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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527763/aluminium-resistant-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-induce-overexpression-of-aluminium-stress-related-genes-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-increase-the-ginseng-tolerance-against-aluminium-stress
#1
Mohamed El-Agamy Farh, Yeon-Ju Kim, Johan Sukweenadhi, Priyanka Singh, Deok-Chun Yang
Panax ginseng is an important cash crop in the Asian countries due to its pharmaceutical effects, however the plant is exposed to various abiotic stresses, lead to reduction of its quality. One of them is the Aluminum (Al) accumulation. Plant growth promoting bacteria which able to tolerate heavy metals has been considered as a new trend for supporting the growth of many crops in heavy metal occupied areas. In this study, twelve bacteria strains were isolated from rhizosphere of diseased Korean ginseng roots located in Gochang province, Republic of Korea and tested for their ability to grow in Al-embedded broth media...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526713/co-evolution-of-domain-interactions-in-the-chloroplast-tgd1-2-3-lipid-transfer-complex-specific-to-brassicaceae-and-poaceae-plants
#2
Yang Yang, Agnieszka Zienkiewicz, Anastasiya Lavell, Christoph Benning
The import of lipids into the chloroplast is essential for photosynthetic membrane biogenesis. This process requires an ABC transporter in the inner envelope membrane with three subunits, TRIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL (TGD) 1, 2, and 3 named after the oligogalactolipids that accumulate in the respective Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Unlike Arabidopsis, in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon, chloroplast lipid biosynthesis is largely dependent on imported precursors, resulting in a characteristic difference in chloroplast lipid acyl composition between plants...
May 19, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525880/differential-sulphur-assimilation-mechanism-regulates-response-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-natural-variation-towards-arsenic-stress-under-limiting-sulphur-condition
#3
Ria Khare, Smita Kumar, Tapsi Shukla, Avriti Ranjan, Prabodh Kumar Trivedi
Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element, which imposes threat to crops productivity and human health through contaminated food chain. As a part of detoxification mechanism, As is chelated and sequestered into the vacuoles via sulphur containing compounds glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs). Under limiting sulphur (LS) conditions, exposure of As leads to enhanced toxic effects in plants. Therefore, it is a prerequisite to understand molecular mechanisms involved in As stress response under sulphur deficiency conditions in plants...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525265/thioarsenate-toxicity-and-tolerance-in-the-model-system-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Britta Planer-Friedrich, Tanja Kühnlenz, Dipti Halder, Regina Lohmayer, Nathaniel Wilson, Colleen Rafferty, Stephan Clemens
Thioarsenates form from arsenite under sulfate-reducing conditions, e.g. in rice paddy soils, and are structural analogues to arsenate. Even though rice is one of the most important sources of human arsenic (As) intake, nothing is published about uptake, toxicity, or tolerance of thioarsenates in plants. Experiments using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana showed that monothioarsenate is less toxic than arsenite, but more toxic than arsenate at concentrations >= 25 µM As, reflected in stronger seedlings growth inhibition on agar plates...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524096/itraq-mitoproteome-analysis-reveals-mechanisms-of-programmed-cell-death-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-induced-by-ochratoxin-a
#5
Yan Wang, Xiaoli Peng, Zhuojun Yang, Weiwei Zhao, Wentao Xu, Junran Hao, Weihong Wu, Xiao Li Shen, Yunbo Luo, Kunlun Huang
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most common and dangerous mycotoxins in the world. Previous work indicated that OTA could elicit spontaneous HR-like lesions formation Arabidopsis thaliana, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in OTA toxicity, and their major endogenous source is mitochondria. However, there has been no evidence as to whether OTA induces directly PCD in plants until now. In this study, the presence of OTA in Arabidopsisthaliana leaves triggered accelerated respiration, increased production of mitochondrial ROS, the opening of ROS-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pores and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential as well as the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol...
May 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523011/the-effects-of-herbicides-targeting-aromatic-and-branched-chain-amino-acid-biosynthesis-support-the-presence-of-functional-pathways-in-broomrape
#6
Evgenia Dor, Shmuel Galili, Evgeny Smirnov, Yael Hacham, Rachel Amir, Joseph Hershenhorn
It is not clear why herbicides targeting aromatic and branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis successfully control broomrapes-obligate parasitic plants that obtain all of their nutritional requirements, including amino acids, from the host. Our objective was to reveal the mode of action of imazapic and glyphosate in controlling the broomrape Phelipanche aegyptiaca and clarify if this obligatory parasite has its own machinery for the amino acids biosynthesis. P. aegyptiaca callus was studied to exclude the indirect influence of the herbicides on the parasite through the host plant...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522549/carbonic-anhydrases-function-in-anther-cell-differentiation-downstream-of-the-receptor-like-kinase-ems1
#7
Jian Huang, Zhiyong Li, Gabriel Biener, Erhui Xiong, Shikha Malik, Nathan Eaton, Catherine Z Zhao, Valerica Raicu, Hongzhi Kong, Dazhong Dave Zhao
Plants extensively employ leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), the largest family of RLKs, to control a wide range of growth and developmental processes as well as defense responses. To date, only a few direct downstream effectors for LRR-RLKs have been identified. We previously showed that the LRR-RLK EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) and its ligand TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) are required for the differentiation of somatic tapetal cells and reproductive microsporocytes during early anther development in Arabidopsis thaliana...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522547/a-regulatory-hierarchy-of-the-arabidopsis-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolic-network
#8
Anqi Xing, Robert L Last
The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) Ile, Val and Leu are essential nutrients that humans and other animals obtain from plants. However, total and relative amounts of plant BCAAs rarely match animal nutritional needs, and improvement requires a better understanding of the mechanistic basis for BCAA homeostasis. We present an in vivo regulatory model of BCAA homeostasis derived from analysis of feedback-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants for the three allosteric committed enzymes in the biosynthetic network: threonine deaminase (also named L-O-methylthreonine resistant 1, OMR1), acetohydroxyacid synthase small subunit 2 (AHASS2) and isopropylmalate synthase 1 (IPMS1)...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521766/the-histone-h3-variant-h3-3-regulates-gene-body-dna-methylation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Heike Wollmann, Hume Stroud, Ramesh Yelagandula, Yoshiaki Tarutani, Danhua Jiang, Li Jing, Bhagyshree Jamge, Hidenori Takeuchi, Sarah Holec, Xin Nie, Tetsuji Kakutani, Steven E Jacobsen, Frédéric Berger
BACKGROUND: Gene bodies of vertebrates and flowering plants are occupied by the histone variant H3.3 and DNA methylation. The origin and significance of these profiles remain largely unknown. DNA methylation and H3.3 enrichment profiles over gene bodies are correlated and both have a similar dependence on gene transcription levels. This suggests a mechanistic link between H3.3 and gene body methylation. RESULTS: We engineered an H3.3 knockdown in Arabidopsis thaliana and observed transcription reduction that predominantly affects genes responsive to environmental cues...
May 18, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520787/development-of-an-r4-dual-site-r4ds-gateway-cloning-system-enabling-the-efficient-simultaneous-cloning-of-two-desired-sets-of-promoters-and-open-reading-frames-in-a-binary-vector-for-plant-research
#10
Mostafa Aboulela, Yuji Tanaka, Kohji Nishimura, Shoji Mano, Mikio Nishimura, Sumie Ishiguro, Tetsuya Kimura, Tsuyoshi Nakagawa
Vast numbers of proteins work cooperatively to exert their functions in various cells. In order to understand the functions and molecular mechanisms of these proteins in plants, analyses of transgenic plants that concomitantly express two protein-coding genes are often required. We developed a novel Gateway cloning technology-compatible binary vector system, the R4 dual-site (R4DS) Gateway cloning system, which enables the easy and efficient cloning of two desired sets of promoters and open reading frames (ORFs) into a binary vector using promoter and ORF entry clones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515734/plant-growth-under-natural-light-conditions-provides-highly-flexible-short-term-acclimation-properties-toward-high-light-stress
#11
Tobias Schumann, Suman Paul, Michael Melzer, Peter Dörmann, Peter Jahns
Efficient acclimation to different growth light intensities is essential for plant fitness. So far, most studies on light acclimation have been conducted with plants grown under different constant light regimes, but more recent work indicated that acclimation to fluctuating light or field conditions may result in different physiological properties of plants. Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) was grown under three different constant light intensities (LL: 25 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1); NL: 100 μmol photons m(-2) s(-)(1); HL: 500 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and under natural fluctuating light (NatL) conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514448/uorf-mediated-translation-allows-engineered-plant-disease-resistance-without-fitness-costs
#12
Guoyong Xu, Meng Yuan, Chaoren Ai, Lijing Liu, Edward Zhuang, Sargis Karapetyan, Shiping Wang, Xinnian Dong
Controlling plant disease has been a struggle for humankind since the advent of agriculture. Studies of plant immune mechanisms have led to strategies of engineering resistant crops through ectopic transcription of plants' own defence genes, such as the master immune regulatory gene NPR1 (ref. 1). However, enhanced resistance obtained through such strategies is often associated with substantial penalties to fitness, making the resulting products undesirable for agricultural applications. To remedy this problem, we sought more stringent mechanisms of expressing defence proteins...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513921/chitin-induced-and-chitin-elicitor-receptor-kinase1-cerk1-phosphorylation-dependent-endocytosis-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-lysin-motif-containing-receptor-like-kinase5-lyk5
#13
Jan Erwig, Hassan Ghareeb, Michaela Kopischke, Ronja Hacke, Alexandra Matei, Elena Petutschnig, Volker Lipka
To detect potential pathogens, plants perceive the fungal polysaccharide chitin through receptor complexes containing lysin motif receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs). To investigate the ligand-induced spatial dynamics of chitin receptor components, we studied the subcellular behaviour of two Arabidopsis thaliana LysM-RLKs involved in chitin signalling, CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (CERK1) and LYSIN MOTIF-CONTAINING RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE5. We performed standard and quantitative confocal laser scanning microscopy on stably transformed A...
May 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513600/temporal-dynamics-of-gene-expression-and-histone-marks-at-the-arabidopsis-shoot-meristem-during-flowering
#14
Yuan You, Aneta Sawikowska, Manuela Neumann, David Posé, Giovanna Capovilla, Tobias Langenecker, Richard A Neher, Paweł Krajewski, Markus Schmid
Plants can produce organs throughout their entire life from pluripotent stem cells located at their growing tip, the shoot apical meristem (SAM). At the time of flowering, the SAM of Arabidopsis thaliana switches fate and starts producing flowers instead of leaves. Correct timing of flowering in part determines reproductive success, and is therefore under environmental and endogenous control. How epigenetic regulation contributes to the floral transition has eluded analysis so far, mostly because of the poor accessibility of the SAM...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513325/developmental-transitions-in-arabidopsis-are-regulated-by-antisense-rnas-resulting-from-bidirectionally-transcribed-genes
#15
Katarzyna Krzyczmonik, Agata Wroblewska-Swiniarska, Szymon Swiezewski
Transcription terminators are DNA elements located at the 3' end of genes that ensure efficient cleavage of nascent RNA generating the 3' end of mRNA, as well as facilitating disengagement of elongating DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II. Surprisingly, terminators are also a potent source of antisense transcription. We have recently described an Arabidopsis antisense transcript originating from the 3' end of a master regulator of Arabidopsis thaliana seed dormancy DOG1. In this review, we discuss the broader implications of our discovery in light of recent developments in yeast and Arabidopsis...
May 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510716/phosphorylation-of-the-transcriptional-repressor-myb15-by-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-6-is-required-for-freezing-tolerance-in-arabidopsis
#16
Sun Ho Kim, Ho Soo Kim, Sunghwa Bahk, Jonguk An, Yeji Yoo, Jae-Yean Kim, Woo Sik Chung
The expression of CBF (C-repeat-binding factor) genes is required for freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. CBFs are positively regulated by INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1) and negatively regulated by MYB15. These transcription factors directly interact with specific elements in the CBF promoters. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/MPK) cascades function upstream to regulate CBFs. However, the mechanism by which MPKs control CBF expression during cold stress signaling remains unknown. This study showed that the activity of MYB15, a transcriptional repressor of cold signaling, is regulated by MPK6-mediated phosphorylation...
May 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509359/the-dna-translocase-rad5a-acts-independently-of-the-other-main-dna-repair-pathways-and-requires-both-its-atpase-and-ring-domain-for-activity-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Tobias Klemm, Anja Mannuß, Daniela Kobbe, Alexander Knoll, Oliver Trapp, Annika Dorn, Holger Puchta
Multiple pathways exist to repair DNA damage induced by methylating and cross-linking agents in Arabidopsis thaliana. The SWI2/SNF2 translocase RAD5A, the functional homolog of budding yeast Rad5 that is required for the error-free branch of post replicative repair, plays a surprisingly prominent role in the repair of both kinds of lesions in Arabidopsis. Here we show that both the ATPase domain and the ubiquitination function of the RING domain of the Arabidopsis protein are essential for the cellular response to different forms of DNA damage...
May 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509348/reconstitution-of-the-plant-ubiquitination-cascade-in-bacteria-using-a-synthetic-biology-approach
#18
Yufang Han, Jianhang Sun, Jun Yang, Zhaoyun Tan, Jijing Luo, Dongping Lu
Ubiquitination modulates nearly all aspects of plant life. Here, we reconstituted the Arabidopsis thaliana ubiquitination cascade in Escherichia coli using a synthetic biology approach. In this system, plant proteins are expressed and then immediately participate in ubiquitination reactions within E. coli cells. Additionally, the purification of the individual ubiquitination components prior to setting up the ubiquitination reactions is skipped. To establish the reconstituted system, we co-expressed Arabidopsis ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitination substrates with E1, E2 and E3 enzymes in E...
May 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507557/exogenous-glutathione-enhances-mercury-tolerance-by-inhibiting-mercury-entry-into-plant-cells
#19
Yeon-Ok Kim, Hyeun-Jong Bae, Eunjin Cho, Hunseung Kang
Despite the increasing understanding of the crucial roles of glutathione (GSH) in cellular defense against heavy metal stress as well as oxidative stress, little is known about the functional role of exogenous GSH in mercury (Hg) tolerance in plants. Here, we provide compelling evidence that GSH contributes to Hg tolerance in diverse plants. Exogenous GSH did not mitigate the toxicity of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), or zinc (Zn), whereas application of exogenous GSH significantly promoted Hg tolerance during seed germination and seedling growth of Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco, and pepper...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507175/a-mutation-in-the-bhlh-domain-of-the-spch-transcription-factor-uncovers-a-br-dependent-mechanism-for-stomatal-development
#20
Alberto de Marcos, Anaxi Houbaert, Magdalena Triviño, Dolores Delgado, Mar Martín-Trillo, Eugenia Russinova, Carmen Fenoll, Montaña Mena
The asymmetric cell divisions necessary for stomatal lineage initiation and progression in Arabidopsis thaliana require the function of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH). Mutants lacking SPCH do not produce stomata or lineages. Here, we isolated a new spch 5 allele carrying a point mutation in the bHLH domain that displayed normal growth, but had an extremely low number of sometimes clustered stomata in the leaves, whereas the hypocotyls were stomataless. In vivo tracking of leaf epidermal cell divisions, combined with marker lines and genetic analysis, showed that the spch 5 leaf phenotype is dosage dependent and results from the decreased ability to initiate and amplify lineages, defects in asymmetric cell fate allocation, and misorientation of asymmetric division planes...
May 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
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