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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926847/probing-the-stochastic-property-of-endoreduplication-in-cell-size-determination-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-leaf-epidermal-tissue
#1
Kensuke Kawade, Hirokazu Tsukaya
Cell size distribution is highly reproducible, whereas the size of individual cells often varies greatly within a tissue. This is obvious in a population of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf epidermal cells, which ranged from 1,000 to 10,000 μm2 in size. Endoreduplication is a specialized cell cycle in which nuclear genome size (ploidy) is doubled in the absence of cell division. Although epidermal cells require endoreduplication to enhance cellular expansion, the issue of whether this mechanism is sufficient for explaining cell size distribution remains unclear due to a lack of quantitative understanding linking the occurrence of endoreduplication with cell size diversity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926746/effect-of-modeled-microgravity-on-uv-c-induced-interplant-communication-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#2
Ting Wang, Wei Xu, Huasheng Li, Chenguang Deng, Hui Zhao, Yuejin Wu, Min Liu, Lijun Wu, Jinying Lu, Po Bian
Controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) will be an important feature of long-duration space missions of which higher plants are one of the indispensable components. Because of its pivotal role in enabling plants to cope with environmental stress, interplant communication might have important implications for the ecological stability of such CELSS. However, the manifestations of interplant communication in microgravity conditions have yet to be fully elucidated. To address this, a well-established Arabidopsis thaliana co-culture experimental system, in which UV-C-induced airborne interplant communication is evaluated by the alleviation of transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in bystander plants, was placed in microgravity modeled by a two-dimensional rotating clinostat...
September 6, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925901/plant-cell-wall-proteomics-as-a-strategy-to-reveal-candidate-proteins-involved-in-extracellular-lipid-metabolism
#3
Adélaïde Jacq, Vincent Burlat, Elisabeth Jamet
Plant cell walls are composite structures surrounding cells and involved in both mechanical support and perception of their environment. They are mainly composed of polysaccharides (90-95% of their mass) and proteins (5-10%). The cell wall proteins (CWPs) contribute to the arrangements and modifications of polymer networks and to cell-to-cell communication. The structure and composition of cell walls are not uniform in the whole plants, but rather specialized in different cell types to fulfil different functions...
September 18, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924017/in-silico-analysis-of-the-regulation-of-the-photosynthetic-electron-transport-chain-in-c3-plants
#4
Alejandro Morales, Xinyou Yin, Jeremy Harbinson, Steven Michiel Driever, Jaap Molenaar, David M Kramer, Paul Struik
We present a new simulation model of the reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of C3 species. We show that including recent insights about the regulation of the thylakoid proton motive force, ATP/NADPH balancing mechanisms (cyclic and non-cyclic alternative electron transport), and regulation of Rubisco activity, leads to emergent behaviors that may affect the operation and regulation of photosynthesis under different dynamic environmental conditions. The model was parameterized with experimental results in the literature, with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana...
September 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923956/arabidopsis-m-6-a-demethylase-activity-modulates-viral-infection-of-a-plant-virus-and-the-m-6-a-abundance-in-its-genomic-rnas
#5
Mireya Martínez-Pérez, Frederic Aparicio, Maria Pilar López-Gresa, Jose María Bellés, Jesus A Sánchez-Navarro, Vicente Pallás
N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is an internal, reversible nucleotide modification that constitutes an important regulatory mechanism in RNA biology. Unlike mammals and yeast, no component of the m(6)A cellular machinery has been described in plants at present. m(6)A has been identified in the genomic RNAs of diverse mammalian viruses and, additionally, viral infection was found to be modulated by the abundance of m(6)A in viral RNAs. Here we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana protein atALKBH9B (At2g17970) is a demethylase that removes m(6)A from single-stranded RNA molecules in vitro...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923019/evolutionary-history-and-functional-divergence-of-the-cytochrome-p450-gene-superfamily-between-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-brassica-species-uncover-effects-of-whole-genome-and-tandem-duplications
#6
Jingyin Yu, Sadia Tehrim, Linhai Wang, Komivi Dossa, Xiurong Zhang, Tao Ke, Boshou Liao
BACKGROUND: The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) superfamily is involved in the biosynthesis of various primary and secondary metabolites. However, little is known about the effects of whole genome duplication (WGD) and tandem duplication (TD) events on the evolutionary history and functional divergence of P450s in Brassica after splitting from a common ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana. RESULTS: Using Hidden Markov Model search and manual curation, we detected that Brassica species have nearly 1...
September 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922840/quantification-of-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-c58-attachment-to-arabidopsis-thaliana-roots
#7
Anna Petrovicheva, Jessica Joyner, Theodore R Muth
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the causal agent of crown gall disease and is a vector for DNA transfer in transgenic plants. The transformation process by A. tumefaciens has been widely studied, but the attachment stage has not been well characterized. Most measurements of attachment have used microscopy and colony counting, both of which are labor and time intensive. To reduce the time and effort required to analyze bacteria attaching to plant tissues, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay to quantify attached A...
October 2, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922772/plasmolysis-deplasmolysis-causes-changes-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-form-movement-flow-and-cytoskeletal-association
#8
Xiaohang Cheng, Ingeborg Lang, Opeyemi Samson Adeniji, Lawrence Griffing
Plasmolysis of hypocotyl cells of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana diminishes the dynamics of the remodeling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the central protoplast, namely that withdrawn from the cell wall, and more persistent cisternae are formed, yet little change in the actin network in the protoplast occurs. Also, protein flow within the ER network in the protoplast, as detected with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), is not affected by plasmolysis. After plasmolysis, another network of strictly tubular ER remains attached to the plasma membrane-wall interface and is contained within the Hechtian strands and reticulum...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922752/current-understanding-of-the-pathways-of-flavonoid-biosynthesis-in-model-and-crop-plants
#9
Takayuki Tohge, Leonardo Perez de Souza, Alisdair R Fernie
Flavonoids are a signature class of secondary metabolites formed from a relatively simple collection of scaffolds. They are extensively decorated by chemical reactions including glycosylation, methylation, and acylation. They are present in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables and as such in Western populations it is estimated that 20-50 mg of flavonoids are consumed daily per person. In planta they have demonstrated to contribute to both flower color and UV protection. Their consumption has been suggested to presenta wide range of health benefits...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922750/identification-of-iridoid-glucoside-transporters-in-catharanthus-roseus
#10
Bo Larsen, Victoria L Fuller, Jacob Pollier, Alex Van Moerkercke, Fabian Schweizer, Richard Payne, Maite Colinas, Sarah E O'Connor, Alain Goossens, Barbara A Halkier
Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) are plant defense compounds and high-value pharmaceuticals. Biosynthesis of the universal MIA precursor, secologanin, is organized between internal phloem-associated parenchyma (IPAP) and epidermis cells. Transporters for intercellular transport of proposed mobile pathway intermediates have remained elusive. Screening of an Arabidopsis thaliana transporter library expressed in Xenopus oocytes identified AtNPF2.9 as a putative iridoid glucoside importer. Eight orthologs were identified in Catharanthus roseus, of which three, CrNPF2...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922748/cesium-uptake-by-rice-roots-largely-depends-upon-a-single-gene-hak1-which-encodes-a-potassium-transporter
#11
Hiroki Rai, Saki Yokoyama, Namiko Satoh-Nagasawa, Jun Furukawa, Takiko Nomi, Yasuka Ito, Shigeto Fujimura, Hidekazu Takahashi, Ryuichiro Suzuki, ELMannai Yousra, Akitoshi Goto, Shinichi Fuji, Shin-Ichi Nakamura, Takuro Shinano, Nobuhiro Nagasawa, Hiroetsu Wabiko, Hiroyuki Hattori
Incidents at the Fukushima and Chernobyl nuclear power stations have resulted in widespread environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Among them, 137cesium has a 30 year half-life, and its persistence in soil raises serious food security issues. It is therefore important to prevent plants, especially crop plants, from absorbing radiocesium. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cesium ions are transported into root cells by several different potassium transporters such as high-affinity K+ transporter 5 (AtHAK5)...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922622/light-signaling-differentially-regulates-the-expression-of-group-iv-of-the-b-box-zinc-finger-family
#12
Xinyu Zhang, Rongcheng Lin
Light is an important external signal that affects plant growth and development, such as photomorphogenesis. Transcriptional regulation defines a central regulatory mechanism in photomorphogenesis. The B-box zinc finger family consists of 32 proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies show that group IV of the B-box family (BBX18 to BBX25) plays either positive or negative roles in regulating photomorphogenesis. We investigated the expression patterns of BBX18 to BBX25 and the results demonstrate that the transcriptional levels of these genes are differentially regulated by the light signaling pathway...
September 18, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921702/3d-analysis-of-mitosis-distribution-highlights-the-longitudinal-zonation-and-diarch-symmetry-in-proliferation-activity-of-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-root-meristem
#13
V V Lavrekha, T Pasternak, V B Ivanov, K Palme, V V Mironova
To date CYCB1;1 marker and cortex cell lengths are conventionally used to determine the proliferation activity of the Arabidopsis root meristem. By creating a 3D map of mitosis distribution we showed that these markers overlooked that stele and endodermis save their potency to divide longer than cortex and epidermis. Cessation of cell divisions is not a random process, so that the mitotic activity within the endodermis and stele shows a diarch pattern. Mitotic activity of all root tissues peaked at the same distance from the quiescent center (QC); however, different tissues stopped dividing at different distances, with cells of the protophloem exiting the cell cycle first and the procambial cells being the last...
September 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921561/the-ribokinases-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-are-required-for-ribose-recycling-from-nucleotide-catabolism-which-in-plants-is-not-essential-to-survive-prolonged-dark-stress
#14
Rebekka Y Schroeder, Anting Zhu, Holger Eubel, Kathleen Dahncke, Claus-Peter Witte
Nucleotide catabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to the release of ribose, which requires phosphorylation to ribose-5-phosphate mediated by ribokinase (RBSK). We aimed to characterize RBSK in plants and yeast, to quantify the contribution of plant nucleotide catabolism to the ribose pool, and to investigate whether ribose carbon contributes to dark stress survival of plants. We performed a phylogenetic analysis and determined the kinetic constants of plant-expressed Arabidopsis and yeast RBSKs...
September 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921082/expression-analysis-of-transporter-genes-for-screening-candidate-monolignol-transporters-using-arabidopsis-thaliana-cell-suspensions-during-tracheary-element-differentiation
#15
Manami Takeuchi, Takahiro Kegasa, Atsushi Watanabe, Miho Tamura, Yuji Tsutsumi
The mechanism of monolignol transportation from the cytosol to the apoplast is still unclear despite being an essential step of lignification. Recently, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters were suggested to be involved in monolignol transport. However, there are no reliable clues to the transporters of the major lignin monomers coniferyl and synapyl alcohol. In this study, the lignification progress of Arabidopsis cultured cells during tracheary element differentiation was monitored. The expression of selected transporter genes, as well as lignification and cell-wall formation related genes as references, in differentiating cultured cell samples harvested at 2-day intervals was analyzed by real-time PCR and the data were statistically processed...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919907/heterotrimeric-g-protein-regulated-ca-2-influx-and-pin2-asymmetric-distribution-are-involved-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-roots-avoidance-response-to-extracellular-atp
#16
Ruojia Zhu, Xiaoxia Dong, Weiwei Hao, Wei Gao, Wenzhu Zhang, Shuyan Xia, Ting Liu, Zhonglin Shang
Extracellular ATP (eATP) has been reported to be involved in plant growth as a primary messenger in the apoplast. Here, roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings growing in jointed medium bent upon contact with ATP-containing medium to keep away from eATP, showing a marked avoidance response. Roots responded similarly to ADP and bz-ATP but did not respond to AMP and GTP. The eATP avoidance response was reduced in loss-of-function mutants of heterotrimeric G protein α subunit (Gα) (gpa1-1 and gpa1-2) and enhanced in Gα-over-expression (OE) lines (wGα and cGα)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919350/crystal-structure-of-inositol-1-3-4-5-6-pentakisphosphate-2-kinase-from-cryptococcus-neoformans
#17
Juntaek Oh, Dong-Gi Lee, Yong-Sun Bahn, Sangkee Rhee
The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a causative agent of meningoencephalitis in humans. For its pathogenicity, the inositol polyphosphate biosynthetic pathway plays critical roles. Recently, Ipk1 from C. neoformans (CnIpk1) was identified as an inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of IP5 to form IP6, a substrate for subsequent reaction to produce inositol pyrophosphates, such as PP-IP5/IP7. Furthermore, it was shown that deletion of IPK1 significantly reduces the virulence of C...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918993/arabidopsis-thaliana-cold-regulated-47-gene-5-untranslated-region-enables-stable-high-level-expression-of-transgenes
#18
Shotaro Yamasaki, Yuji Sanada, Ryoji Imase, Hideyuki Matsuura, Daishin Ueno, Taku Demura, Ko Kato
Transgene expression is regulated through several steps, this study focuses on the mRNA translation step. The expression level of transgenes can be increased by 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) sequences in certain genes which act as translational enhancers. On the other hand, translation in most mRNA species is repressed by growth, development, and stress events. There is a possibility that transgene mRNA is also repressed in these conditions, despite the use of a translational enhancer. Therefore, a consistently efficient translational enhancer is needed to develop a reliable transgene expression system...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918933/structural-proteomics-topology-and-relative-accessibility-of-plant-lipid-droplet-associated-proteins
#19
Pascale Jolivet, Laure Aymé, Alexandre Giuliani, Frank Wien, Thierry Chardot, Yann Gohon
Lipid droplets are the major stock of lipids in oleaginous plant seeds. Despite their economic importance for oil production and biotechnological issues (biofuels, lubricants and plasticizers), numerous questions about their formation, structure and regulation are still unresolved. To determine water accessible domains of protein coating at lipid droplets surface, a structural proteomic approach has been performed. This technique relies on the millisecond timescale production of hydroxyl radicals by the radiolysis of water using Synchrotron X-ray white beam...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918565/forward-genetic-screens-identify-a-role-for-the-mitochondrial-her2-in-e-2-hexenal-responsiveness
#20
Alessandra Scala, Rossana Mirabella, Joachim Goedhart, Michel de Vries, Michel A Haring, Robert C Schuurink
This work adds a new player, HER2, downstream of the perception of E-2-hexenal, a green leaf volatile, and shows that E-2-hexenal specifically changes the redox status of the mitochondria. It is widely accepted that plants produce and respond to green leaf volatiles (GLVs), but the molecular components involved in transducing their perception are largely unknown. The GLV E-2-hexenal inhibits root elongation in seedlings and, using this phenotype, we isolated E-2-hexenal response (her) Arabidopsis thaliana mutants...
September 16, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
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