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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238658/role-of-lotr1-in-nutrient-transport-through-organization-of-spatial-distribution-of-root-endodermal-barriers
#1
Baohai Li, Takehiro Kamiya, Lothar Kalmbach, Mutsumi Yamagami, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Shuji Shigenobu, Shinichiro Sawa, John M C Danku, David E Salt, Niko Geldner, Toru Fujiwara
The formation of Casparian strips and suberin lamellae at the endodermis limits the free diffusion of nutrients and harmful substances via the apoplastic space between the soil solution and the stele in roots [1-3]. Casparian strips are ring-like lignin polymers deposited in the middle of anticlinal cell walls between endodermal cells and fill the gap between them [4-6]. Suberin lamellae are glycerolipid polymers covering the endodermal cells and likely function as a barrier to limit transmembrane movement of apoplastic solutes into the endodermal cells [7, 8]...
February 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238020/haploid-embryo-production-in-rice-and-maize-induced-by-psasgr-bbml-transgenes
#2
Joann A Conner, Maricel Podio, Peggy Ozias-Akins
The PsASGR - BBML transgene, derived from a wild apomictic grass species, can induce parthenogenesis, embryo formation without fertilization, in rice and maize, leading to the formation of haploid plants. The ability to engineer apomictic crop plants using genes identified from naturally occurring apomicts will depend on the ability of those genes to function in crop plants. The PsASGR-BBML transgene, derived from the apomictic species Pennisetum squamulatum, promotes parthenogenesis in sexual pearl millet, a member of the same genus, leading to the formation of haploid embryos...
February 25, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236971/ligand-receptor-mediated-regulation-of-growth-in-plants
#3
Miyoshi Haruta, Michael R Sussman
Growth and development of multicellular organisms are coordinately regulated by various signaling pathways involving the communication of inter- and intracellular components. To form the appropriate body patterns, cellular growth and development are modulated by either stimulating or inhibiting these pathways. Hormones and second messengers help to mediate the initiation and/or interaction of the various signaling pathways in all complex multicellular eukaryotes. In plants, hormones include small organic molecules, as well as larger peptides and small proteins, which, as in animals, act as ligands and interact with receptor proteins to trigger rapid biochemical changes and induce the intracellular transcriptional and long-term physiological responses...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230163/ectopic-expression-of-arabidopsis-target-of-rapamycin-attor-improves-water-use-efficiency-and-yield-potential-in-rice
#4
Achala Bakshi, Mazahar Moin, M Udaya Kumar, Aramati Bindu Madhava Reddy, Maozhi Ren, Raju Datla, E A Siddiq, P B Kirti
The target of Rapamycin (TOR) present in all eukaryotes is a multifunctional protein, regulating growth, development, protein translation, ribosome biogenesis, nutrient, and energy signaling. In the present study, ectopic expression of TOR gene of Arabidopsis thaliana in a widely cultivated indica rice resulted in enhanced plant growth under water-limiting conditions conferring agronomically important water-use efficiency (WUE) trait. The AtTOR high expression lines of rice exhibited profuse tillering, increased panicle length, increased plant height, high photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content and low ∆(13)C...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230101/a-novel-role-for-methyl-cysteinate-a-cysteine-derivative-in-cesium-accumulation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#5
Eri Adams, Takae Miyazaki, Aya Hayaishi-Satoh, Minwoo Han, Miyako Kusano, Himanshu Khandelia, Kazuki Saito, Ryoung Shin
Phytoaccumulation is a technique to extract metals from soil utilising ability of plants. Cesium is a valuable metal while radioactive isotopes of cesium can be hazardous. In order to establish a more efficient phytoaccumulation system, small molecules which promote plants to accumulate cesium were investigated. Through chemical library screening, 14 chemicals were isolated as 'cesium accumulators' in Arabidopsis thaliana. Of those, methyl cysteinate, a derivative of cysteine, was found to function within the plant to accumulate externally supplemented cesium...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229965/atmbd6-a-methyl-cpg-binding-domain-protein-maintains-gene-silencing-in-arabidopsis-by-interacting-with-rna-binding-proteins
#6
Adwaita Prasad Parida, Amrapali Sharma, Arun Kumar Sharma
DNA methylation, mediated by double-stranded RNA, is a conserved epigenetic phenomenon that protects a genome from transposons, silences unwanted genes and has a paramount function in plant or animal development. Methyl CpG binding domain proteins are members of a class of proteins that bind to methylated DNA. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 13 methyl CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins, but the molecular/biological functions of most of these proteins are still not clear. In the present study, we identified four proteins that interact with AtMBD6...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229589/production-of-cinnamyl-alcohol-glucoside-from-glucose-in-escherichia-coli
#7
Wei Zhou, Huiping Bi, Yibin Zhuang, Qinglin He, Hua Yin, Tao Liu, Yanhe Ma
Rosin, a cinnamyl alcohol glucoside, is one of the important ingredients in Rhodiola rosea, which is a valuable medicinal herb used for centuries. Rosin displayed multiple biological activities. The traditional method for producing rosin and derivatives is direct extraction from R. rosea, which suffers from limited availability of natural resources and complicated purification procedure. In this work, we achieved de novo biosynthesis of rosin in Escherichia coli. Firstly, a biosynthetic pathway of aglycon cinnamyl alcohol from phenylalanine was constructed...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229491/osnla1-a-ring-type-ubiquitin-ligase-maintains-phosphate-homeostasis-in-oryza-sativa-via-degradation-of-phosphate-transporters
#8
Wenhao Yue, Yinghui Ying, Chuang Wang, Yang Zhao, Changhe Dong, James Whelan, Huixia Shou
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporters (PTs) play vital roles in Pi uptake and translocation in plants. Under Pi sufficient conditions, PTs are degraded to prevent excess Pi accumulation. The mechanisms targeting PTs for degradation are not fully elucidated. In this study, we found that the Oryza sativa (rice) ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana Nitrogen Limitation Adaptation (NLA), OsNLA1 protein, a RING-type E3 ubiquitin-ligase, was predominantly localized in the plasma membrane, and could interact with rice phosphate transporters OsPT2 and OsPT8...
February 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229269/in-arabidopsis-thaliana-distinct-alleles-encoding-mitochondrial-rna-processing-factor-4-support-the-generation-of-additional-5-termini-of-ccmb-transcripts
#9
Katrin Stoll, Christian Jonietz, Sarah Schleicher, Catherine Colas des Francs-Small, Ian Small, Stefan Binder
In plant mitochondria, the 5' ends of many transcripts are generated post-transcriptionally. We show that the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein RNA PROCESSING FACTOR 4 (RPF4) supports the generation of extra 5' ends of ccmB transcripts in Landsberg erecta (Ler) and a number of other Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes. RPF4 was identified in Ler applying a forward genetic approach supported by complementation studies of ecotype Columbia (Col), which generates the Ler-type extra ccmB 5' termini only after the introduction of the RPF4 allele from Ler...
February 22, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228771/petal-loss-and-roxy1-interact-to-limit-growth-within-and-between-sepals-but-to-promote-petal-initiation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#10
Tezz Quon, Edwin R Lampugnani, David R Smyth
The activity of genes controlling organ development may be associated with the redox state of subregions within the meristem. Glutaredoxins react to the level of oxidative potential and can reduce cysteine dithiols, in some cases to activate specific transcription factors. In Arabidopsis, loss of function of the glutaredoxin ROXY1 or the trihelix transcription factor PETAL LOSS (PTL) each results in reduced numbers of petals. Here, genetic studies have revealed that loss of petals in ptl mutant plants depends on ROXY1 function...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228767/identification-of-zoupi-orthologs-in-soybean-potentially-involved-in-endosperm-breakdown-and-embryogenic-development
#11
Yaohua Zhang, Xin Li, Suxin Yang, Xianzhong Feng
Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown legume and provides an important source of protein and oil. Improvement of seed quality requires deep insights into the genetic regulation of seed development. The endosperm serves as a temporary source of nutrients that are transported from maternal to filial tissues, and it also generates signals for proper embryo formation. Endosperm cell death is associated with the processes of nutrient transfer and embryo expansion. The bHLH domain transcription factor AtZHOUPI (AtZOU) plays a key role in both the lysis of the transient endosperm and the formation of embryo cuticle in Arabidopsis thaliana...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228763/cardiolipin-supports-respiratory-enzymes-in-plants-in-different-ways
#12
Jakob Petereit, Kenta Katayama, Christin Lorenz, Linda Ewert, Peter Schertl, Andreas Kitsche, Hajime Wada, Margrit Frentzen, Hans-Peter Braun, Holger Eubel
In eukaryotes the presence of the dimeric phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) is limited to the mitochondrial membranes. It resides predominantly in the inner membrane where it interacts with components of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. CL deficiency has previously been shown to affect abundances of the plant NADH-dehydrogenase complex and its association with dimeric cyctochrome c reductase. Using an Arabidopsis thaliana knock-out mutant for the final enzyme of CL biosynthesis we here extend current knowledge on the dependence of plant respiration on CL...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223514/selective-autophagy-limits-cauliflower-mosaic-virus-infection-by-nbr1-mediated-targeting-of-viral-capsid-protein-and-particles
#13
Anders Hafrén, Jean-Luc Macia, Andrew J Love, Joel J Milner, Martin Drucker, Daniel Hofius
Autophagy plays a paramount role in mammalian antiviral immunity including direct targeting of viruses and their individual components, and many viruses have evolved measures to antagonize or even exploit autophagy mechanisms for the benefit of infection. In plants, however, the functions of autophagy in host immunity and viral pathogenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we have identified both anti- and proviral roles of autophagy in the compatible interaction of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), a double-stranded DNA pararetrovirus, with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana We show that the autophagy cargo receptor NEIGHBOR OF BRCA1 (NBR1) targets nonassembled and virus particle-forming capsid proteins to mediate their autophagy-dependent degradation, thereby restricting the establishment of CaMV infection...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223441/rima-dependent-nuclear-accumulation-of-iyo-triggers-auxin-irreversible-cell-differentiation-in-arabidopsis
#14
Alfonso Muñoz, Silvina Mangano, Mary Paz González-García, Ramón Contreras, Michael B Sauer, Bert De Rybel, Dolf Weijers, José J Sánchez-Serrano, Maite Sanmartín, Enrique Rojo
The transcriptional regulator MINIYO (IYO) is essential and rate-limiting for initiating cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, IYO moves from the cytosol into the nucleus in cells at the meristem periphery, possibly triggering their differentiation. However, the genetic mechanisms controlling IYO nuclear accumulation were unknown and the evidence that increased nuclear IYO levels trigger differentiation remained correlative. Searching for IYO interactors, we have identified RPAP2 IYO Mate (RIMA), a homologue of yeast and human proteins linked to nuclear import of selective cargo...
February 21, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223440/idn2-interacts-with-rpa-and-facilitates-dna-double-strand-break-repair-by-homologous-recombination-in-arabidopsis
#15
Mingming Liu, Zhaoqing Ba, Pedro Costa-Nunes, Wei Wei, Lanxia Li, Fansi Kong, Yan Li, Jijie Chai, Olga Pontes, Yijun Qi
Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for the maintenance of genome integrity. We previously showed that DSB-induced small RNAs (diRNAs) facilitate homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DSB repair in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we show that INVOLVED IN DE NOVO 2 (IDN2), a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein involved in small RNA-directed DNA methylation, is required for DSB repair in Arabidopsis. We find that IDN2 interacts with the heterotrimeric replication protein A (RPA) complex...
February 21, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223439/sumoylation-of-turnip-mosaic-virus-rna-polymerase-promotes-viral-infection-by-counteracting-the-host-npr1-mediated-immune-response
#16
Xiaofei Cheng, Ruyi Xiong, Yinzi Li, Fangfang Li, Xueping Zhou, Aiming Wang
Sumoylation is a transient, reversible dynamic posttranslational modification that regulates diverse cellular processes including plant-pathogen interactions. Sumoylation of NPR1, a master regulator of basal and systemic acquired resistance to a broad spectrum of plant pathogens, activates the defense response. Here, we report that NIb, the only RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) that targets the nucleus upon translation, interacts exclusively with and is sumoylated by SUMO3 (SMALL UBIQUITIN-LIKE MODIFIER3), but not the three other Arabidopsis thaliana SUMO paralogs...
February 21, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223399/centromere-location-in-arabidopsis-is-unaltered-by-extreme-divergence-in-cenh3-protein-sequence
#17
Shamoni Maheshwari, Takayoshi Ishii, C Titus Brown, Andreas Houben, Luca Comai
During cell division, spindle fibers attach to chromosomes at centromeres. The DNA sequence at regional centromeres is fast evolving with no conserved genetic signature for centromere identity. Instead CENH3, a centromere-specific histone H3 variant, is the epigenetic signature that specifies centromere location across both plant and animal kingdoms. Paradoxically, CENH3 is also adaptively evolving. An ongoing question is whether CENH3 evolution is driven by a functional relationship with the underlying DNA sequence...
February 21, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223360/a-novel-subtilase-inhibitor-in-plants-shows-structural-and-functional-similarities-to-protease-propeptides
#18
Mathias Hohl, Annick Stintzi, Andreas Schaller
The propeptides of subtilisin-like serine proteinases (SBTs) serve dual functions as intramolecular chaperones that are required for enzyme folding and as inhibitors of the mature proteases. SBT propeptides are homologous to the I9 family of protease inhibitors that have only been described in fungi. Here we report the identification and characterization of Subtilisin Propeptide-Like Inhibitor 1 (SPI-1) from Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence similarity and the shared β-α-β-β-α-β core structure identified SPI-1 as a member of the I9 inhibitor family, and as the first independent I9 inhibitor in higher eukaryotes...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223317/stabilized1-modulates-pre-mrna-splicing-for-thermotolerance
#19
Geundon Kim, Young-Hee Cho, Byeong-Ha Lee, Sang-Dong Yoo
High temperature stress often leads to differential RNA splicing, thus accumulating different types and/or amounts of mature mRNAs in eukaryotic cells. However, regulatory mechanisms underlying plant pre-mRNA splicing in the environmental stress conditions remain elusive. Herein, we describe that a U5-snRNP-interacting protein homolog STABILIZED1 (STA1) has pre-mRNA splicing activity for heat-inducible transcripts including HEAT STRESS TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and various HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS for the establishment of heat stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana...
February 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223312/natural-variation-and-dosage-of-the-hei10-meiotic-e3-ligase-control-arabidopsis-crossover-recombination
#20
Piotr A Ziolkowski, Charles J Underwood, Christophe Lambing, Marina Martinez-Garcia, Emma J Lawrence, Liliana Ziolkowska, Catherine Griffin, Kyuha Choi, F Chris H Franklin, Robert A Martienssen, Ian R Henderson
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo crossover recombination, which creates genetic diversity and balances homolog segregation. Despite these critical functions, crossover frequency varies extensively within and between species. Although natural crossover recombination modifier loci have been detected in plants, causal genes have remained elusive. Using natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, we identified two major recombination quantitative trait loci (rQTLs) that explain 56.9% of crossover variation in Col×Ler F2 populations...
February 21, 2017: Genes & Development
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