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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788504/physiological-response-of-broiler-embryos-to-different-incubator-temperature-profiles-and-maternal-flock-age-during-incubation-1-embryonic-metabolism-and-day-old-chick-quality
#1
J A Hamidu, C A Torres, M L Johnson-Dahl, D R Korver
Broiler strain, maternal age, and incubation temperature influence embryo metabolism. Hatching eggs were obtained from young (Y; 28 to 34 wk, $\bar{\rm x}$ = 31.2 wk), mid (M; 36 to 45 wk, $\bar{\rm x}$ = 40.5 wk) and old (O; 49 to 54 wk, $\bar{\rm x}$ = 51.4 wk) Ross 708 (n = 88; Experiment 1) and Ross 308 [(n = 45; Experiment 2: (Y; 25 to 34 wk, $\bar{\rm x}$ = 30.5 wk), (M; 35 to 44 wk, $\bar{\rm x}$ = 40.2 wk), and (O; 49 to 54 wk, $\bar{\rm x}$ = 51.6 wk)] breeders. Eggs were stored for 2 to 4 d (18°C, 73% RH), and incubated for 14 d at 37...
May 18, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788386/diversity-not-uniformity-slaughter-and-electrical-waterbath-stunning-procedures-in-belgian-slaughterhouses
#2
G Devos, C P H Moons, K Houf
Data on slaughter and stunning protocols in Belgian poultry abattoirs were collected, and subsequently the survival rate after electrical waterbath stunning in 1,400 animals across 7 selected slaughterhouses was determined. The majority of the abattoirs applied electrical waterbath stunning (72%), whereas the other methods were gas stunning (13%), head-only stunning (6%), and dry stunning (3%). In 6% of the slaughterhouses, the birds were killed without previous stunning, according to religious rites (i.e., ritual or religious slaughter)...
May 19, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767800/copper-requirements-of-broiler-breeder-hens
#3
E Berwanger, S L Vieira, C R Angel, L Kindlein, A N Mayer, M A Ebbing, M Lopes
One-hundred-twenty Cobb 500 hens, 20 wk of age, were randomly allocated into individual cages with the objective of estimating Cu requirements. After being fed a Cu deficient diet for 4 wk, hens were fed diets with graded increments of supplemental Cu (0.0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5; 14; and 17.5 ppm) from Cu sulfate (CuSO4 5H2O), totaling 2.67; 5.82; 9.38; 12.92; 16.83; and 20.19 ppm analyzed Cu in feeds for 20 weeks. Estimations of Cu requirements were done using exponential asymptotic (EA), broken line quadratic (BLQ), and quadratic polynomial (QP) models...
May 15, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762742/effects-of-reduced-digestible-lysine-density-on-myopathies-of-the-pectoralis-major-muscles-in-broiler-chickens-at-48-and-62-days-of-age
#4
K J Meloche, B I Fancher, D A Emmerson, S F Bilgili, W A Dozier
Quantitative control of nutrient intake may decrease the incidence of wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) myopathies with some impairment of live performance. Two experiments (Exp) utilizing Yield Plus × Ross 708 male broilers were conducted to determine if a reduction in myopathies may be obtained through a qualitative approach by reducing digestible lysine (dLys) density. All birds received an identical starter diet until 11 d of age. In Exp 1 (63 pens; 22 birds/pen), each pen was then randomly assigned to 1 of the following 7 dietary treatments (TRT) for a 47 d production period...
May 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762735/short-periods-of-incubation-egg-turning-during-storage-and-broiler-breeder-hens-age-for-early-development-of-embryos-hatching-results-chicks-quality-and-juvenile-growth
#5
K Damaziak, M Paweska, D Gozdowski, J Niemiec
An effect of modification of storage conditions of the eggs of broiler breeder flocks at the age of 49-, 52- and 70-, 73-wks of life on an early embryonic development, hatching time and synchronization, hatchability rates, chicks quality and broiler growth was investigated. The eggs were divided into 4 experimental groups: COI = eggs storage 5 d, at turning every 12 h; NSP = eggs storage 12 d, at turning every 12 h; SPIDES = were treated with 4 h pre-incubation at 30°C and 50-55% air humidity, delivered at 5 and 10 d over of 12 d of storage, and turning every 12 h; NCOI = eggs storage 12 d, no turning and no pre-incubation...
May 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762732/calcium-particle-size-effects-on-plasma-excreta-and-urinary-ca-and-p-changes-in-broiler-breeder-hens
#6
M K Manangi, P Maharjan, C N Coon
An experiment was conducted using non-colostomized and colostomized broiler breeder hens to determine the effects of feeding limestone of 2 different mean particle sizes (185 microns and 3490 microns) on P excretion, total P and Ca retention, and urinary P and Ca excretion during a 6-week feeding study. Additionally, changes in plasma inorganic P (iP) and ionic Ca (Ca++) and urinary excretion of P and Ca were determined in one egg laying cycle of 24 hours. One-hundred-fifty non-colostomized and 6 colostomized broiler breeder hens, 30 wk of age, were divided into 2 groups and fed broiler breeder diets supplemented with either small particle or large particle limestone...
May 11, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729721/pleomorphic-malignant-mesothelioma-in-a-broiler-breeder-infected-with-avian-leucosis-virus-subgroup-j
#7
T Murakami, Y Sassa
Avian leucosis virus (ALV) is an oncogenic retrovirus that induces tumours including lymphoid leucosis and myeloid leucosis. Pleomorphic malignant mesothelioma and myelocytoma, which were thought to be induced by ALV subgroup J (ALV-J) infection, were identified in a 432-day-old broiler breeder. The bird showed no clinical signs; however, at necropsy examination there were multiple nodules in the alimentary tract. Microscopical analysis showed that these consisted of pleomorphic cells and myelocyte-like cells...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719657/comparative-study-of-semen-traits-and-histomorphometric-features-of-testes-of-broiler-breeder-males-with-different-phenotypic-traits
#8
Alireza Talebi, Manoochehr Alimehr, Mohammad Hossein Alavi, Gholamreza Najafi, Naeimeh Simaei
Fertility reduction due to sub-fertile males is a major concern in breeder flocks. Phenotypic traits of broiler breeder males and their relationships with fertility can be used as reliable indicators for identification and removal of sub-fertile males from the breeder flocks. This study was conducted to investigate semen traits (semen volume, sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm count) and testes histomorphometric features including tubule differentiation index (TDI), spermiation index (SPI), Sertoli cell index (SCI) and mitotic index (MI) of broiler breeder males with the same age but different phenotypic traits...
2018: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688556/dynamics-of-nutrient-utilization-heat-production-and-body-composition-in-broiler-breeder-hens-during-egg-production
#9
Justina V Caldas, Katie Hilton, Nirun Boonsinchai, Judith A England, Andy Mauromoustakos, Craig N Coon
Changes in heat production (HP) and body composition (BC) in modern broiler breeders can provide means to understand nutrient utilization. Twelve Cobb 500 breeders were evaluated 10 times from 26 to 59 wk of age. The same wired caged breeders were moved to respiratory chambers connected to an indirect calorimetry to obtain oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2), HP, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). The same hens were evaluated for BC using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Data were analyzed during light (16 h) and dark (8 h) period using a mixed model to evaluate calorimetry parameters, a factorial design 2 × 10 for normalized calorimetry parameters, and Complete Randomized Design (CRD)-one way ANOVA for BC...
April 24, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676492/the-effect-of-n-6-n-3-fatty-acid-ratios-on-broiler-breeder-performance-hatchability-fatty-acid-profile-and-reproduction
#10
A Khatibjoo, H Kermanshahi, A Golian, M Zaghari
This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary omega6 (n-6) to omega3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratios on performance and reproduction of broiler breeders. In experiment 1, 400 females and 40 males (30 week age) of Ross 308 broiler breeder (20 females and two males in each pen) were randomly assigned to one of the four diets with n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4, 6, 8 and 16 (control). As a measure of hatchability, fertility of eggs and general incubation traits, 1,200 eggs (60 eggs from each pen) were collected and incubated for 21 days and embryo liver and brain fatty acid profile in 14 and 21 days were determined...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652854/phylogenetic-analysis-and-pathogenicity-assessment-of-the-emerging-recombinant-subgroup-k-of-avian-leukosis-virus-in-south-china
#11
Zijun Zhao, Mingzhang Rao, Ming Liao, Weisheng Cao
In recent years, cases of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection have become more frequent in China. We isolated 6 ALV strains from yellow feather broiler breeders in south China from 2014 to 2016. Their full genomes were sequenced, compared, and analyzed with other reference strains of ALV. The complete genomic nucleotide sequences of GD150509, GD160403, GD160607, GDFX0601, and GDFX0602 were 7482 bp in length, whereas GDFX0603 was 7480 bp. They shared 99.7% to 99.8% identity with each other. Homology analysis showed that the gag , pol , long terminal repeats (LTRs), and the transmembrane region (gp37) of the env genes of the 6 viruses were well conserved to endogenous counterpart sequences (>97...
April 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651158/effect-of-dietary-probiotics-on-the-semen-traits-and-antioxidative-activity-of-male-broiler-breeders
#12
Takio Inatomi, Konosuke Otomaru
This study aimed to investigate the effect of probiotics on the intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora, oxidative activity (biological antioxidant potential), and semen quality of male broiler breeders. For this, 180 Cobb male broiler breeders (60 weeks of age) were randomly distributed into two groups. The control group was fed a basal diet, and the probiotics group was fed basal diet supplemented with probiotics for 6 weeks. Probiotics containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TOA5001 improved the above mentioned characteristics of the male broiler breeders...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626604/transgenerational-effects-of-paternal-dietary-astragalus-polysaccharides-on-spleen-immunity-of-broilers
#13
Yulong Li, Xinyu Lei, Zhenchen Yin, Wei Guo, Shengru Wu, Xiaojun Yang
Our previous study indicated that paternal dietary Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) could induce endotoxin tolerance-like response in jejunum of offspring chickens. There exist positive interaction between intestinal mucosal immunity and systemic immunity. So we studied the transgenerational effect and nutri-epigenetic role of paternal dietary APS on spleen immunity. 64 one-day-old Avein breeder cocks were used in a single-factor design with 0 and 10 g/kg APS, respectively, 4 replicated cages each group, and 8 birds each cage...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596389/enteric-virus-diversity-examined-by-molecular-methods-in-brazilian-poultry-flocks
#14
David I De la Torre, Luis F Nuñez, Claudete S Astolfi-Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino Ferreira
Enteric viruses play an important role in the Brazilian poultry industry due to the economic impact of resulting low yields of broilers, layers, and breeders. The most common enteric viruses affecting commercial flocks in Brazil include Fowl Adenovirus of group I (FAdV-I), Chicken Parvovirus (ChPV), Chicken Astrovirus (CAstV), Avian Nephritis Virus (ANV), Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV), Avian Reovirus (AReo), and Avian Rotavirus (ARtV). The aim of this study was to identify single and multiple infections using data obtained from 270 samples from eleven Brazilian states, corresponding to the period between 2010 and 2017...
March 29, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581465/dietary-genistein-supplementation-for-breeders-and-their-offspring-improves-the-growth-performance-and-immune-function-of-broilers
#15
Zengpeng Lv, Hao Fan, Beibei Zhang, Kun Xing, Yuming Guo
Genistein (GEN) is mainly extracted from soy plants and has potential functions as an antioxidant and in promoting immune function and growth. This study evaluated the effects of feeding breeders and their offspring dietary GEN on the immune function and growth performance of broiler chicks. Breeders were assigned to a control diet or GEN diet (control diet +400 mg/kg GEN), and their offspring were fed a control diet or GEN diet (control diet +40 mg/kg GEN). GEN treatment increased the body weight gain, tibial length, tibial width and slaughter performance of broilers and decreased the feed conversion ratio...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539591/broad-spectrum-protection-of-broiler-chickens-against-inclusion-body-hepatitis-by-immunizing-their-broiler-breeder-parents-with-a-bivalent-live-fowl-adenovirus-vaccine
#16
Shelly Popowich, Ashish Gupta, Betty Chow-Lockerbie, Lisanework Ayalew, Neil Ambrose, Davor Ojkic, Thushari Gunawardana, Shanika Kurukulasuriya, Philip Willson, Suresh K Tikoo, Susantha Gomis
Historically, fowl adenovirus (FAdV) associated inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) was considered a secondary disease in broiler chickens associated with immunosuppression. However, we previously reported the occurrence of IBH as a primary disease in the broiler chicken industry in Canada as a result of infections with various FAdV serotypes. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop an immunization strategy in broiler breeders using live FAdV 11-1047 and FAdV8a-TR59 to confer homologous and heterologous protection in broiler progeny against IBH and to study the efficacy of natural exposure of naïve broiler breeders to a vaccine virus from live FAdV vaccinated birds as an immunization technique...
March 5, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524195/maternal-selenium-supplementation-enhanced-skeletal-muscle-development-through-increasing-protein-synthesis-and-selw-mrna-levels-of-their-offspring
#17
Jing Gao, Wei Nie, Fenglai Wang, Yuming Guo
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of maternal selenium supplementation on the skeletal muscle development of the offspring. A total of 720 Ross 308 broiler breeders at 24-week-old were allocated into 3 treatments with 6 replicates of 40 hens each and fed with 0 mg/kg-(group Se/C), 0.5 mg/kg organic-(group Se/O), and 0.5 mg/kg inorganic-(group Se/I) selenium, respectively for 8 weeks. The male offspring from each nutritional treatment were divided and housed into 8 cages of 12 birds each and fed with a commercial diet supplemented with selenium from Na2 SeO3 at 0...
March 9, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518347/dietary-genistein-supplementation-in-laying-broiler-breeder-hens-alters-the-development-and-metabolism-of-offspring-embryos-as-revealed-by-hepatic-transcriptome-analysis
#18
Zengpeng Lv, Hao Fan, Beibei Zhang, Chao Ning, Kun Xing, Yuming Guo
Genistein (GEN) is a type of isoflavone mainly derived from soy products. In this experiment, we added 40 and 400 mg/kg GEN to the diet of laying broiler breeder hens to clarify the maternal effects of GEN on the development and metabolism of chick embryos. GEN treatment at 40 mg/kg increased embryonic length, weight, and liver index, as well as the width of the proliferative zone in the tibial growth plate of chick embryos. Gene ontology (GO) cluster analysis of the hepatic transcriptome showed that GEN treatment promoted embryonic development and cell proliferation...
March 8, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514328/effects-of-dietary-protein-level-and-age-at-photo-stimulation-on-reproduction-traits-of-broiler-breeders-and-progeny-performance
#19
R A van Emous, C E de la Cruz, V D Naranjo
A study with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to determine the effects of 2 dietary crude protein levels, high (CPh) or low (CPl), supplemented with free amino acids (AA), and 2 ages at photo stimulation (PS)-early (21 wk; PSe) or late (23 wk; PSl)-on reproduction traits of broiler breeders and progeny performance. Diets were isocaloric, and calculated CP content of the CPl diets was 15 g/kg lower than the CPh diets during all phases. A total of 480 female and 64 male Ross 308 breeders of 20 wk of age were used...
June 1, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514264/multigenerational-effects-of-a-reduced-balanced-protein-diet-during-the-rearing-and-laying-period-of-broiler-breeders-2-zootechnical-performance-of-the-f1-broiler-offspring
#20
J Lesuisse, S Schallier, C Li, A Bautil, B Li, J Leblois, J Buyse, N Everaert
Several studies in mammals focused on the maternal programming of the metabolism by epigenetic mechanisms, while currently, the consequences of a maternal dietary treatment on the offspring performance of farm animals are of particular interest for commercial purpose. In the present study, we investigated if the zootechnical performance of the progeny was altered by a maternal dietary treatment, being a lower dietary crude protein (CP) of the grandparent and/or parent generation. The multigenerational effects of a reduced maternal CP content were investigated by reducing the dietary CP level by 25% in rearing and laying diets of pure line A breeders...
May 1, 2018: Poultry Science
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