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Broiler breeder

Shelly Popowich, Ashish Gupta, Betty Chow-Lockerbie, Lisanework Ayalew, Neil Ambrose, Davor Ojkic, Thushari Gunawardana, Shanika Kurukulasuriya, Philip Willson, Suresh K Tikoo, Susantha Gomis
Historically, fowl adenovirus (FAdV) associated inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) was considered a secondary disease in broiler chickens associated with immunosuppression. However, we previously reported the occurrence of IBH as a primary disease in the broiler chicken industry in Canada as a result of infections with various FAdV serotypes. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop an immunization strategy in broiler breeders using live FAdV 11-1047 and FAdV8a-TR59 to confer homologous and heterologous protection in broiler progeny against IBH and to study the efficacy of natural exposure of naïve broiler breeders to a vaccine virus from live FAdV vaccinated birds as an immunization technique...
March 5, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Jing Gao, Wei Nie, Fenglai Wang, Yuming Guo
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of maternal selenium supplementation on the skeletal muscle development of the offspring. A total of 720 Ross 308 broiler breeders at 24-week-old were allocated into 3 treatments with 6 replicates of 40 hens each and fed with 0 mg/kg-(group Se/C), 0.5 mg/kg organic-(group Se/O), and 0.5 mg/kg inorganic-(group Se/I) selenium, respectively for 8 weeks. The male offspring from each nutritional treatment were divided and housed into 8 cages of 12 birds each and fed with a commercial diet supplemented with selenium from Na2 SeO3 at 0...
March 9, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Zengpeng Lv, Hao Fan, Beibei Zhang, Chao Ning, Kun Xing, Yuming Guo
Genistein (GEN) is a type of isoflavone mainly derived from soy products. In this experiment, we added 40 and 400 mg/kg GEN to the diet of laying broiler breeder hens to clarify the maternal effects of GEN on the development and metabolism of chick embryos. GEN treatment at 40 mg/kg increased embryonic length, weight, and liver index, as well as the width of the proliferative zone in the tibial growth plate of chick embryos. Gene ontology (GO) cluster analysis of the hepatic transcriptome showed that GEN treatment promoted embryonic development and cell proliferation...
March 8, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
R A van Emous, C E de la Cruz, V D Naranjo
A study with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to determine the effects of 2 dietary crude protein levels, high (CPh) or low (CPl), supplemented with free amino acids (AA), and 2 ages at photo stimulation (PS)-early (21 wk; PSe) or late (23 wk; PSl)-on reproduction traits of broiler breeders and progeny performance. Diets were isocaloric, and calculated CP content of the CPl diets was 15 g/kg lower than the CPh diets during all phases. A total of 480 female and 64 male Ross 308 breeders of 20 wk of age were used...
March 5, 2018: Poultry Science
J Lesuisse, S Schallier, C Li, A Bautil, B Li, J Leblois, J Buyse, N Everaert
Several studies in mammals focused on the maternal programming of the metabolism by epigenetic mechanisms, while currently, the consequences of a maternal dietary treatment on the offspring performance of farm animals are of particular interest for commercial purpose. In the present study, we investigated if the zootechnical performance of the progeny was altered by a maternal dietary treatment, being a lower dietary crude protein (CP) of the grandparent and/or parent generation. The multigenerational effects of a reduced maternal CP content were investigated by reducing the dietary CP level by 25% in rearing and laying diets of pure line A breeders...
March 5, 2018: Poultry Science
K J Meloche, B I Fancher, D A Emmerson, S F Bilgili, W A Dozier
An experiment was conducted to determine if myopathies of the Pectoralis major muscles are influenced by differences in growth trajectory achieved through a controlled feeding program. Male Yield Plus × Ross 708 broiler chicks were placed into 28 pens (25 birds/pen) equipped with plastic slats to prevent coprophagy. All birds received identical starter (1 to 10 d), grower (11 to 32 d), finisher (33 to 42 d), and withdrawal (43 to 50 d) diets that were formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations of the primary breeder...
March 1, 2018: Poultry Science
J Lesuisse, C Li, S Schallier, W L S Clímaco, A Bautil, N Everaert, J Buyse
Studies on mammals and poultry showed that maternal dietary treatments can alter the offspring performance. However, in contrast to rodent studies, little is known about multigenerational dietary manipulations in broiler breeders. The presented research aimed to investigate the effects of a reduction of 25% in the dietary crude protein (CP) level in the F0 generation on the body composition and reproductive performance of F1 broiler breeders. In the F0 generation, breeders were fed either a control (C) or reduced balanced protein (RP) diet, 25% reduction in crude protein and amino acids...
March 1, 2018: Poultry Science
E Babacanoğlu, H C Güler
Hypoxia strongly affects embryonic development during the pre-hatch period. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of oxygen supplementation (O) and a 38.5°C high temperature (HT) at high altitude (HA, 1720 m) on morphological traits during a pre-hatch period and on relative fluctuating asymmetry (relative FA) and allometric growth during an early post-hatch period in broilers. A total of 720 eggs were obtained from a 45-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flock raised at sea level (2 m). The eggs were divided into six incubation condition (IC) groups and were incubated at HA...
March 6, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
K J Meloche, B I Fancher, D A Emmerson, S F Bilgili, W A Dozier
Two experiments (Exp) were conducted to determine if reductions in the incidence and severity of wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) may be obtained by reducing dietary nutrient density. In each Exp, Yield Plus × Ross 708 male broiler chicks were placed into 63 pens (22 birds/pen). All birds received an identical prestarter diet until 7 d of age, after which time each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of the following 7 dietary treatments (TRT) for the starter (8 to 14 d), grower (15 to 24 d), finisher 1 (Exp 1: 26 to 35 d; Exp 2: 26 to 42 d), and withdrawal (Exp 2: 43 to 48 d) phases: 1) 100% of primary breeder recommendations for digestible amino acid and metabolizable energy density throughout Exp; 2) 95% of TRT 1 until 14 d of age, then as TRT 1; 3) 95% of TRT 1 until 24 d of age, then as TRT 1; 4) 95% of TRT 1 throughout Exp; 5) 90% of TRT 1 until 14 d of age, then as TRT 1; 6) 90% of TRT 1 until 24 d of age, then as TRT 1; 7) 90% of TRT 1 throughout Exp...
February 28, 2018: Poultry Science
L L Yu, T Gao, M M Zhao, P A Lv, L Zhang, J L Li, Y Jiang, F Gao, G H Zhou
In ovo feeding (IOF) of l-arginine (Arg) can affect growth performance of broilers, but the response of IOF of Arg on breast muscle growth is unclear, and the mechanism involved in protein deposition remains unknown. Hense, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of IOF of Arg on breast muscle growth and protein-deposited signalling in post-hatch broilers. A total of 720 fertile eggs were collected from 34-week-old Arbor Acres breeder hens and distributed to three treatments: (1) non-injected control group; (2) 7...
February 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Ahmed R Elbestawy, Hany F Ellakany, Hatem S Abd El-Hamid, Ahmed A Bekheet, Nahla E Mataried, Sherif M Nasr, Nadim M Amarin
Gallibacterium anatis biovar haemolytica constitutes a part of the normal microflora in the upper respiratory and genital tracts of healthy chickens, but it is also associated with different pathological conditions. In the current study, 102 commercial chicken flocks suffering from respiratory disease and/or drop in egg production were investigated for the presence of G. anatis during 2013 and 2015. These flocks comprised 8 breeder, 32 layer, and 62 broiler flocks. By culture method, 20 flocks were found positive: one isolate derived from broiler breeders, 6 isolates from layers, and 13 isolates from broilers...
February 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Floyd D Wilson, Deirdre I Johnson, Danny L Magee, Frederic J Hoerr
Testicular histomorphometric methods were developed for the investigation of fertility and hatchability problems in commercial broiler-breeder roosters. Sertoli cell (SC) evaluations were emphasized in view of their role in influencing embryonic testicular organogenesis and spermatogenesis in adults. H&E stained sections prepared from formalized tissues were examined. SC evaluations were mostly made from computer generated images using image analysis software, but were also compared to direct counting with ocular grid reticle...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Xiaoming Sun, Lin Lu, Xiudong Liao, Liyang Zhang, Xi Lin, Xugang Luo, Qiugang Ma
The role of in ovo zinc (Zn) injection in improving the embryonic development in eggs from Zn-deficient hens, via epigenetic and antioxidant mechanisms, was examined. A completely randomized design involving a 1 (the non-injected control) + 1 (the injected control with sterilized water) + 2 (Zn source) × 2 (Zn level) factorial arrangement of treatments was used. The two injected Zn sources were inorganic Zn sulfate and organic Zn-lysine chelate with a moderate chelation strength, and the two injected Zn levels were 50 and 100 μg Zn/egg...
February 9, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Hao Fan, Zengpeng Lv, Liping Gan, Yuming Guo
Daidzein (DA) is an isoflavone that is primarily extracted from soy plants. This study evaluated the effects of supplementing laying broiler breeder hens with dietary DA on the immune function and growth performance of their offspring and the underlying mechanism. A total of 720 breeders were divided into 3 treatment groups that were fed either a control diet (CON), a DA-low-supplemented diet (DLS, CON+20 mg/kg DA) or a DA-high-supplemented diet (DHS, CON+100 mg/kg DA) for 8 weeks, eggs were collected for hatching during the final week...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jong Su Ha, Kwang Won Seo, Yeong Bin Kim, Min Su Kang, Chang-Seon Song, Young Ju Lee
Background: Vertical integration of the broiler industry allows producers to combine different biosecurity and sanitation practices, housing technologies, and feeding regimens to improve food safety. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of Salmonella, to determine the source of Salmonella contaminants, and to reveal the relationships between isolates at each step in the vertically integrated broiler production system in two representative integrated broiler companies in Korea...
2018: Irish Veterinary Journal
Helen Kathleen Crabb, Joanne Lee Allen, Joanne Maree Devlin, Simon Matthew Firestone, Mark Anthony Stevenson, James Rudkin Gilkerson
To better understand factors influencing infectious agent dispersal within a livestock population information is needed on the nature and frequency of contacts between farm enterprises. This study uses social network analysis to describe the contact network within a vertically integrated broiler poultry enterprise to identify the potential horizontal and vertical transmission pathways for Salmonella spp. Nodes (farms, sheds, production facilities) were identified and the daily movement of commodities (eggs, birds, feed, litter) and people between nodes were extracted from routinely kept farm records...
May 2018: Food Microbiology
Namya Mellouk, Christelle Ramé, Maxime Marchand, Christophe Staub, Jean-Luc Touzé, Éric Venturi, Frédéric Mercerand, Angélique Travel, Pascal Chartrin, François Lecompte, Linlin Ma, Pascal Froment, Joëlle Dupont
BACKGROUND: Reproductive hens are subjected to a restricted diet to limit the decline in fertility associated with change in body mass. However, endocrine and tissue responses to diet restriction need to be documented. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of different levels of feed restriction, with or without fish oil supplementation, on metabolic parameters and adipokine levels in plasma and metabolic tissues of reproductive hens. METHODS: We designed an in vivo protocol involving 4 groups of hens; RNS: restricted (Rt) unsupplemented, ANS: ad libitum (Ad, receiving an amount of feed 1...
2018: PloS One
G K Walker, S Jalukar, J Brake
Hatching eggs collected from resident broiler breeders at 48 wk of age were used to produce male and female chicks that were assigned sex separately to 96 new litter pens and fed either a 0 or 50 g/MT RFC (refined functional carbohydrate feed additive derived from yeast) diet. There were 24 replicate pens of 12 broilers each per diet per sex. Feed intake and BW were determined at 14, 28, and 42 d of age. Litter was sampled by pen using sterile socks at 35 d and tested for Salmonella spp. using an enzyme linked fluorescence assay method...
January 18, 2018: Poultry Science
Yulong Li, Xinyu Lei, Wei Guo, Shengru Wu, Yulan Duan, Xin Yang, Xiaojun Yang
To learn the nutri-epigenetics role of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), we designed and studied the transgenerational effect of paternal dietary APS supplementation in chickens. 160 Avein breeder cocks were randomly allocated into 5 groups and fed with 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 g/kg APS supplement, respectively. Sperm of breeder cocks was collected and used for hatching experiment to get broiler chickens when the cocks at 40-weeks-old. It showed that the paternal dietary 10 g/kg APS could transgenerational promote growth performance and jejunal tissue morphology of chickens...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ruwani Karunarathna, Shelly Popowich, Morgan Wawryk, Betty Chow-Lockerbie, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Chenfang Yu, Mengying Liu, Kalhari Goonewardene, Thushari Gunawardana, Shanika Kurukulasuriya, Ashish Gupta, Philip Willson, Neil Ambrose, Musangu Ngeleka, Susantha Gomis
The emergence of enterococcal infections in neonatal broiler chickens in the poultry industry has become common in many countries, including Canada. The objective of this study was to examine the bacterial infections in nonviable broiler chicken embryos in three western Canadian poultry hatcheries using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The pattern of embryo mortality that occurred during incubation and the breakout analysis results were similar in all three hatcheries...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
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