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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086790/rna-sequencing-for-global-gene-expression-associated-with-muscle-growth-in-a-single-male-modern-broiler-line-compared-to-a-foundational-barred-plymouth-rock-chicken-line
#1
Byung-Whi Kong, Nicholas Hudson, Dongwon Seo, Seok Lee, Bhuwan Khatri, Kentu Lassiter, Devin Cook, Alissa Piekarski, Sami Dridi, Nicholas Anthony, Walter Bottje
BACKGROUND: Modern broiler chickens exhibit very rapid growth and high feed efficiency compared to unselected chicken breeds. The improved production efficiency in modern broiler chickens was achieved by the intensive genetic selection for meat production. This study was designed to investigate the genetic alterations accumulated in modern broiler breeder lines during selective breeding conducted over several decades. METHODS: To identify genes important in determining muscle growth and feed efficiency in broilers, RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was conducted with breast muscle in modern pedigree male (PeM) broilers (n = 6 per group), and with an unselected foundation broiler line (Barred Plymouth Rock; BPR)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049430/spread-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-st117-o78-h4-in-nordic-broiler-production
#2
Troels Ronco, Marc Stegger, Rikke Heidemann Olsen, Camilla Sekse, Anne Bang Nordstoga, Tarja Pohjanvirta, Berit Lilje, Ulrike Lyhs, Paal Skytt Andersen, Karl Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli infections known as colibacillosis constitute a considerable challenge to poultry farmers worldwide, in terms of decreased animal welfare and production economy. Colibacillosis is caused by avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). APEC strains are extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and have in general been characterized as being a genetically diverse population. In the Nordic countries, poultry farmers depend on import of Swedish broiler breeders which are part of a breeding pyramid...
January 3, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043349/effects-of-guanidinoacetic-acid-diet-supplementation-on-semen-quality-and-fertility-of-broiler-breeder-roosters
#3
Ramin Shahabi Tapeh, Mahdi Zhandi, Mojtaba Zaghari, Amir Akhlaghi
Decreased semen quality and fertility rate is a common feature in broiler breeder roosters. This decrease is associated with dysfunction of Sertoli cells and defective spermatogenesis. Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), as a precursor of creatine, plays an important role in the proper functioning of Sertoli cells and energy metabolism in sperm. Twenty, 29-wk-old broiler breeder roosters (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups and fed diets supplemented with different levels of GAA, including 0 (GAA-0), 600 (GAA-600), 1200 (GAA-1200), and 1800 (GAA-1800) mg GAA/kg of diet for 26 successive weeks...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012117/complete-genome-sequence-analysis-of-chicken-astrovirus-isolate-from-india
#4
Amrutlal K Patel, Ramesh J Pandit, Jalpa R Thakkar, Ankit T Hinsu, Vinod C Pandey, Joy K Pal, Kantilal S Prajapati, Subhash J Jakhesara, Chaitanya G Joshi
OBJECTIVE: Chicken astroviruses have been known to cause severe disease in chickens leading to increased mortality and "white chicks" condition. Here we aim to characterize the causative agent of visceral gout suspected for astrovirus infection in broiler breeder chickens. METHODS: Total RNA isolated from allantoic fluid of SPF embryo passaged with infected chicken sample was sequenced by whole genome shotgun sequencing using ion-torrent PGM platform. The sequence was analysed for the presence of coding and non-coding features, its similarity with reported isolates and epitope analysis of capsid structural protein...
December 23, 2016: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002933/effects-of-different-methionine-sources-on-production-and-reproduction-performance-egg-quality-and-serum-biochemical-indices-of-broiler-breeders
#5
Xue Xiao, Yongxia Wang, Weilong Liu, Tingting Ju, Xiuan Zhan
The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different methionine (Met) sources on production performance, reproduction performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices in broiler breeders. After receiving a basal diet (containing 0.25% Met) for a 2-wk pretreatment period, a total of 360 39-wk-old Lingnan yellow broiler breeders were randomly allocated to four treatments with six replicates each (15 birds per replicate). Breeders were fed with basal diets (control) or diets supplemented with DL-methionine (DLM), DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butytric calcium (MHA-Ca) and coated DL-Met (CME) respectively (containing 0...
December 17, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982712/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-an-autogenous-escherichia-coli-vaccine-in-broiler-breeders
#6
Lili Li, Ida Thøfner, Jens Peter Christensen, Troels Ronco, Karl Pedersen, Rikke H Olsen
In poultry production Escherichia coli autogenous vaccines are often used. However, the efficacy of autogenous E. coli vaccinations has not been evaluated experimentally in chickens after start of lay. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of an autogenous E. coli vaccine in broiler breeders. Three groups of 28 weeks old broiler breeders (unvaccinated, vaccinated once and twice, respectively) were challenged with a homologous E. coli strain (same strain as included in the vaccine) or a heterologous challenge strain in an experimental ascending model...
December 16, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928940/epidemiological-and-pathological-investigation-of-fowl-aviadenovirus-serotypes-8b-and-11-isolated-from-chickens-with-inclusion-body-hepatitis-in-spain-2011-2013
#7
S Oliver-Ferrando, R Dolz, C Calderón, R Valle, R Rivas, M Pérez, M Biarnés, A Blanco, K Bertran, A Ramis, N Busquets, N Majó
Inclusion body hepatitis caused by different fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) serotypes has been described in several countries in recent years. In Spain, from the spring of 2011 to 2013, an increased number of outbreaks in broiler and broiler breeder flocks from different regions occurred. The objectives of the present work were to carry out the molecular characterization of FAdV strains from Spanish inclusion body hepatitis cases and to study the pathogenicity and viral dynamics of these strains in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens...
December 8, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920198/effects-of-breeder-age-strain-and-eggshell-temperature-on-nutrient-metabolism-of-broiler-embryos
#8
A Nangsuay, R Meijerhof, I van den Anker, M J W Heetkamp, B Kemp, H van den Brand
Breeder age and broiler strain influence the availability of nutrients and oxygen through yolk size and eggshell conductance, and the effects of these egg characteristics on nutrient metabolism might be influenced by eggshell temperature (EST). This study aims to determine effects of breeder age, strain, and EST on nutrient metabolism of embryos. A study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using four batches of in total 4,464 hatching eggs of 2 flock ages at 29 to 30 wk (young) and 54 to 55 wk (old) of Ross 308 and Cobb 500...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902908/improved-performance-of-broilers-and-broiler-breeders-associated-with-an-amended-vaccination-program-against-reovirosis
#9
Peter De Herdt, Marlies Broeckx, Filip Van Driessche, Bart Vermeiren, Geert Van Den Abeele, Stefaan Van Gorp
A vertically integrated monitoring program was set up for breeders hatched in 2013 and their offspring to detect differences in performance related to the reovirus vaccination schedule. Within the same organization in Belgium, 17 breeder flocks were vaccinated with one dose of live and one dose of inactivated reovirus vaccine, while 14 flocks received two doses of inactivated vaccine without live priming. The hatchability of the eggs produced by these birds was examined. Further, the daily growth, feed conversion, mortality, slaughterhouse condemnation, production index, and antibiotic use were monitored in 110 broiler flocks derived from the breeders...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902905/pathogenicity-of-genome-reassortant-infectious-bursal-disease-viruses-in-chickens-and-turkeys
#10
Daral J Jackwood, Simone T Stoute, Beate M Crossley
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) contains two genome segments (segment A/segment B) that can reassort among the viruses. Reassortant IBDVs have been identified in several countries including the United States. These reassortant viruses usually include at least one genome segment from a very virulent (vv)IBDV strain. In vivo virulence of six reassortant IBDV from the United States was assessed relative to the virulence of three frequently described IBDV pathotypes: vvIBDV (rB strain), classic virulent (cv)IBDV (STC strain), and subclinical (sc)IBDV (Del-E strain)...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902904/infection-with-some-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-pathotypes-produces-virus-in-chicken-muscle-tissue-and-the-role-of-humoral-immunity-as-a-mitigation-strategy
#11
Mariana Sá E Silva, Kateri Bertran, Kira Moresco, Daral J Jackwood, David E Swayne
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes important economic losses and negatively affects global trade in poultry and poultry products. This study determined the presence of IBDV in primary lymphoid tissues and muscle tissue of infected broilers and the role of vaccination as a mitigation strategy. In the first study, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broiler chickens were challenged with STC (classical [cIBDV]), Indiana (variant [varIBDV]), rA (very virulent [vvIBDV]), or Ohio (serotype 2, avirulent) IBDV...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890044/effect-of-dietary-manganese-on-antioxidant-status-and-expressions-of-heat-shock-proteins-and-factors-in-tissues-of-laying-broiler-breeders-under-normal-and-high-environmental-temperatures
#12
Yong-Wen Zhu, Lin Lu, Wen-Xiang Li, Li-Yang Zhang, Cheng Ji, Xi Lin, Hsiao-Ching Liu, Jack Odle, Xu-Gang Luo
To investigate the effect of Mn on antioxidant status and on the expressions of heat shock proteins/factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders subjected to heat challenge, we used a completely randomised design (n 6) with a factorial arrangement of 2 environmental temperatures (normal, 21±1°C, and high, 32±1°C)×3 dietary Mn treatments (a Mn-unsupplemented basal diet (CON), or a basal diet supplemented with 120 mg Mn/kg diet, either as inorganic Mn sulphate (iMn) or as organic Mn proteinate (oMn)). There were no interactions (P>0·10) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in any of the measured indices...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876045/seroprevalence-of-avian-hepatitis-e-virus-and-avian-leucosis-virus-subgroup-j-in-chicken-flocks-with-hepatitis-syndrome-china
#13
Yani Sun, Taofeng Du, Baoyuan Liu, Shahid Faraz Syed, Yiyang Chen, Huixia Li, Xinjie Wang, Gaiping Zhang, En-Min Zhou, Qin Zhao
BACKGROUND: From 2014 to 2015 in China, many broiler breeder and layer hen flocks exhibited a decrease in egg production and some chickens developed hepatitis syndrome including hepatomegaly, hepatic necrosis and hemorrhage. Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) both cause decreasing in egg production, hepatomegaly and hepatic hemorrhage in broiler breeder and layer hens. In the study, the seroprevalence of avian HEV and ALV-J in these flocks emerging the disease from Shandong and Shaanxi provinces were investigated...
November 22, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871330/age-is-not-a-determinant-factor-in-susceptibility-of-broilers-to-h5n2-clade-2-3-4-4-high-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus
#14
Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Charles Balzli, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Erica Spackman, David E Swayne
In 2014-2015, the US experienced an unprecedented outbreak of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. The H5N2 HPAI virus outbreak in the Midwest in 2015 affected commercial turkey and layer farms, but not broiler farms. To assess any potential genetic resistance of broilers and/or age-related effects, we investigated the pathogenesis and transmission of A/turkey/Minnesota/12582/2015 (H5N2) (Tk/MN/15) virus in commercial 5-week-old broilers, 8-week-old broilers, and >30-week-old broiler breeders...
November 21, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862400/optimal-in-feed-amino-acid-ratio-for-broiler-breeder-hens-based-on-deletion-studies
#15
J C P Dorigam, N K Sakomura, M F Sarcinelli, C A Gonçalves, M B de Lima, N J Peruzzi
An ideal amino acid ratio (IAAR) for breeder hens is needed for maximum nitrogen retention (NR) taking into account nitrogen deposition in body (NDB ), feathers (NDF ) and egg mass (NEM) to improve dietary protein efficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to apply the deletion method to derive the IAAR for broiler breeder hens. The nitrogen balance trials were performed from 31 to 35 weeks and from 46 to 50 weeks. Twelve treatments with eight replicates and one hen per cage were used. A balanced diet (BD) was formulated to meet the requirement of all nutrients...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738123/the-effect-of-four-different-feeding-regimens-from-rearing-period-to-sexual-maturity-on-breast-muscle-protein-turnover-in-broiler-breeder-parent-stock
#16
Karen Vignale, Justina V Caldas, Judy A England, Nirun Boonsinchai, Phiphob Sodsee, Monticha Putsakum, Erik D Pollock, Sami Dridi, Craig N Coon
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of four different feeding regimens on breast muscle protein turnover in broiler breeder Cobb-500 parent stock (PS) pullets and breeder hens. The four feeding regimens based on BW curves utilized for the study were as follows: Everyday feeding (STD-ED) (Cobb Standard BW curve), skip-a-day feeding (STD-SKIP) (Cobb Standard BW curve), lighter BW (LBW-SKIP) (BW curve 20% under), and heavier BW (HBW-SKIP) (BW curve 20% over). Each feeding regimen was provided to pullets from 4 wk to 21 wk of age...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726764/preharvest-food-safety-in-broiler-chicken-production
#17
Walid Q Alali, Charles L Hofacre
Preharvest food safety in broiler production is a systematic approach to control the introduction, propagation, and dissemination of Salmonella and Campylobacter from breeder flocks to the end of their progeny (broilers) life cycle. New and revised more stringent performance standards for these pathogens at the processing plant level require continuous evaluation of the preharvest management practices and intervention strategies used by the poultry industry. The implementation of stricter biosecurity plans, vaccination of breeder flocks for Salmonella, and usage of feed that is free of animal by-products are some of the measures recommended to control the pathogens...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712660/effect-of-cyclical-cold-stress-during-embryonic-development-on-aspects-of-physiological-responses-and-hsp70-gene-expression-of-chicks
#18
Keyvan Aminoroaya, Ali Asghar Sadeghi, Zarbakht Ansari-Pirsaraei, Nasser Kashan
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cyclical lower incubation temperature at different embryonic ages on the hatchability, body and organs weights, thyroid hormones, and liver HSP70 gene expression of newly hatched chicks. In a completely randomized design, fertile eggs of a broiler breeder (34 weeks of age) were assigned to three treatment groups with six replicates and 145 eggs per each. The treatment groups were as: control group (C) that eggs were incubated at 37.6°C during the whole incubation period; incubation temperature was decreased to 36°C for 3h per day at embryonic age from 12 to 14 (T1); and incubation temperature was decreased to 36°C for 3h per day at embryonic age from 15 to 17 (T2)...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699969/monitoring-salmonella-campylobacter-escherichia-coli-and-staphylococcus-aureus-in-traditional-free-range-label-rouge-broiler-production-a-23-year-survey-programme
#19
G Salvat, M Guyot, J Protino
AIM: 'Label Rouge' broiler free-range carcasses have been monitored since 1991, and broiler flocks since 2010, for contamination by the main foodborne zoonotic bacteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Initially, the monitoring plan mainly focused on the surveillance of Salmonella, and on indicators of the overall microbiological quality of free-range broiler carcasses such as Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms, but was extended in 2007 to include Campylobacter enumeration on carcasses and in 2010, to Salmonella in the environment of live birds...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688054/detecting-reproductive-system-abnormalities-of-broiler-breeder-roosters-at-different-ages
#20
M A Lagares, R Ecco, Nrs Martins, Ljc Lara, Jsr Rocha, Dar Vilela, V M Barbosa, P F Mantovani, Jfv Braga, I S Preis, V A Gheller, P C Cardeal, N C Baião
The objective of this study was to detect the reasons of rooster's fertility decrease at 50 weeks of age. Therefore, the reproductive system of broiler breeder roosters was laparoscopic, macroscopic and histopathology evaluated, and a comparison of the anatomical aspect with the sperm analysis and birds' age was realized. Cobb roosters (n = 59) were distributed into two groups (30 and 50 weeks). Evaluations were performed with laparoscopy, macroscopy and histopathology, and seminal quality, blood serum testosterone concentration and weight were also determined...
September 30, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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