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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232573/radioprotective-effects-of-silymarin-on-the-sperm-parameters-of-nmri-mice-irradiated-with-%C3%AE-rays
#1
Daryoush Fatehi, Mohsen Mohammadi, Babak Shekarchi, Arash Shabani, Mohammad Seify, Ayoob Rostamzadeh
Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated using various endogenous systems or from external sources such as exposure to different physiochemicals. Ionizing radiation damage to the cell can be caused by the direct or indirect effects of radiotherapy processes. Silymarin (SM), a flavanolignan compound, has been identified as a natural potent antioxidant with cytoprotection activities due to scavenging free radicals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of SM on sperm parameters of mice induced by γ-rays...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232556/mst4-phosphorylation-of-atg4b-regulates-autophagic-activity-tumorigenicity-and-radioresistance-in-glioblastoma
#2
Tianzhi Huang, Chung Kwon Kim, Angel A Alvarez, Rajendra P Pangeni, Xuechao Wan, Xiao Song, Taiping Shi, Yongyong Yang, Namratha Sastry, Craig M Horbinski, Songjian Lu, Roger Stupp, John A Kessler, Ryo Nishikawa, Ichiro Nakano, Erik P Sulman, Xinghua Lu, Charles David James, Xiao-Ming Yin, Bo Hu, Shi-Yuan Cheng
ATG4B stimulates autophagy by promoting autophagosome formation through reversible modification of ATG8. We identify ATG4B as a substrate of mammalian sterile20-like kinase (STK) 26/MST4. MST4 phosphorylates ATG4B at serine residue 383, which stimulates ATG4B activity and increases autophagic flux. Inhibition of MST4 or ATG4B activities using genetic approaches or an inhibitor of ATG4B suppresses autophagy and the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma (GBM) cells. Furthermore, radiation induces MST4 expression, ATG4B phosphorylation, and autophagy...
December 11, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232380/inhibition-of-grp78-abrogates-radioresistance-in-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-after-egfr-inhibition-by-cetuximab
#3
Chaonan Sun, Chuyang Han, Yuanjun Jiang, Ning Han, Miao Zhang, Guang Li, Qiao Qiao
The EGFR-specific mAb cetuximab is one of the most effective treatments for oropharyngeal carcinoma, while patient responses to EGFR inhibitors given alone are modest. Combination treatment with radiation can improve the efficacy of treatment through increasing radiosensitivity, while resistance to radiation after administration of cetuximab limits its efficiency. Radiation and drugs can damage the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostatic state and result in ER stress (ERS), subsequently causing resistance to radiation and drugs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232278/low-dose-oxygen-therapy-in-copd-patients-are-there-any-radiation-like-risks
#4
Vivek N Iyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Low-dose oxygen (LDO) supplementation is used by millions of COPD patients worldwide. The therapeutic benefits of LDO supplementation are well known. There are also several concerns regarding the potential for cellular harm from LDO in COPD patients. This review summarizes the current arguments and evidence pertaining to this important topic. RECENT FINDINGS: LDO therapy has been used in COPD patients for more than 50 years. Over the years, data from randomized controlled trials has confirmed that LDO provides survival benefit in COPD patients with severe hypoxemia...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232247/salivary-gland-activity-obscures-mandibular-metastasis-of-prostate-carcinoma-on-68ga-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-pet
#5
Thabo Lengana, Ismaheel Lawal, Tebatso Boshomane, Kehinde Ololade, Florette Reyneke, Chimbabantiu Kaoma, Neo Mokgoro, Mariza Vorster, Mike Sathekge
We report a case of a 65-year-old man with prostate cancer; his treatment history included radical prostatectomy followed by radiation therapy and subsequent androgen deprivation therapy for more than 5 years. He currently presented with a history of rising prostate-specific antigen and complained of jaw aches. Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT study performed for suspected biochemical recurrence demonstrated vertebral lesions and lesion in his jaw. Subsequent biopsy of jaw lesion demonstrated prostate cancer metastases...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232188/cerebral-germinoma-revealed-through-a-polydipsic-polyuric-syndrome-in-a-10-year-old-girl-case-report
#6
Lierde Van, P Clapuyt, M C Nassogne, Philippe Oriot
Cerebral germinoma is rare. Although the imaging of the germinoma is very evocative, it's very polymorphic clinical expression is at the origin of misguided diagnosis, as illustrated in our case. We report the case of a 10-year-old girl with diabetes insipidus evolving for 12 months associated with a decrease in visual acuity. Brain MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) revealed a tumor process in the suprasellar region. The stereotaxic biopsy of the tumor confirmed the diagnosis of the hypothalamic germinoma, which allowed the patient to be treated by radiotherapy and chemotherapy...
October 26, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231966/the-role-of-postmastectomy-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-stage-ii-breast-cancer
#7
Nisha Ohri, Bruce G Haffty, Thomas A Buchholz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231964/travel-distance-and-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-localized-prostate-cancer
#8
Brandon A Mahal, Yu-Wei Chen, Roshan V Sethi, Oscar A Padilla, David D Yang, Janice Chavez, Vinayak Muralidhar, Jim C Hu, Felix Y Feng, Karen E Hoffman, Neil E Martin, Daniel E Spratt, James B Yu, Peter F Orio, Paul L Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Definitive stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) represents an emerging and debated treatment option for patients with prostate cancer, with potential economic savings and reports of short-term efficacy since 2006. The current study sought to define national trends in definitive prostate SBRT use and determine whether patterns vary by travel distance for treatment. METHODS: The National Cancer Data Base identified 181,544 men with localized prostate cancer who were treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy from 2004 through 2012...
December 12, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231918/-systemic-treatment-of-early-breast-cancer-current-state-of-knowledge-after-the-conference-st-gallen-2017
#9
REVIEW
Tomasz Sarosiek
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women around the globe. It is also the world's first cause of female deaths from cancer. With the introduction of screening programs in most developed countries, more and more cases of this cancer are diagnosed at local or localized stages, enabling radical treatment to be successful. At the same time, systemic treatment of early breast cancer is one of the most complex issues in clinical oncology. Because of the many prognostic factors that need to be taken into account when considering eligibility for treatment such as age, reproductive status (before or after menopause), type of cancer and severity of the disease, it is impossible to establish clear standards of conduct for many clinical situations...
November 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231149/radiopharmaceuticals-labelled-with-copper-radionuclides-clinical-results-in-human-beings
#10
Giulia Anna Follacchio, Maria Silvia De Feo, Francesco Monteleone, Giuseppe De Vincentis, Mauro Liberatore
Positron emission tomography (PET) is an instrumental diagnostic modality based on the representation (by images or numeric parameters) of the spatial and temporal distribution of molecules labelled with positron-emitting radionuclides. PET makes it possible to study biochemical processes underlying the function of several organs, providing information otherwise achievable only with bioptic assessment. PET has been developed around the positron-emitting radioisotopes of biologically important elements such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen (11C, 15O, 13N), which enable PET imaging to identify the biodistribution of a wide range of small molecules...
December 11, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231070/building-the-ontario-surgical-oncology-program
#11
Terrence Sullivan, Jonathan Irish
From the 1940s onward the establishment of an increasing number of cancer centres in Ontario concentrated predominantly on radiation and systemic therapy. Increasing attention to the organization of cancer surgery services in Ontario over the last 3 decades through measures led by Cancer Care Ontario has resulted in building a progressive provincial and regional surgical oncology network. These networks are rooted in leadership mobilization and have used quality data and best evidence to promote the elaboration of communities of practice to achieve better outcomes...
January 1, 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230678/fractal-based-radiomic-approach-to-predict-complete-pathological-response-after-chemo-radiotherapy-in-rectal-cancer
#12
Davide Cusumano, Nicola Dinapoli, Luca Boldrini, Giuditta Chiloiro, Roberto Gatta, Carlotta Masciocchi, Jacopo Lenkowicz, Calogero Casà, Andrea Damiani, Luigi Azario, Johan Van Soest, Andre Dekker, Philippe Lambin, Marco De Spirito, Vincenzo Valentini
The aim of this study was to propose a methodology to investigate the tumour heterogeneity and evaluate its ability to predict pathologically complete response (pCR) after chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). This approach consisted in normalising the pixel intensities of the tumour and identifying the different sub-regions using an intensity-based thresholding. The spatial organisation of these subpopulations was quantified using the fractal dimension (FD). This approach was implemented in a radiomic workflow and applied to 198 T2-weighted pre-treatment magnetic resonance (MR) images of LARC patients...
December 11, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230548/quality-of-life-of-patients-with-locally-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer-treated-with-induction-chemotherapy-followed-by-cisplatin-containing-chemoradiotherapy-in-the-dutch-condor-study-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Chantal M L Driessen, Johannes M M Groenewoud, Jan Paul de Boer, Hans Gelderblom, Winette T A van der Graaf, Judith B Prins, Johannes H A M Kaanders, Carla M L van Herpen
PURPOSE: The CONDOR study showed that docetaxel/cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (TPF) followed by conventional radiotherapy with cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on days 1, 22, and 43 (cis100 + RT; n = 27)) versus accelerated radiotherapy with cisplatin weekly 40 mg/m2 (cis40 + ART; n = 29) in locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) patients was not feasible. Here, we report the analysis of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the patients entered in this study. METHODS: HRQOL was assessed at baseline, after two TPF, before start of chemoradiotherapy, and 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 months after completion of chemoradiotherapy using the EORTC-QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 in 62 patients...
December 11, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230488/surgical-treatment-of-compressive-spinal-hemangioma-a%C3%A2-case-series-of-three-patients-and-literature-review
#14
Yun-Lin Chen, Xu-Dong Hu, Nan-Jian Xu, Wei-Yu Jiang, Wei-Hu Ma
PURPOSE: In this article we describe the treatment of compressive vertebral hemangioma. METHODS: Our case series comprised three patients with aggressive hemangioma. We performed a combination of posterior decompression and vertebroplasty for the two patients with a sacral hemangioma and a thoracic hemangioma, and en bloc resection for the third patient, who also had a thoracic lesion. RESULTS: Surgical intervention is indicated in cases of rapidly progressive tumors or severe myelopathy...
December 11, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230383/solitary-extramedullary-plasmacytoma-of-the-cricoid-cartilage-case-report
#15
Simone Krebs, Ian Ganly, Ronald Ghossein, Joanna Yang, Joachim Yahalom, Heiko Schöder
Solitary plasmacytoma (SP) is an extremely rare form of hematologic malignancy that can be classified as solitary bone plasmacytoma or solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma. Here, we report a patient who presented with progressive shortness of breath and foreign body sensation in his throat. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) demonstrated an abnormal FDG-avid soft tissue mass arising from the larynx involving the cricoid cartilage without additional suspicious lesions...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230133/invasive-insular-thyroid-carcinoma-presenting-as-nonparalytic-dysphonia
#16
Blake S Raggio, Blair M Barton, Maria C Grant, Judith A Fornadley, Jeffrey P Marino
Background: Patients with suspected thyroid malignancy often undergo preoperative laryngeal examination with a focus on vocal fold mobility. We present the unique case of a patient with invasive thyroid carcinoma who presented with dysphonia despite intact vocal fold motion. Case Report: A 73-year-old female with a remote thyroid lobectomy presented with dysphonia. Thyroid ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration revealed a 1.1-cm nodule consistent with a colloid cyst...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230127/intraarterial-liver-directed-therapies-the-role-of-interventional-oncology
#17
REVIEW
Jenson Ma, Juan Martin Gimenez, Tyler Sandow, Daniel Devun, David Kirsch, Paul Gulotta, Patrick Gilbert, Dennis Kay
Background: Since the early 1990s, the minimally invasive image-guided therapies used in interventional oncology to treat hepatocellular carcinoma have continued to evolve. Additionally, the range of applications has been expanded to the treatment of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer, neuroendocrine tumors, cholangiocarcinoma, breast cancer, melanoma, and sarcoma. Methods: We searched the literature to identify publications from 1990 to the present on various image-guided intraarterial therapies and their efficacy, as well as their role in the management of primary and secondary liver malignancies...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230121/leptomeningeal-disease-and-the-evolving-role-of-molecular-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Katharine Hall Thomas, Robert A Ramirez
Background: Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is a complication that results from solid tumor metastasis. Prognosis is extremely poor. As therapeutic options for solid tumors improve, the rate of LMD continues to increase. Until recently, treatment has been limited to radiation therapy, intrathecal chemotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy, with an overall survival of 2-3 months. Targeted molecular therapy and immunotherapies are promising new options for increasing overall survival and clinical improvement; however, optimal clinical management remains unknown...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230093/tld-and-osld-dosimetry-systems-for-remote-audits-of-radiotherapy-external-beam-calibration
#19
P Alvarez, S F Kry, F Stingo, D Followill
The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core QA Center in Houston (IROC-H) performs remote dosimetry audits of more than 20,000 megavoltage photon and electron beams each year. Both a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD-100) and optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD; nanoDot) system are commissioned for this task, with the OSLD system being predominant due to the more time-efficient read-out process. The measurement apparatus includes 3 TLD or 2 OSLD in an acrylic mini-phantom, which are irradiated by the institution under reference geometry...
November 2017: Radiation Measurements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230065/the-toll-like-receptor-2-6-agonist-fsl-1-lipopeptide-therapeutically-mitigates-acute-radiation-syndrome
#20
Cathryn J Kurkjian, Hao Guo, Nathan D Montgomery, Ning Cheng, Hong Yuan, Joseph R Merrill, Gregory D Sempowski, W June Brickey, Jenny P-Y Ting
Risks of radiation exposure from nuclear incidents and cancer radiotherapy are undeniable realities. These dangers urgently compel the development of agents for ameliorating radiation-induced injuries. Biologic pathways mediated by myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), the common adaptor for toll-like receptor (TLR) and Interleukin-1 receptor signaling, are critical for radioprotection. Treating with agonists prior to radiation enhances survival by activating TLR signaling, whereas radiomitigating TLR-activating therapeutics given after exposure are less defined...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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