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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444111/genome-wide-identification-and-role-of-mkk-and-mpk-gene-families-in-clubroot-resistance-of-brassica-rapa
#1
Yinglan Piao, Kaining Jin, Ying He, Jiaxiu Liu, Shuang Liu, Xiaonan Li, Zhongyun Piao
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MPK) cascades play key roles in responses to various biotic stresses, as well as in plant growth and development. However, the responses of MPK and MPK kinase (MKK) in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) to Plasmodiophora brassicae, a causal agent of clubroot disease in Brassica crops, are still not clear. In the present study, a total of 11 B. rapa MKK (BraMKK) and 30 BraMPK genes were identified and unevenly distributed in 6 and 10 chromosomes, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381451/mapkk-inhibitor-u0126-inhibit-plasmodiophora-brassicae-development
#2
Tao Chen, Kai Bi, Yanli Zhao, Xueliang Lyu, Zhixiao Gao, Ying Zhao, Yanping Fu, Jiasen Cheng, Jiatao Xie, Daohong Jiang
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play a central role in cellular growth, proliferation and survival. MAPK cascade genes have been extensively investigated in model plants, mammals, yeast and fungi, but are not characterized in Plasmodiophora brassicae, which causes clubroot disease in cruciferous plants. Here, we identified 7 PbMAPK, 3 PbMAPKK and 9 PbMAPKKK genes in the P. brassicae genome. Transcriptional profiling analysis demonstrated that several MAPK, MAPKK and MAPKKK genes were preferentially expressed in three different zoosporic stages...
January 30, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304736/transcriptome-analysis-of-response-to-plasmodiophora-brassicae-infection-in-the-arabidopsis-shoot-and-root
#3
Solmaz Irani, Brett Trost, Matthew Waldner, Naghabushana Nayidu, Jiangying Tu, Anthony J Kusalik, Christopher D Todd, Yangdou Wei, Peta C Bonham-Smith
BACKGROUND: Clubroot is an important disease caused by the obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae that infects the Brassicaceae. As a soil-borne pathogen, P. brassicae induces the generation of abnormal tissue in the root, resulting in the formation of galls. Root infection negatively affects the uptake of water and nutrients in host plants, severely reducing their growth and productivity. Many studies have emphasized the molecular and physiological effects of the clubroot disease on root tissues...
January 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163558/current-status-and-challenges-in-identifying-disease-resistance-genes-in-brassica-napus
#4
REVIEW
Ting Xiang Neik, Martin J Barbetti, Jacqueline Batley
Brassica napus is an economically important crop across different continents including temperate and subtropical regions in Europe, Canada, South Asia, China and Australia. Its widespread cultivation also brings setbacks as it plays host to fungal, oomycete and chytrid pathogens that can lead to serious yield loss. For sustainable crop production, identification of resistance (R) genes in B. napus has become of critical importance. In this review, we discuss four key pathogens affecting Brassica crops: Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae), Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans and L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065162/endosphere-microbiome-comparison-between-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-roots-of-brassica-napus-infected-with-plasmodiophora-brassicae
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ying Zhao, Zhixiao Gao, Binnian Tian, Kai Bi, Tao Chen, Huiquan Liu, Jiatao Xie, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Daohong Jiang
Clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is a severe disease of cruciferous crops that causes large hypertrophic galls in the roots. The plant microbiome is important for growth promotion and disease suppression. In this study, using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing techniques, we compared the endosphere microbiome of symptomatic and asymptomatic B. napus roots infected with P. brassicae collected from the same natural clubroot field. The results showed that the microbial population and its relative abundance in the asymptomatic roots was far higher than that in the symptomatic roots, and that many microorganisms in asymptomatic roots have biological control and plant growth promotion functions that may be related to clubroot symptoms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954397/evaluating-changes-in-cell-wall-components-associated-with-clubroot-resistance-using-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-and-rt-pcr
#6
Rachid Lahlali, Tao Song, Mingguang Chu, Fengqun Yu, Saroj Kumar, Chithra Karunakaran, Gary Peng
Clubroot disease is a serious threat to canola production in western Canada and many parts of the world. Rcr1 is a clubroot resistance (CR) gene identified recently and its molecular mechanisms in mediating CR have been studied using several omics approaches. The current study aimed to characterize the biochemical changes in the cell wall of canola roots connecting to key molecular mechanisms of this CR gene identified in prior studies using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The expression of nine genes involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism was also studied using qPCR...
September 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894454/fine-mapping-of-a-clubroot-resistance-gene-in-chinese-cabbage-using-snp-markers-identified-from-bulked-segregant-rna-sequencing
#7
Zhen Huang, Gary Peng, Xunjia Liu, Abhinandan Deora, Kevin C Falk, Bruce D Gossen, Mary R McDonald, Fengqun Yu
Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is an important disease of canola (Brassica napus) in western Canada and worldwide. In this study, a clubroot resistance gene (Rcr2) was identified and fine mapped in Chinese cabbage cv. "Jazz" using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers identified from bulked segregant RNA sequencing (BSR-Seq) and molecular markers were developed for use in marker assisted selection. In total, 203.9 million raw reads were generated from one pooled resistant (R) and one pooled susceptible (S) sample, and >173,000 polymorphic SNP sites were identified between the R and S samples...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674416/genotyping-by-sequencing-reveals-three-qtl-for-clubroot-resistance-to-six-pathotypes-of-plasmodiophora-brassicae-in-brassica-rapa
#8
Fengqun Yu, Xingguo Zhang, Gary Peng, Kevin C Falk, Stephen E Strelkov, Bruce D Gossen
Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is an important disease of Brassica crops worldwide. F1 progeny from the Brassica rapa lines T19 (resistant) × ACDC (susceptible) were backcrossed with ACDC, then self-pollinated to produce BC1S1 lines, From genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of the parental lines and BC1 plants, about 1.32 M sequences from T19 were aligned into the reference genome of B. rapa with 0.4-fold coverage, and 1.77 M sequences with 0.5-fold coverage in ACDC. The number of aligned short reads per plant in the BC1 ranged from 0...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505203/cytological-and-morphological-analysis-of-hybrids-between-brassicoraphanus-and-brassica-napus-for-introgression-of-clubroot-resistant-trait-into-brassica-napus-l
#9
Zongxiang Zhan, Chinedu Charles Nwafor, Zhaoke Hou, Jianfang Gong, Bin Zhu, Yingfen Jiang, Yongming Zhou, Jiangsheng Wu, Zhongyun Piao, Yue Tong, Chao Liu, Chunyu Zhang
Interspecific hybridization is a powerful tool for improvement of crop species, it has the potential to broaden the genetic base and create new plant forms for breeding programs. Synthetic allopolyploid is a widely-used model for the study of genetic recombination and fixed heterosis in Brassica. In Brassica napus breeding, identification and introgression of new sources of clubroot resistance trait from wild or related species into it by hybridization is a long-term crop management strategy for clubroot disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484434/transcriptome-analysis-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-in-response-to-plasmodiophora-brassicae-during-early-infection
#10
Ying Zhao, Kai Bi, Zhixiao Gao, Tao Chen, Huiquan Liu, Jiatao Xie, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Daohong Jiang
Clubroot disease is a serious threat to cruciferous plants worldwide, especially to oilseed rape. However, knowledge on pathogenic molecular mechanisms and host interaction is limited. We presume that the recognition between Arabidopsis thaliana and Plasmodiophora brassicae occurs at the early stage of infection and within a relatively short period. In this study, we demonstrated changes on gene expression and pathways in A. thaliana during early infection with P. brassicae using transcriptome analysis. We identified 1,903 and 1,359 DEGs at 24 and 48 h post-inoculation (hpi), respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265986/manipulation-of-auxin-and-cytokinin-balance-during-the-plasmodiophora-brassicae-arabidopsis-thaliana-interaction
#11
Jutta Ludwig-Müller, Susann Auer, Sabine Jülke, Sabine Marschollek
The symptoms of the clubroot disease on Brassica species caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae relies, among other factors, on the modulation of plant hormones. Signaling, transport as well as biosynthesis and metabolism are key features how the levels of auxins and cytokinins are controlled. We here describe (a) how to inoculate the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with P. brassicae, (b) qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate disease severity in auxin and cytokinin mutants,...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054984/detection-of-ribosomal-dna-sequence-polymorphisms-in-the-protist-plasmodiophora-brassicae-for-the-identification-of-geographical-isolates
#12
Rawnak Laila, Arif Hasan Khan Robin, Kiwoung Yang, Gyung Ja Choi, Jong-In Park, Ill-Sup Nou
Clubroot is a soil-borne disease caused by the protist Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae). It is one of the most economically important diseases of Brassica rapa and other cruciferous crops as it can cause remarkable yield reductions. Understanding P. brassicae genetics, and developing efficient molecular markers, is essential for effective detection of harmful races of this pathogen. Samples from 11 Korean field populations of P. brassicae (geographic isolates), collected from nine different locations in South Korea, were used in this study...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050618/clubroot-resistance-qtl-are-modulated-by-nitrogen-input-in-brassica-napus
#13
A Laperche, Y Aigu, M Jubault, M Ollier, S Guichard, P Glory, S E Strelkov, A Gravot, M J Manzanares-Dauleux
Nitrogen levels can modulate the effectiveness of clubroot resistance in an isolate- and host-specific manner. While the same QTL were detected under high and low nitrogen, their effects were altered. Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most damaging diseases of oilseed rape and is known to be affected by nitrogen fertilization. However, the genetic factors involved in clubroot resistance have not been characterized under nitrogen-limiting conditions. This study aimed to assess the variability of clubroot resistance under different nitrogen levels and to characterize the impact of nitrogen supply on genetic resistance factors...
April 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013378/the-tandem-repeated-organization-of-nb-lrr-genes-in-the-clubroot-resistant-crb-locus-in-brassica-rapa-l
#14
Katsunori Hatakeyama, Tomohisa Niwa, Takeyuki Kato, Takayoshi Ohara, Tomohiro Kakizaki, Satoru Matsumoto
To facilitate prevention of clubroot disease, a major threat to the successful cultivation of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.), we bred clubroot-resistant (CR) cultivars by introducing resistance genes from CR turnips via conventional breeding. Among 11 CR loci found in B. rapa, we identified CRb in Chinese cabbage cultivar 'CR Shinki' as a single dominant gene for resistance against Plasmodiophora brassicae pathotype group 3, against which the stacking of Crr1 and Crr2 loci was not effective. However, the precise location and pathotype specificity of CRb have been controversial, because CRa and Rcr1 also map near this locus...
April 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874080/integrated-omics-study-of-lipid-droplets-from-plasmodiophora-brassicae
#15
Kai Bi, Zhangchao He, Zhixiao Gao, Ying Zhao, Yanping Fu, Jiasen Cheng, Jiatao Xie, Daohong Jiang, Tao Chen
Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot disease in cruciferous. In this report, lipid droplets were observed in the resting spores of P. brassicae. 295 lipid droplet-associated proteins were identified and categorized into nine groups. Transcriptome analysis of these proteins during three different zoosporic stages revealed differences in gene expression pattern. GO enrichment analysis revealed that these proteins associated with lipid droplets were mainly linked to biosynthesis and metabolism. GC-MS analysis revealed that lipid droplets contain seven types of free fatty acids: saturated fatty acids C16:0 and C18:0, and unsaturated fatty acids C18:1Δ9, C18:1Δ11, C18:2, C20:4 and C20:5...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835985/hypoxia-response-in-arabidopsis-roots-infected-by-plasmodiophora-brassicae-supports-the-development-of-clubroot
#16
Antoine Gravot, Gautier Richard, Tanguy Lime, Séverine Lemarié, Mélanie Jubault, Christine Lariagon, Jocelyne Lemoine, Jorge Vicente, Alexandre Robert-Seilaniantz, Michael J Holdsworth, Maria J Manzanares-Dauleux
BACKGROUND: The induction of alcohol fermentation in roots is a plant adaptive response to flooding stress and oxygen deprivation. Available transcriptomic data suggest that fermentation-related genes are also frequently induced in roots infected with gall forming pathogens, but the biological significance of this induction is unclear. In this study, we addressed the role of hypoxia responses in Arabidopsis roots during infection by the clubroot agent Plasmodiophora brassicae. RESULTS: The hypoxia-related gene markers PYRUVATE DECARBOXYLASE 1 (PDC1), PYRUVATE DECARBOXYLASE 2 (PDC2) and ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE 1 (ADH1) were induced during secondary infection by two isolates of P...
November 11, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750174/the-large-subunit-rdna-sequence-of-plasmodiophora-brassicae-does-not-contain-intra-species-polymorphism
#17
Arne Schwelm, Cédric Berney, Christina Dixelius, David Bass, Sigrid Neuhauser
Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most important diseases of cultivated brassicas. P. brassicae occurs in pathotypes which differ in the aggressiveness towards their Brassica host plants. To date no DNA based method to distinguish these pathotypes has been described. In 2011 polymorphism within the 28S rDNA of P. brassicae was reported which potentially could allow to distinguish pathotypes without the need of time-consuming bioassays. However, isolates of P. brassicae from around the world analysed in this study do not show polymorphism in their LSU rDNA sequences...
December 2016: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746804/a-genome-wide-association-study-reveals-new-loci-for-resistance-to-clubroot-disease-in-brassica-napus
#18
Lixia Li, Yujie Luo, Biyun Chen, Kun Xu, Fugui Zhang, Hao Li, Qian Huang, Xin Xiao, Tianyao Zhang, Jihong Hu, Feng Li, Xiaoming Wu
Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, the yield and quality of rapeseed were largely decreased by clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin). Therefore, it is of great importance for screening more resistant germplasms or genes and improving the resistance to P. brassicae in rapeseed breeding. In this study, a massive resistant identification for a natural global population was conducted in two environments with race/pathotype 4 of P. brassicae which was the most predominant in China, and a wide range of phenotypic variation was found in the population...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721692/pathotype-classification-of-plasmodiophora-brassicae-isolates-using-clubroot-resistant-cultivars-of-chinese-cabbage
#19
Hun Kim, Eun Ju Jo, Yong Ho Choi, Kyoung Soo Jang, Gyung Ja Choi
Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most serious diseases in Brassica crops worldwide. In this study, the pathotypes of 12 Korean P. brassicae field isolates were determined using various Chinese cabbage including 22 commercial cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan, and 15 inbred lines. All P. brassicae isolates exhibited the typical clubroot disease on non-clubroot resistant cultivar, indicating that the isolates were highly pathogenic. According to the reactions on the Williams' hosts, the 12 field isolates were initially classified into five races...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679580/arabidopsis-mutant-bik1-exhibits-strong-resistance-to-plasmodiophora-brassicae
#20
Tao Chen, Kai Bi, Zhangchao He, Zhixiao Gao, Ying Zhao, Yanping Fu, Jiasen Cheng, Jiatao Xie, Daohong Jiang
Botrytis-induced kinase1 (BIK1), a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, plays an important role in resistance against pathogens and insects in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it remains unknown whether BIK1 functions against Plasmodiophora brassicae, an obligate biotrophic protist that attacks cruciferous plants and induces gall formation on roots. Here, we investigated the potential roles of receptors FLS2, BAK1, and BIK1 in the infection of P. brassicae cruciferous plants. Wild-type plants, fls2, and bak1 mutants showed typical symptom on roots, and the galls were filled with large quantities of resting spores, while bik1 mutant plants exhibited strong resistance to P...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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