Anna Grisnich, Barbara A Moffatt, Gordon R Gray
Photosynthetic organisms are able to sense energy imbalances brought about by the overexcitation of photosystem II (PSII) through the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, estimated as the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter 1-qL, also known as PSII excitation pressure. Plants employ a wide array of photoprotective processes that modulate photosynthesis to correct these energy imbalances. Low temperature and light are well established in their ability to modulate PSII excitation pressure...
August 9, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792069/bloom-syndrome-helicase-in-meiosis-pro-crossover-functions-of-an-anti-crossover-protein
#18
REVIEW
Talia Hatkevich, Jeff Sekelsky
The functions of the Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) and its orthologs are well characterized in mitotic DNA damage repair, but their roles within the context of meiotic recombination are less clear. In meiotic recombination, multiple repair pathways are used to repair meiotic DSBs, and current studies suggest that BLM may regulate the use of these pathways. Based on literature from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans, we present a unified model for a critical meiotic role of BLM and its orthologs...
August 9, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791484/loss-of-gcs1-hap2-does-not-affect-the-ovule-targeting-behavior-of-pollen-tubes
#19
Taro Takahashi, Ken Honda, Toshiyuki Mori, Tomoko Igawa
KEY MESSAGE : hap2-1 pollen tube ovule targeting. Upon pollination, a pollen grain germinates to produce a pollen tube, which grows through the style to deliver two immobile sperm cells to the female gametophyte. Double fertilization is completed after the pollen tube enters an ovule. GENERATIVE CELL SPECIFIC 1 (GCS1)/HAPLESS 2 (HAP2) contributes to the fusion of gametes at fertilization and has been suggested to affect pollen tube guidance. However, there is controversy over the role of GCS1/HAP2 in pollen tube guidance because of conflicting results from different studies...
August 8, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791041/conserved-function-of-acyl-acyl-carrier-protein-desaturase-5-on-seed-oil-and-oleic-acid-biosynthesis-between-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-brassica-napus
#20
Changyu Jin, Dong Li, Chenhao Gao, Kaige Liu, Shuanghui Qi, Shaowei Duan, Zixiong Li, Jingyun Gong, Jianjun Wang, Jiangbo Hai, Mingxun Chen
Previous studies have shown that several ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE (AtAAD) members in Arabidopsis thaliana are responsible for oleic acid (C18:1) biosynthesis. Limited research has been conducted on another member, AtAAD5, and its paralog BnAAD5 in the closely related and commercially important plant, Brassica napus. Here, we found that AtAAD5 was predominantly and exclusively expressed in developing embryos at the whole seed developmental stages. The aad5 mutation caused a significant decrease in the amounts of oil and C18:1, and a considerable increase in the content of stearic acid (C18:0) in mature seeds, suggesting that AtAAD5 functioned as an important facilitator of seed oil biosynthesis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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