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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895517/assessment-of-molecular-and-genetic-evolution-antigenicity-and-virulence-properties-during-the-persistence-of-the-infectious-bronchitis-virus-in-broiler-breeders
#1
Filipe Santos Fernando, Thaiane Coelho Kasmanas, Priscila Diniz Lopes, Maria de Fátima da Silva Montassier, Marcos Antônio Zanella Mores, Viviane Casagrande Mariguela, Caren Pavani, Romeu Moreira Dos Santos, Mário Sérgio Assayag, Helio José Montassier
The infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a highly contagious disease [infectious bronchitis (IB)] that results in substantial economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. We conducted a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the S1 gene of Brazilian (BR) IBV isolates from a routinely vaccinated commercial flock of broiler breeders, obtained from clinical IB episodes that occurred in 24-, 46- and 62-week-old chickens. We also characterized the antigenicity, pathogenesis, tissue tropism and spreading of three IBV isolates by experimental infection of specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and contact sentinel birds...
September 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854741/zona-pellucida-protein-b2-messenger-ribonucleic-acid-expression-varies-with-follicular-development-and-granulosa-cell-location
#2
A P Benson, M N Malloy, J R Steed, V L Christensen, B D Fairchild, A J Davis
The freshly ovulated ovum in avian species is surrounded by a protein layer called the inner perivitelline layer (IPVL). The IPVL contains zona pellucida proteins and 6 distinct zona pellucida genes have been identified (ZPA, ZPB1, ZPB2, ZPC, ZPD and ZPX1) in the chicken. In the present research, the expression of the mRNA for ZPA, ZPB2, and ZPX1 was investigated in 2 lines of turkey hens selected for either increased egg production (E line) or increased body weight (F line). Theca and granulosa cell expression of the mRNA for ZPA and ZPB2 was also investigated in hierarchical and prehierarchical follicles from broiler breeder hens...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835293/effect-of-a-photoperiodic-green-light-programme-during-incubation-on-embryo-development-and-hatch-process
#3
Q Tong, I M McGonnell, T G M Demmers, N Roulston, H Bergoug, C E Romanini, R Verhelst, M Guinebretière, N Eterradossi, D Berckmans, V Exadaktylos
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a 12-h light, 12-h dark (12L : 12D) photoperiod of green light during day 1 to day 18 of incubation time, on embryo growth, hormone concentration and the hatch process. In the test group, monochromatic light was provided by a total of 204 green light-emitting diodes (522 nm) mounted in a frame which was placed above the top tray of eggs to give even spread of illumination. No light-dark cycle was used in the control group. Four batches of eggs (n=300/group per batch) from fertile Ross 308 broiler breeders were used in this experiment...
August 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820139/risk-for-low-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus-on-poultry-farms-the-netherlands-2007-2013
#4
Ruth Bouwstra, Jose L Gonzales, Sjaak de Wit, Julia Stahl, Ron A M Fouchier, Armin R W Elbers
Using annual serologic surveillance data from all poultry farms in the Netherlands during 2007-2013, we quantified the risk for the introduction of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in different types of poultry production farms and putative spatial-environmental risk factors: distance from poultry farms to clay soil, waterways, and wild waterfowl areas. Outdoor-layer, turkey (meat and breeder), and duck (meat and breeder) farms had a significantly higher risk for LPAIV introduction than did indoor-layer farms...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781155/hyaluronic-acid-improves-frozen-thawed-sperm-quality-and-fertility-potential-in-rooster
#5
Saied Lotfi, Morteza Mehri, Mohsen Sharafi, Reza Masoudi
Beneficial effects of Hyaluronic acid (HA) has not been yet assessed for cryopreservation of rooster sperm. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of HA (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8mM) in Beltsville extender on the cryopreservation of rooster sperm. Semen samples were collected from six Ross broiler breeders (24-week) using abdominal massage, then divided into five equal aliquots and cryopreserved in Beltsville extender that contained different concentrations of HA. Motion characteristics, morphology, membrane functionality, viability, acrosome integrity, lipid peroxidation and fertility potential of sperm were assessed after thawing...
July 25, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776913/dietary-methionine-source-and-level-affect-hepatic-sulfur-amino-acid-metabolism-of-broiler-breeder-hens
#6
Jianmei Wan, Xuemei Ding, Jianping Wang, Shiping Bai, Huanwei Peng, Yuheng Luo, Zhuowei Su, Yue Xuan, Keying Zhang
A study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary methionine source and level on plasma free amino acids patterns and the expression of genes involved in hepatic methionine metabolism in broiler breeders. A total of 2184 broiler breeders were assigned to 13 dietary treatments, with eight replicates per treatment. The 13 treatments included one control group and 12 additional treatments employing two sources and six levels (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 1.00%). Higher plasma methionine concentration was measured for DL-methionine (DLM) treated hens...
August 4, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757012/longitudinal-study-of-transmission-of-escherichia-coli-from-broiler-breeders-to-broilers
#7
Louise Ladefoged Poulsen, Ida Thøfner, Magne Bisgaard, Jens Peter Christensen, Rikke Heidemann Olsen, Henrik Christensen
Escherichia coli is of major importance in industrial broiler production as the main cause of salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders. Furthermore E. coli is the most common cause of first week mortality in broiler chickens. The aim of the present study was to investigate the transmission of E. coli, isolated from broiler breeders with salpingitis, to the progeny and the possibility of subsequent first week mortality. Four parent flocks were followed during the whole production period (20-60 weeks) by post mortem and bacteriological examination of randomly selected dead birds...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695606/orally-administered-chrysin-improves-post-thawed-sperm-quality-and-fertility-of-rooster
#8
M Zhandi, M Ansari, P Roknabadi, A Zare Shahneh, M Sharafi
Chrysin is a bioflavonoid compound found in passion flower, chamomile, propolis and honey at high levels. Post-thawed sperm quality and fertility of Chrysin-fed roosters were assessed in this study. Twenty 40-week-old male broiler breeders were randomly divided into four groups and fed basal diet supplemented with different levels of Chrysin including 0 (Ch-0), 25 (Ch-25), 50 (Ch-50) or 75 (Ch-75) mg/day for 12 consecutive weeks. Semen samples were weekly collected from 6th to 9th week of experiment to evaluate some sperm quality parameters including total and progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity and functionality (in fresh and post-thawed samples) and mitochondrial activity (only in post-thawed samples)...
July 10, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665737/fowl-adenoviruses-d-and-e-cause-inclusion-body-hepatitis-outbreaks-in-broiler-and-broiler-breeder-pullet-flocks
#9
Rima Morshed, Hossein Hosseini, Arash Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Mohammad Hassan Bozorgmehri Fard, Saeid Charkhkar
Twenty-four fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) were isolated from broiler and broiler breeder pullet flocks in Iran during 2013-2016 and were identified and characterized. All FAdVs were from inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) cases, showing an enlarged and pale yellow liver with multiple petechial hemorrhages. Phylogenetic analyses of partial hexon gene sequences are an adequate and quick method for differentiation and genotyping. The isolates were subjected to PCR to amplify a 590-bp fragment from the hexon gene. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of two species D and E...
June 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665725/industry-wide-surveillance-of-marek-s-disease-virus-on-commercial-poultry-farms
#10
David A Kennedy, Christopher Cairns, Matthew J Jones, Andrew S Bell, Rahel M Salathé, Susan J Baigent, Venugopal K Nair, Patricia A Dunn, Andrew F Read
Marek's disease virus is a herpesvirus of chickens that costs the worldwide poultry industry more than US$1 billion annually. Two generations of Marek's disease vaccines have shown reduced efficacy over the last half century due to evolution of the virus. Understanding where the virus is present may give insight into whether continued reductions in efficacy are likely. We conducted a 3-yr surveillance study to assess the prevalence of Marek's disease virus on commercial poultry farms, determine the effect of various factors on virus prevalence, and document virus dynamics in broiler chicken houses over short (weeks) and long (years) timescales...
June 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665716/a-study-on-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-through-commercial-broiler-production-chains-in-thailand-antimicrobial-resistance-the-characterization-of-dna-gyrase-subunit-a-mutation-and-genetic-diversity-by-flagellin-a-gene-restriction-fragment-length
#11
Thotsapol Thomrongsuwannakij, Patrick J Blackall, Niwat Chansiripornchai
Contaminated poultry meat is regarded as the main source of human campylobacteriosis. During September 2014 and February 2015, breeder flocks, hatcheries, and broiler farms from two chicken production chains were investigated chronologically. Five commercial breeder flocks (Breeder Flocks 1-5), two hatcheries (Hatcheries A and B), and five broiler flocks (Broiler Flocks 1-5) were sampled in this study. Campylobacter colonization of both breeder and broiler flocks was determined from cloacal swabs and environmental samples (pan feeders, footwear, darkling beetles, flies, feed, and water)...
June 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660781/variability-in-biological-behaviour-pathogenicity-protectotype-and-induction-of-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-by-different-vaccination-programs-to-infectious-bronchitis-virus-genotype-q1-strains-from-chile
#12
J J de Wit, R Dijkman, P Guerrero, J Calvo, A Gonzalez, H Hidalgo
In the period from July 2008 to 2010 a disease episode resulting in serious economic losses in the major production area of the Chilean poultry industry were reported. These losses were associated with respiratory problems, increase of condemnations, drops in egg production and nephritis in breeders, laying hens and broilers due to infections with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Twenty-five IBV isolates were genotyped and 4 strains were selected for further testing by pathotyping and protectotyping. Twenty-four IBV isolates were of the Q1 genotype...
June 29, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649569/environmental-enrichment-for-broiler-breeders-an-undeveloped-field
#13
REVIEW
Anja B Riber, Ingrid C de Jong, Heleen A van de Weerd, Sanna Steenfeldt
Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types of environmental enrichment for broiler breeders, which have been described in the scientific literature, on behavior and welfare. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements in biological function...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641395/effect-of-in-ovo-injection-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-on-the-timing-of-hatching-in-broiler-chickens
#14
Yugo Watanabe, Sylvia V H Grommen, Bert De Groef
In chicken embryos, intravenous injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) causes the release of both corticosteroids and thyroid hormones. These hormones initiate and enhance the hatching process, raising the possibility that CRH treatment of the late chicken embryo could accelerate hatching and/or decrease the spread of hatching. We performed a series of exploratory tests to investigate whether in ovo delivery methods of CRH other than intravenous injection that are more practical in a commercial setting, affect hatching time in broilers...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636279/effects-of-in-ovo-injection-of-chrysin-quercetin-and-ascorbic-acid-on-hatchability-somatic-attributes-hepatic-oxidative-status-and-early-post-hatch-performance-of-broiler-chicks
#15
F Khaligh, A Hassanabadi, H Nassiri-Moghaddam, A Golian, G-A Kalidari
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of in ovo injection of chrysin, quercetin and ascorbic acid on hatchability, somatic attributes, hepatic antioxidant status and early post-hatch growth performance of broiler chicks. Four hundred and eighty embryonated broiler breeder eggs containing live 18-day-old embryos were divided into six groups of 80 eggs each. One group remained intact and served as a control group (i), whereas the other five groups were injected with the prepared injection solutions as follows: (ii) 0...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616387/biosecurity-and-geospatial-analysis-of-mycoplasma-infections-in-poultry-farms-at-al-jabal-al-gharbi-region-of-libya
#16
Abdulwahab Kammon, Paolo Mulatti, Monica Lorenzetto, Nicola Ferre, Monier Sharif, Ibrahim Eldaghayes, Abdunaser Dayhum
Geospatial database of farm locations and biosecurity measures are essential to control disease outbreaks. A study was conducted to establish geospatial database on poultry farms in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region of Libya, to evaluate the biosecurity level of each farm and to determine the seroprevalence of mycoplasma and its relation to biosecurity level. A field team of 7 Veterinarians belongs to the National Center of Animal Health was assigned for data recording and collection of blood samples. Personal information of the producers, geographical locations, biosecurity measures and description of the poultry farms were recorded...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588627/comparative-investigations-of-infectious-runting-and-stunting-syndrome-in-vaccinated-breeder-chicks-by-inactivated-reovirus-and-chicks-from-non-vaccinated-breeders
#17
S P Awandkar, S D Moregaonkar, S J Manwar, B P Kamdi, M B Kulkarni
Reoviruses are important pathogens responsible for poor growth performance and silent losses in the poultry industry. They are associated with many disease and syndromes such as malabsorption (runting and stunting syndrome), respiratory diseases and immunosuppression. Broiler birds are most susceptible to viral infections during the early post hatching period. Therefore, the transfer of maternal immunity to embryonated eggs is proved to be a primary means of protection from viral infections. In the present investigation, growth performance and pathology in breeder vaccinated and non-vaccinated chicks were studied after a challenge with the homologous malabsorption strain of the reovirus...
2017: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508186/effects-of-maternal-zinc-glycine-on-mortality-zinc-concentration-and-antioxidant-status-in-a-developing-embryo-and-1-day-old-chick
#18
Ling Zhang, Jiang-Shui Wang, Qian Wang, Kai-Xuan Li, Tian-Yu Guo, Xue Xiao, Yong-Xia Wang, Xiu-An Zhan
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal zinc glycine (Zn-Gly) supplementation as an alternative for zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) on mortality, zinc (Zn) concentration, and antioxidant status in a developing embryo and 1-day-old chick. Six hundred 39-week-old broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 treatments, each treatment including 5 replicates with 20 birds each. Six treatments received a basal diet (control, 24 mg Zn/kg diet) or a basal diet supplemented with ZnSO4 (80 mg Zn/kg) or Zn-Gly (20, 40, 60, or 80 mg Zn/kg), respectively...
May 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458107/impact-of-transportation-duration-on-stress-responses-in-day-old-chicks-from-young-and-old-breeders
#19
Leonie Jacobs, Evelyne Delezie, Luc Duchateau, Klara Goethals, Bart Ampe, Johan Buyse, Frank Andre Maurice Tuyttens
The aim of this study was to assess the interaction effect of transportation duration and parental age on physiological stress responses and quality in day-old chicks. After hatch, 3240 chicks from either 29-week old (young) or 60-week old (old) broiler breeders were transported for 1.5h (short) or 11h (long). Thereafter, 228 chicks were assessed for quality and blood plasma was assayed for corticosterone (CORT), lactate, glucose, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, increased concentrations can indicate oxidative stress)...
April 25, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441945/epidemiological-investigation-of-mycoplasma-synoviae-in-native-chicken-breeds-in-china
#20
Shi-Kai Sun, Xin Lin, Feng Chen, Ding-Ai Wang, Jun-Peng Lu, Jian-Ping Qin, Ting-Rong Luo
BACKGROUD: Mycoplasma synoviae (M. synoviae) is widely distributed around the world, and leads to serious economic losses in the world every year. Nevertheless, the incidence and epidemiology of M. synoviae infection in China have remained unclear. RESULTS: In this study we demonstrate that over 9773 broiler chicken flocks in 16 Chinese provinces were affected by M. synoviae between 2010 and 2015. Our epidemiological study revealed that M. synoviae was widely prevalent in multi-aged Chinese native breeder chickens, and the prevalence of M...
April 26, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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