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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428854/not-all-weeds-are-created-equal-a-database-approach-uncovers-differences-in-the-sexual-system-of-native-and-introduced-weeds
#1
Megan L Van Etten, Jeffrey K Conner, Shu-Mei Chang, Regina S Baucom
Weedy species provide excellent opportunities to examine the process of successful colonization of novel environments. Despite the influence of the sexual system on a variety of processes from reproduction to genetic structure, how the sexual system of species influences weediness has received only limited consideration. We examined the hypothesis that weedy plants have an increased likelihood of being self-compatible compared with nonweedy plants; this hypothesis is derived from Baker's law, which states that species that can reproduce uniparentally are more likely to successfully establish in a new habitat where mates are lacking...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428199/experimental-insights-on-darwin-s-cross-promotion-hypothesis-in-tristylous-purple-loosestrife-lythrum-salicaria
#2
Joana Costa, Sílvia Castro, João Loureiro, Spencer C H Barrett
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Darwin proposed that the reciprocal arrangement of anthers and stigmas in heterostylous plants promotes cross-pollination through pollen segregation on pollinators' bodies. The floral tube in most heterostylous species constrains the feeding posture of pollinators determining the site of contact with sex organs located at different heights within a flower. Here, we evaluate Darwin's hypothesis in tristylous Lythrum salicaria, a species with a partially tubular corolla, and examine the extent to which the location of sex organs within a flower influence compatible and incompatible pollination...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415372/ultrametricity-of-optimal-transport-substates-for-multiple-interacting-paths-over-a-square-lattice-network
#3
Marco Cogoni, Giovanni Busonera, Gianluigi Zanetti
We model a set of point-to-point transports on a network as a system of polydisperse interacting self-avoiding walks (SAWs) over a finite square lattice. The ends of each SAW may be located both at random, uniformly distributed, positions or with one end fixed at a lattice corner. The total energy of the system is computed as the sum over all SAWs, which may represent either the time needed to complete the transport over the network, or the resources needed to build the networking infrastructure. We focus especially on the second aspect by assigning a concave cost function to each site to encourage path overlap...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413348/biofriendly-nanocomposite-containers-with-inhibition-properties-for-the-protection-of-metallic-surfaces
#4
T R Vakhitov, V E Katnov, P V Grishin, S N Stepin, D O Grigoriev
An attempt to combine two 'green' compounds in nanocomposite microcontainers in order to increase protection properties of waterborne acryl-styrene copolymer (ASC) coatings has been made. N-lauroylsarcosine (NLS) served as a corrosion inhibitor, and linseed oil (LO) as a carrier-forming component. LO is compatible with this copolymer and can impart to the coating self-healing properties. For the evaluation of the protective performance, three types of coatings were compared. In the first two, NLS was introduced in the coating formulation in the forms of free powder and micro-containers filled with LO, correspondingly...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409642/protic-ionic-liquids-for-the-belousov-zhabotinsky-reaction-aspects-of-the-bz-reaction-in-protic-ionic-liquids-and-its-use-for-the-autonomous-coil-globule-oscillation-of-a-linear-polymer
#5
Takeshi Ueki, Ko Matsukawa, Tsukuru Masuda, Ryo Yoshida
Herein, we describe physicochemical aspects of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction in hydrated protic ionic liquids (PILs) combined with different cations with a hydrogen sulfate ([HSO4(-)]) anion. PILs were prepared from sulfuric acid neutralization reactions with 13 different aliphatic amines. The amine structure was selected to investigate the effect of the number of active protons, alkyl chain length (hydrophilicity), and cationic linearity on the BZ mechanism. The pKa values of PILs were significantly higher (pKa = 0...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408459/epcr-expression-marks-um171-expanded-cd34-cord-blood-stem-cells
#6
Iman Fares, Jalila Chagraoui, Bernhard Lehnertz, Tara MacRae, Nadine Mayotte, Elisa Tomellini, Léo Aubert, Philippe P Roux, Guy Sauvageau
A small subset of human cord blood CD34(+) cells express endothelial protein c receptor (EPCR/CD201/PROCR) when exposed to hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal agonist UM171. Here we show that EPCR-positive UM171-treated cells, as opposed to EPCR-negative cells, exhibit robust multi-lineage repopulation and serial reconstitution ability in immunocompromised mice. In contrast to other stem cell markers such as CD38, EPCR expression is maintained when cells are introduced in culture, irrespective of UM171 treatment...
April 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408395/high-throughput-low-loss-low-cost-and-label-free-cell-separation-using-electrophysiology-activated-cell-enrichment
#7
Shabnam A Faraghat, Kai F Hoettges, Max K Steinbach, Daan R van der Veen, William J Brackenbury, Erin A Henslee, Fatima H Labeed, Michael P Hughes
Currently, cell separation occurs almost exclusively by density gradient methods and by fluorescence- and magnetic-activated cell sorting (FACS/MACS). These variously suffer from lack of specificity, high cell loss, use of labels, and high capital/operating cost. We present a dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based cell-separation method, using 3D electrodes on a low-cost disposable chip; one cell type is allowed to pass through the chip whereas the other is retained and subsequently recovered. The method advances usability and throughput of DEP separation by orders of magnitude in throughput, efficiency, purity, recovery (cells arriving in the correct output fraction), cell losses (those which are unaccounted for at the end of the separation), and cost...
April 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406017/templated-self-assembly-of-a-covalent-polymer-network-for-intracellular-protein-delivery-and-traceless-release
#8
Kingshuk Dutta, Ding Hu, Bo Zhao, Alexander E Ribbe, Jiaming Zhuang, S Thayumanavan
Trafficking proteins inside cells is an emerging field with potential utility in basic cell biology and biological therapeutics. A robust and sustainable delivery strategy demands not only good protection of the cargo but also reversibility in conjugation and activity. We report a protein-templated polymer self-assembly strategy for forming a sheath around the proteins and then tracelessly releasing them in the cytosol. The versatility of the approach, demonstrated here, suggests that the strategy is compatible with a wide array of biologics...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392386/phosphoprotein-chitosan-electrospun-nanofibrous-scaffold-for-biomineralization
#9
Hongshan Liang, Feng Sheng, Bin Zhou, Yaqiong Pei, Bin Li, Jing Li
In this study, negatively charged phosvitin (PV) and positively charged chitosan (CS) were alternately deposited on negatively charged cellulose mats via layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique. Morphologies of the LBL films coating mats were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Afterwards, in vitro biomimetic mineralization was carried out through incubation of the fibrous mats in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for different time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the morphology and structure of the deposited mineral phase on the scaffolds...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385238/self-crosslinking-and-injectable-hyaluronic-acid-rgd-functionalized-pectin-hydrogel-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#10
Feng Chen, Yunzhou Ni, Bing Liu, Tongtong Zhou, Chunyang Yu, Yue Su, Xinyuan Zhu, Xiaowei Yu, Yongfeng Zhou
In the present study, we developed a biomimetic injectable hydrogel system based on hyaluronic acid-adipic dihydrazide and the oligopeptide G4RGDS-grafted oxidized pectin, in which their hydrazide and aldehyde-derivatives enable covalent hydrazone crosslinking of polysaccharides. The hydrazone crosslinking strategy is simple, while circumventing toxicity, making this injectable system feasible, minimally invasive and easily translatable for regenerative purposes. By varying their weight ratios, the physicochemical properties of the mechanically stable hydrogel system were easily adjustable...
June 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384937/attitude-of-reproductive-healthcare-providers-to-prenatal-diagnosis-in-a-low-resource-nigerian-setting
#11
Leonard Ogbonna Ajah, Silas Alegu Nwali, Christopher Chim Amah, Theophilus Ogochukwu Nwankwo, Lucky Osaheni Lawani, Benjamin Chukwuma Ozumba
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal diagnosis comprises all diagnostic modalities aimed at gaining information about the embryo or fetal wellbeing. It enables antenatal care tailored to the individual need(s) of the fetus. AIM: To determine the knowledge, practice and prospect of prenatal diagnosis among reproductive health care providers in Abakaliki, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which completely filled self-administered semi-structured questionnaires were retrieved from 182 reproductive healthcare providers at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (FETHA)...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382821/biocompatible-shape-memory-blend-for-self-expandable-stents-with-potential-biomedical-applications
#12
Yu Zheng, Ying Li, Xue Hu, Jiabin Shen, Shaoyun Guo
Biocompatible poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC)/polycaprolactone (PCL) shape memory blends were fabricated using melt blending. The shape memory performance of these blends was found to depend remarkably on their components. On addition of 25 vol % PCL, one blend (PL-25) achieved an optimal shape-fixing ratio (Rf) and -recovery ratio (Rr). Specifically, its Rr considerably increased by 24.1 and 50.0% compared with those of pure PPC and PCL, respectively, because of the restricted irreversible deformation of the amorphous chains cross-linked by tiny crystals...
April 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382619/self-compatibility-is-over-represented-on-islands
#13
Dena L Grossenbacher, Yaniv Brandvain, Josh R Auld, Martin Burd, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou, Jeffrey K Conner, Alannie G Grant, Stephen M Hovick, John R Pannell, Anton Pauw, Theodora Petanidou, April M Randle, Rafael Rubio de Casas, Jana Vamosi, Alice Winn, Boris Igic, Jeremiah W Busch, Susan Kalisz, Emma E Goldberg
Because establishing a new population often depends critically on finding mates, individuals capable of uniparental reproduction may have a colonization advantage. Accordingly, there should be an over-representation of colonizing species in which individuals can reproduce without a mate, particularly in isolated locales such as oceanic islands. Despite the intuitive appeal of this colonization filter hypothesis (known as Baker's law), more than six decades of analyses have yielded mixed findings. We assembled a dataset of island and mainland plant breeding systems, focusing on the presence or absence of self-incompatibility...
April 6, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379456/patterns-of-polymorphism-at-the-self-incompatibility-locus-in-1-083-arabidopsis-thaliana-genomes
#14
Takashi Tsuchimatsu, Pauline M Goubet, Sophie Gallina, Anne-Catherine Holl, Isabelle Fobis-Loisy, Hélène Bergès, William Marande, Elisa Prat, Dazhe Meng, Quan Long, Alexander Platzer, Magnus Nordborg, Xavier Vekemans, Vincent Castric
Although the transition to selfing in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana involved the loss of the self-incompatibility (SI) system, it clearly did not occur due to the fixation of a single inactivating mutation at the locus determining the specificities of SI (the S-locus). At least three groups of divergent haplotypes (haplogroups), corresponding to ancient functional S-alleles, have been maintained at this locus, and extensive functional studies have shown that all three carry distinct inactivating mutations...
April 4, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377799/electronic-tuning-of-self-healing-fluorophores-for-live-cell-and-single-molecule-imaging
#15
Qinsi Zheng, Steffen Jockusch, Zhou Zhou, Roger B Altman, Hong Zhao, Wesley Asher, Michael Holsey, Signe Mathiasen, Peter Geggier, Jonathan A Javitch, Scott C Blanchard
Bright, long-lasting organic fluorophores enable a broad range of imaging applications. "Self-healing" fluorophores, in which intra-molecularly linked protective agents quench photo-induced reactive species, exhibit both enhanced photostability and biological compatibility. However, the self-healing strategy has yet to achieve its predicted potential, particularly in the presence of ambient oxygen where live-cell imaging studies must often be performed. To identify key bottlenecks in this technology that can be used to guide further engineering developments, we synthesized a series of Cy5 derivatives linked to the protective agent cyclooctatetraene (COT) and examined the photophysical mechanisms curtailing their performance...
January 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375600/low-hysteresis-carbon-nanotube-transistors-constructed-via-a-general-dry-laminating-encapsulation-method-on-diverse-surfaces
#16
Yi Yang, Zhongwu Wang, Zeyang Xu, Kunjie Wu, Xiaoqin Yu, Xiaosong Chen, Yancheng Meng, Hongwei Li, Song Qiu, Hehua Jin, Liqiang Li, Qingwen Li
Electrical hysteresis in carbon nanotube thin-film transistor (CNTTFT) due to surface adsorption of H2O/O2 is a severe obstacle for practical applications. The conventional encapsulation methods based on vacuum-deposited inorganic materials or wet-coated organic materials have some limitations. In this work, we develop a general and highly efficient dry-laminating encapsulation method to reduce the hysteresis of CNTTFTs, which may simultaneously realize the construction and encapsulation of CNTTFT. Furthermore, by virtue of dry procedure and wide compatibility of PMMA, this method is suitable for the construction of CNTTFT on diverse surface including both inorganic and organic dielectric materials...
April 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374684/thermal-scanning-probe-lithography-for-the-directed-self-assembly-of-block-copolymers
#17
S Gottlieb, M Lorenzoni, L Evangelio, M Fernández-Regúlez, Y K Ryu, C Rawlings, M Spieser, A W Knoll, F Perez-Murano
Thermal scanning probe lithography (t-SPL) is applied to the fabrication of chemical guiding patterns for directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP). The two key steps of the overall process are the accurate patterning of a poly(phthalaldehyde) resist layer of only 3.5 nm thickness, and the subsequent oxygen-plasma functionalization of an underlying neutral poly(styrene-random-methyl methacrylate) brush layer. We demonstrate that this method allows one to obtain aligned line/space patterns of poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) BCP of 18...
April 28, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374681/a-reliable-and-controllable-graphene-doping-method-compatible-with-current-cmos-technology-and-the-demonstration-of-its-device-applications
#18
Seonyeong Kim, Somyeong Shin, Taekwang Kim, Hyewon Du, Minho Song, Ki Soo Kim, Seungmin Cho, Sang Wook Lee, Sunae Seo
The modulation of charge carrier concentration allows us to tune the Fermi level (E F) of graphene thanks to the low electronic density of states near the E F. The introduced metal oxide thin films as well as the modified transfer process can elaborately maneuver the amounts of charge carrier concentration in graphene. The self-encapsulation provides a solution to overcome the stability issues of metal oxide hole dopants. We have manipulated systematic graphene p-n junction structures for electronic or photonic application-compatible doping methods with current semiconducting process technology...
April 28, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365650/advancements-in-pacemaker-technology-the-leadless-device
#19
Mary Leier
Leadless pacemakers will most likely be the future of cardiac pacing. Leadless pacing employs a single-chamber system to pace only the right ventricle and is fully self-contained, which eliminates the need for leads. These systems, implanted by using a transcatheter sheath, are indicated for patients who need right ventricular pacing only. These devices enable patients to avoid lead-related complications, from lead fracture to extraction challenges, as well as pocket-related complications such as infection and disfigurement...
April 2017: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364502/altered-cd8-t-cell-lymphocyte-function-and-tc1-cell-stemness-contribute-to-enhanced-malignant-tumor-properties-in-murine-models-of-sleep-apnea
#20
Mahzad Akbarpour, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Zhuanghong Qiao, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Isaac Almendros, Ramon Farré, David Gozal
Study Objective: The presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with cancer appears to be accompanied by poorer outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying such association are unknown. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), including CD8+ T cells, function as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and mount immune responses to cancer by the release of cytolytic enzymes, including granzyme B (GzmB), perforin (Prf), and cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-γ. Methods: Using established in vivo mouse models, we investigated CD8+ T cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs) in intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sleep fragmentation (SF) in the context of tumor environment...
February 1, 2017: Sleep
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