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Radiotherapy OR (radiation therapy)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107697/egcg-a-tea-polyphenol-as-a-potential-mitigator-of-hematopoietic-radiation-injury-in-mice
#1
Mrinalini Tiwari, Bhakti Dixit, Suhel Parvez, Paban K Agrawala
Agents capable of providing protection, mitigation or therapy against radiation injuries have long been of interest of radiation biologists owing to the ever expanding application of radiation in our day to day life despite the well reported ill effects of exposure. The current study investigates radiomitigating potential of EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate), a tea polyphenol with known DNMT inhibitory property, in C57 Bl/6 mice model. Treatment with 0.1833mg/kg body weight EGCG, 1.5h post-irradiation to lethally whole body irradiated mice rendered 45% survival for 30days and also helped restoring the body weight of the animals...
January 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107696/a-mini-review-of-c-met-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-melanoma
#2
REVIEW
Doa'a G F Al-U'datt, Belal A A Al-Husein, Ghazi Raji Qasaimeh
Melanoma is the third highest rated cancer in prevalence. Surgery, radiotherapy and targeted/biological therapies in addition to chemotherapy are available options for management of this cancer. Met is an appealing target for management of this type of cancer, since it targets many cancer vital processors, such as angiogenesis, cell growth, scattering and differentiation. In this review, we provide an overview about pathway abnormalities associated with melanoma. We also provide a summary about the events involved in Met signaling and related signaling molecules...
January 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107554/inclusion-of-a-variable-rbe-into-proton-and-photon-plan-comparison-for-various-fractionation-schedules-in-prostate-radiation-therapy
#3
Jakob Ödén, Kjell Eriksson, Iuliana Toma-Dasu
PURPOSE: A constant relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 is currently used in proton radiation therapy to account for the increased biological effectiveness compared to photon therapy. However, there is increasing evidence that proton RBE vary with the linear energy transfer (LET), the dose per fraction and the type of the tissue. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the impact of disregarding variations in RBE when comparing proton and photon dose plans for prostate treatments for various fractionation schedules using published RBE models and several α/β assumptions...
January 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107334/distress-during-radiation-therapy-assessment-among-patients-with-breast-or-prostate-cancer%C3%A2
#4
Stephen J Stapleton, Teresa D Valerio, Kim Astroth, Shermian Woodhouse
BACKGROUND: Distress is regarded as the sixth vital sign in cancer care, but few studies describe distress in patients undergoing radiation therapy. 
. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess distress levels among patients with breast or prostate cancer undergoing radiation therapy and investigate which problems contribute to patients' distress levels. 
. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was conducted for 217 patients with breast or prostate cancer at a midwestern community cancer center...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107324/symptom-burden-experiences-of-puerto-rican-men-with-prostate-cancer-prior-to-external-beam-radiation-therapy
#5
Velda J Gonzalez, Susan C McMillan, Maureen Groer, Segundo Imbert, Elsa Pedro
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men in Puerto Rico, and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is a popular treatment. Although symptom management is a clinical priority of comprehensive oncology care, symptom assessment at the time of primary or adjuvant EBRT has received limited attention. OBJECTIVES: This article examines the prevalence and severity of symptoms experienced by 54 Puerto Rican men prior to EBRT. METHODS: Participants completed a demographic form and the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107259/paget-s-disease-of-the-vulva-a-review-of-20-years-experience
#6
Raghava Parashurama, Vivek Nama, Richard Hutson
BACKGROUND: Extramammary Paget's disease is a rare condition, and the vulva is a common site for it to occur. Despite this, there is a paucity of literature on Paget's disease of the vulva (VPD). A Cochrane meta-analysis could not draw any conclusions on interventions in VPD. Our aim was to review our practice and improve further management of VPD in our center. METHODS: We reviewed all the cases presented to Leeds Gynaecological Oncology Centre between 1988 and 2016...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107239/management-of-pharyngeal-fistulas-after-anterior-cervical-spine-surgery-a-treatment-algorithm-for-severe-complications
#7
Christian Simon, Carl H Fürstenberg, Markus Eichler, Stefan Rohde, Cem Bulut, Bernd Wiedenhöfer
STUDY DESIGN: This study is a retrospective database query to identify all anterior spinal approaches. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to assess all patients with pharyngocutaneous fistulas (PCFs) after anterior cervical spine surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Patients with the diagnosis of PCFs were treated at the University of Heidelberg Spine Medical Center, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and Department of Otolaryngology (Germany), between 2005 and 2011...
February 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106829/advances-in-monitoring-cell-based-therapies-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging-future-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Ethel J Ngen, Dmitri Artemov
Cell-based therapies are currently being developed for applications in both regenerative medicine and in oncology. Preclinical, translational, and clinical research on cell-based therapies will benefit tremendously from novel imaging approaches that enable the effective monitoring of the delivery, survival, migration, biodistribution, and integration of transplanted cells. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers several advantages over other imaging modalities for elucidating the fate of transplanted cells both preclinically and clinically...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106661/swallowing-after-transoral-surgery-for-oropharyngeal-cancer-comparison-with-primary-chemoradiotherapy-outcomes
#9
Nicholas Dawe, James O'Hara
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Survival equipoise is recognized between the contemporary surgical and oncological approaches to oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treatment. Primary transoral surgery (TOS) options have emerged that utilize either laser or robotic techniques. Our review presents an overview of the evidence available for swallowing outcomes following TOS approaches and compares these with outcomes following primary oncological management. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analysis of swallow outcomes following TOS or (chemo)radiotherapy is not possible given the heterogeneity of the available data...
January 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106659/adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-evaluation-and-management-progress-with-optimism
#10
Patrick J Bradley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) when diagnosed presents several diagnostic and treatment challenges. The standard treatment of surgery and postoperative radiotherapy has remained the standard of care for the past 3 decades. The purpose of this review is to update what's been reported and what's new since the last review in 2004. RECENT FINDINGS: As accurate a histological diagnosis and staging of disease should be achieved prior to commencing any treatment...
January 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106658/transoral-surgery-vs-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-for-early-supraglottic-cancer-a-systematic-review
#11
Mark S Swanson, Garren Low, Uttam K Sinha, Niels Kokot
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide clinicians with a critical review of outcomes for endolaryngeal surgery and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for early-stage supraglottic cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of 971 potential articles were reviewed, with inclusion of 14 studies comparing IMRT with transoral surgery. One study analyzed IMRT, one transoral robotic surgery, and the remaining were transoral laser microsurgery studies. A weighted average and 95% confidence interval of all surgery patients showed a local control of 90...
January 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106655/transurethral-polyacrylamide-hydrogel-injection-therapy-in-women-not-eligible-for-midurethral-sling-surgery
#12
Daniel Altman, Francesca Ghilotti, Rino Bellocco, Jan Zetterström, Helena Kopp Kallner
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the effects of transurethral polyacrylamide hydrogel injection in patients considered ineligible for midurethral sling surgery. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 81 patients received treatment with transurethral polyacrylamide hydrogel injection. Patients were considered ineligible for placement of a midurethral sling based on significant comorbidity (48%), 1 or more previously failed invasive treatments (16%), mixed urinary incontinence (27%), continuous incontinence (5%), or previous pelvic radiation therapy (4%)...
January 18, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106615/metal-artifact-reduction-in-x-ray-computed-tomography-using-computer-aided-design-data-of-implants-as-prior-information
#13
Veikko Ruth, Daniel Kolditz, Christian Steiding, Willi A Kalender
OBJECTIVES: The performance of metal artifact reduction (MAR) methods in x-ray computed tomography (CT) suffers from incorrect identification of metallic implants in the artifact-affected volumetric images. The aim of this study was to investigate potential improvements of state-of-the-art MAR methods by using prior information on geometry and material of the implant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The influence of a novel prior knowledge-based segmentation (PS) compared with threshold-based segmentation (TS) on 2 MAR methods (linear interpolation [LI] and normalized-MAR [NORMAR]) was investigated...
January 18, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106545/the-alterations-of-serum-fgf-21-levels-metabolic-and-body-composition-in-early-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy
#14
Murat Akyol, Ahmet Alacacioglu, Leyla Demir, Yuksel Kucukzeybek, Yasar Yildiz, Zehra Gumus, Mete Kara, Tarik Salman, Umut Varol, Halil Taskaynatan, Utku Oflazoglu, Vedat Bayoglu, Mustafa Oktay Tarhan
BACKGROUND: In early breast cancer patients, the effects of hormonal therapy (tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors) on plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), lipid levels and body composition have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the relationship between FGF-21 and body composition as well as the effects of tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors on plasma lipid levels, FGF-21, and body composition. METHODS: A total of 72 patients were treated with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors due to their menopausal status after adjuvant radiotherapy...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106495/comparison-of-prognostic-indices-in-patients-who-undergo-melanoma-brain-metastasis-radiosurgery
#15
Hideyuki Kano, Alejandro Morales-Restrepo, Aditya Iyer, Gregory M Weiner, Seyed H Mousavi, John M Kirkwood, Ahmad A Tarhini, John C Flickinger, L Dade Lunsford
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to use 4 prognostic indices to compare survival times of patients who underwent Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to treat melanoma brain metastases. METHODS The authors analyzed 422 consecutive patients (1440 brain metastases) who underwent Gamma Knife SRS. The median total brain tumor volume was 4.7 cm(3) (range 0.3-69.3 cm(3)), and the median number of metastases was 2 (range 1-32). One hundred thirty-two patients underwent whole-brain radiation therapy. Survival times were compared using recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), the Score Index for Radiosurgery (SIR), the Basic Score for Brain Metastases (BSBM), and the Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA)...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105886/interobserver-delineation-uncertainty-in-involved-node-radiation-therapy-inrt-for-early-stage-hodgkin-lymphoma-on-behalf-of-the-radiotherapy-committee-of-the-eortc-lymphoma-group
#16
Marianne C Aznar, Theodore Girinsky, Anne Kiil Berthelsen, Berthe Aleman, Max Beijert, Martin Hutchings, Yolande Lievens, Paul Meijnders, Peter Meidahl Petersen, Deborah Schut, Maja V Maraldo, Richard van der Maazen, Lena Specht
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) the target volume nowadays consists of the volume of the originally involved nodes. Delineation of this volume on a post-chemotherapy CT-scan is challenging. We report on the interobserver variability in target volume definition and its impact on resulting treatment plans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two representative cases were selected (1: male, stage IB, localization: left axilla; 2: female, stage IIB, localizations: mediastinum and bilateral neck)...
January 20, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105873/loco-regional-morbidity-after-breast-conservation-and-axillary-lymph-node-dissection-for-early-breast-cancer-with-or-without-regional-nodes-radiotherapy-perspectives-in-modern-breast-cancer-treatment-the-skagen-trial-1-is-active
#17
Hanne Melgaard Nielsen, Rasmus Blechingberg Friis, Søren Linnet, Birgitte Vrou Offersen
BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in early breast cancer are associated with a risk of morbidity, including lymphedema and impaired shoulder mobility. The aim of this study was to evaluate loco-regional morbidity after breast conserving surgery (BCS), ALND, taxane-based chemotherapy and whole breast irradiation (WBI) with or without regional nodes RT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eligible patients had BCS and ALND from 2007 to 2012 followed by adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy and if indicated, trastuzumab and endocrine treatment...
January 20, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105627/-progression-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-primary-malignant-small-bowel-tumor
#18
Zhixun Zhao, Xu Guan, Yinggang Chen, Xishan Wang
Primary malignant small bowel tumor as a rare kind of intestinal tumor is associated with a poor prognosis. The pathological types were various and complicated, such as adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumor, malignant lymphoma, and malignant stromal tumor. The atypical early stage symptom resulted in difficult diagnosis at early stage, high misdiagnosis rate and lack of standard therapy schemes and means. In the past, X-ray, CT, MRI, and PET-CT were the main examination methods for primary small bowel tumor...
January 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105611/huge-mediastinal-liposarcoma-resected-by-clamshell-thoracotomy-a-case-report
#19
Michihito Toda, Nobuhiro Izumi, Takuma Tsukioka, Hiroaki Komatsu, Satoshi Okada, Kantaro Hara, Ryuichi Ito, Toshihiko Shibata, Noritoshi Nishiyama
BACKGROUND: Liposarcoma is the single most common soft tissue sarcoma. Because mediastinal liposarcomas often grow rapidly and frequently recur locally despite adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, they require complete excision. Therefore, the feasibility of achieving complete surgical excision must be carefully considered. We here report a case of a huge mediastinal liposarcoma resected via clamshell thoracotomy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old man presented with dyspnea on effort...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105468/simulating-the-effect-of-spectroscopic-mri-as-a-metric-for-radiation-therapy-planning-in-patients-with-glioblastoma
#20
J Scott Cordova, Shravan Kandula, Saumya Gurbani, Jim Zhong, Mital Tejani, Oluwatosin Kayode, Kirtesh Patel, Roshan Prabhu, Eduard Schreibmann, Ian Crocker, Chad A Holder, Hyunsuk Shim, Hui-Kuo Shu
Due to glioblastoma's infiltrative nature, an optimal radiation therapy (RT) plan requires targeting infiltration not identified by anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, high-resolution, whole-brain spectroscopic MRI (sMRI) is used to describe tumor infiltration alongside anatomical MRI and simulate the degree to which it modifies RT target planning. In 11 patients with glioblastoma, data from preRT sMRI scans were processed to give high-resolution, whole-brain metabolite maps normalized by contralateral white matter...
December 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
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