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Broiler breeder

Karen Vignale, Justina V Caldas, Judy A England, Nirun Boonsinchai, Phiphob Sodsee, Monticha Putsakum, Erik D Pollock, Sami Dridi, Craig N Coon
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of four different feeding regimens on breast muscle protein turnover in broiler breeder Cobb-500 parent stock (PS) pullets and breeder hens. The four feeding regimens based on BW curves utilized for the study were as follows: Everyday feeding (STD-ED) (Cobb Standard BW curve), skip-a-day feeding (STD-SKIP) (Cobb Standard BW curve), lighter BW (LBW-SKIP) (BW curve 20% under), and heavier BW (HBW-SKIP) (BW curve 20% over). Each feeding regimen was provided to pullets from 4 wk to 21 wk of age...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
Walid Q Alali, Charles L Hofacre
Preharvest food safety in broiler production is a systematic approach to control the introduction, propagation, and dissemination of Salmonella and Campylobacter from breeder flocks to the end of their progeny (broilers) life cycle. New and revised more stringent performance standards for these pathogens at the processing plant level require continuous evaluation of the preharvest management practices and intervention strategies used by the poultry industry. The implementation of stricter biosecurity plans, vaccination of breeder flocks for Salmonella, and usage of feed that is free of animal by-products are some of the measures recommended to control the pathogens...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Keyvan Aminoroaya, Ali Asghar Sadeghi, Zarbakht Ansari-Pirsaraei, Nasser Kashan
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cyclical lower incubation temperature at different embryonic ages on the hatchability, body and organs weights, thyroid hormones, and liver HSP70 gene expression of newly hatched chicks. In a completely randomized design, fertile eggs of a broiler breeder (34 weeks of age) were assigned to three treatment groups with six replicates and 145 eggs per each. The treatment groups were as: control group (C) that eggs were incubated at 37.6°C during the whole incubation period; incubation temperature was decreased to 36°C for 3h per day at embryonic age from 12 to 14 (T1); and incubation temperature was decreased to 36°C for 3h per day at embryonic age from 15 to 17 (T2)...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Gilles Salvat, Marie Guyot, Juliette Protino
AIM: "Label Rouge" broiler free-range carcasses have been monitored since 1991, and broiler flocks since 2010, for contamination by the main foodborne zoonotic bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Initially the monitoring plan mainly focused on the surveillance of Salmonella, and on indicators of the overall microbiological quality of free-range broiler carcasses such as S. aureus and coliforms, but was extended in 2007 to include Campylobacter enumeration on carcasses and in 2010 to Salmonella in the environment of live birds...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
M A Lagares, R Ecco, Nrs Martins, Ljc Lara, Jsr Rocha, Dar Vilela, V M Barbosa, P F Mantovani, Jfv Braga, I S Preis, V A Gheller, P C Cardeal, N C Baião
The objective of this study was to detect the reasons of rooster's fertility decrease at 50 weeks of age. Therefore, the reproductive system of broiler breeder roosters was laparoscopic, macroscopic and histopathology evaluated, and a comparison of the anatomical aspect with the sperm analysis and birds' age was realized. Cobb roosters (n = 59) were distributed into two groups (30 and 50 weeks). Evaluations were performed with laparoscopy, macroscopy and histopathology, and seminal quality, blood serum testosterone concentration and weight were also determined...
September 30, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Shanika Kurukulsuriya, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Davor Ojkic, Thushari Gunawardana, Ashish Gupta, Kalhari Goonewardene, Ruwani Karunaratne, Shelly Popowich, Philip Willson, Suresh K Tikoo, Susantha Gomis
Antibiotic-free and safe animal products are most desirable among consumers. However, ensuring safe poultry products is a challenging task when the chicken immune system is compromised. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression and predisposes chickens to secondary infections. Breeder vaccination against IBDV is routinely practiced for producing chicks with maternally-derived antibody (MAb) to prevent infection in newly hatched chicks. The majority of IBDV circulating in Canadian farms are variant strains (vIBDV)...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
M L Johnson-Dahl, M J Zuidhof, D R Korver
Hen age and nutrition influence chick innate immunity. The immunomodulatory antioxidant carotenoid canthaxanthin is transferred from the hen diet to the egg. Antioxidants could protect the chick from bactericidal oxidative species produced by the immune system. Broiler breeder hen diets were supplemented with 0 (Control), 6 (Low), or 12 (High) mg/kg canthaxanthin. Chick early growth and ex vivo innate immunity were measured at 31 to 33 (Early), 45 to 47 (Mid), and 57 to 59 (Late) wk of hen age. Escherichia coli (E...
September 9, 2016: Poultry Science
I M Gimeno, A L Cortes, N Faiz, T Villalobos, H Badillo, T Barbosa
Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been successfully used as a Marek's disease (MD) vaccine for more than 40 yr. Either alone (broiler chickens) or in combination with vaccines of other serotypes (broilers, broiler breeders, and layers), HVT is used worldwide. In recent years, several vector vaccines based on HVT (rHVT) have been developed. At present, there are both conventional HVT and rHVTs in the market, and it is unknown if all of them confer the same level of protection against MD. The objective of this study was to further characterize the protection conferred by two conventional HVTs (HVT-A and HVT-B) and three recombinant HVTs (rHVT-B, rHVT-C, and rHVT-D) against MD in broiler chickens...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
Jack Gelb, Daral J Jackwood, Erin M Brannick, Brian S Ladman
The efficacy of commercially available recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys-infectious bursal disease (rHVT-IBD) virus vaccines was studied in broiler chickens derived from an IBDV-vaccinated breeder flock at 30 wk of age (Trial 1) and 60 wk of age (Trial 2). In parallel, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens were used to evaluate vaccine efficacy to control for the effects of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) associated with the broiler chickens. Broilers and SPF leghorns were vaccinated subcutaneously in the neck at 1 day of age with Vaxxitek® HVT+IBD or Vectormune® HVT-IBD vaccines and were placed in isolators...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
Floyd D Wilson, Danny L Magee, Kelli H Jones, Erica Baravik-Munsell, Timothy S Cummings, Robert W Wills, Lanny W Pace
Previous studies documented the common occurrence of transitory cyanosis and echocardiographic aortic insufficiency in mature commercial broiler breeder roosters. During further investigations, we observed a high prevalence of hearts exhibiting extensive dilation of the left ventricle chamber compatible with dilated left ventricular cardiomyopathy present in both cyanotic and normal subpopulations. We conducted quantitative studies focused on documentation of cardiac ventricle parameters by using simple gross morphometric methods performed on formalin-fixed hearts obtained from both clinically normal roosters and those exhibiting variable transitory cyanosis, echocardiographic aortic insufficiency, or both...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
Yajin Qu, Litao Liu, Yujuan Niu, Yue Qu, Ning Li, Wei Sun, Chuanwei Lv, Pengfei Wang, Guihua Zhang, Sidang Liu
Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. The ALV-J strain NX0101, which was isolated from broiler breeders in 2001, mainly induced formation of myeloid cell tumors. However, strain HN10PY01, which was recently isolated from laying hens, mainly induces formation of myeloid cell tumors and hemangioma. To identify the molecular pathological mechanism underlying changes in host susceptibility and tumor classification induced by these two types of ALV-J strains, chicken embryo fibroblasts derived from chickens with different genetic backgrounds (broiler breeders and laying hens) and an immortalized chicken embryo fibroblasts (DF-1) were prepared and infected with strain NX0101 or HN10PY01, respectively...
October 1, 2016: Poultry Science
A P Rosa, C E V Bonilla, A Londero, C B S Giacomini, C Orso, M O Fernandes, J S Moura, R Hermes
The aim of study was to evaluate the effect on broiler breeders fed with corn or sorghum diets and canthaxanthin on lipid peroxidation, fatty acid, and offspring's performance. A total of 440 females with similar body weight (BW) (3.77 ± 0.11 kg) and 60 roosters were placed in an open-sided house with 20 pens, randomly distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2). There were 4 diets of 2 ingredients; corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and 2 levels of canthaxanthin; 6 mg/kg (CX) and 0 mg/kg (NCX) totaling five replicate pens of 22 females and 3 males each, from 45 to 65 wk old...
September 6, 2016: Poultry Science
Mohammed El Houadfi, Siham Fellahi, Saadia Nassik, Jean-Luc Guérin, Mariette F Ducatez
BACKGROUND: H9N2 avian influenza viruses continue to spread in poultry and wild birds worldwide. Morocco just faced its first H9N2 influenza virus outbreaks early 2016 affecting different types of poultry production. After its introduction, the virus spread very rapidly throughout the country. METHODS: Samples were collected from 11 chicken flocks with high morbidity and mortality rates. Four viruses were successfully isolated from broiler chickens and one from broiler breeders and fully sequenced...
2016: Virology Journal
Troels Ronco, Marc Stegger, Paal S Andersen, Karl Pedersen, Lili Li, Ida C N Thøfner, Rikke H Olsen
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains have remarkable impacts on animal welfare and the production economy in the poultry industry worldwide. Here, we present the draft genomes of two isolates from chickens (E44 and E51) obtained from field outbreaks and subsequently investigated for their potential for use in autogenous vaccines for broiler breeders.
2016: Genome Announcements
S Henriksen, T Bilde, A B Riber
An elevated brooding temperature during the first wk post hatch of broilers may potentially increase activity levels and reduce welfare problems in terms of non- and slow-starters, lameness, and contact dermatitis. The effects of an elevated brooding temperature the first 7 d post hatch on behavior, welfare, and growth of Ross 308 broilers were investigated. Groups of 28 broilers (14 males and 14 females) were distributed in a balanced way according to their hatching weight (below or above mean), the age of parent breeders (28 or 50 wk of age), and initial brooding temperature (normal 33°C; warm: 37°C) resulting in 8 different treatment groups...
October 1, 2016: Poultry Science
C Salas, R D Ekmay, J A England, S Cerrate, C N Coon
The contribution of dietary, mobilized, or newly synthesized fatty acids in yolk formation at different periods of egg production was determined. In an initial experiment, a single dose of (13)C-linoleic acid was administered to pullets at the onset of egg production and their presence in follicles determined over the subsequent 10 days. In a second experiment, pullets were fed a daily 15 mg dose of U-(13)C-glucose beginning 2 wk prior to sexual maturity through the end of the experimental period. A 50 mg meal of U-(13)C-linoleic acid was orally administered approximately 10 d prior to sexual maturity (defined as first egg) representing body linoleic acid...
July 21, 2016: Poultry Science
X Ren, M Li, C Xu, K Cui, Z Feng, Y Fu, J Zhang, M Liao
A total of 1145 samples were collected from chicken breeder farms, hatcheries, broiler farms, a slaughterhouse and retail refrigerated chicken stores in an integrated broiler supply chain in Guangdong Province, China, in 2013. One-hundred and two Salmonella enterica strains were isolated and subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, virulence profile determination and molecular subtyping by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The contamination rates in samples from breeder farms, hatcheries, broiler farms, the slaughterhouse and retail stores were 1·46%, 4·31%, 7·00%, 62·86% and 54·67%, respectively...
October 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
A S Elmehdawi, M A Hall, P A Skewes, D L Wicker, D V Maurice
1. Two experiments, which differed in breeder age, strain and season, were conducted to study the influence of low-intensity, short-duration thermal stimuli during the late phase of incubation on hatchability and performance. The first experiment conducted in April-June used eggs from Cobb x Ross broiler breeders at 35-41 weeks of age and the second experiment performed in February-April used eggs from Hubbard x Cobb broiler breeders at 49-53 weeks of age. 2. Eggs in the test group had the same physical environment as eggs in the control group except that incubation temperature was increased by 1(o) C for 2 h/d above the control group from 18 to 20 d of incubation (DI)...
July 7, 2016: British Poultry Science
E M Abdelwhab, Christian Grund, Mona M Aly, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder, Hafez M Hafez
Serologic tests are a valuable tool for retrospective surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIV) and monitoring of postvaccination host immune response. Yet collection of serum samples, particularly in adult breeder chickens, is laborious, intrusive to birds, and may pose a serious risk to the biosecurity of a flock. In this study we compared the level of AIV-specific antibody titers in eggs and serum samples obtained from broiler breeder chickens vaccinated at 6, 12, and 18 wk of age with H5N2-inactivated vaccine...
June 2016: Avian Diseases
Saad Gharaibeh, Shadi Amareen
Avian influenza subtype H9N2 is endemic in many countries in the Middle East. The reported prevalence of infection was variable between countries and ranged from 28.7% in Tunisia to 71% in Jordan. Several commercial killed whole-virus vaccine products are used as monovalent or bivalent mixed with Newcastle disease virus. Recently, we have noticed that many of the vaccinated broiler flocks did not show a production advantage over nonvaccinated flocks in the field. A new avian influenza field virus (H9N2) was isolated from these vaccinated and infected broiler flocks in 2013...
May 2016: Avian Diseases
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