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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932233/schizophrenia-risk-alleles-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-childhood-a-population-based-cohort-study
#1
Lucy Riglin, Stephan Collishaw, Alexander Richards, Ajay K Thapar, Barbara Maughan, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia typically onsets after puberty but is often preceded by observable childhood neurodevelopmental impairments. Whether these childhood antecedents index genetic liability is unknown. We used polygenic risk scores derived from a patient discovery sample as indicators of the genetic liability of schizophrenia. Our aim was to identify the early childhood manifestations of this liability in a UK population-based cohort. METHODS: The study sample was the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective population-based cohort study of 14701 children...
December 5, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928857/further-examination-of-predictors-of-turnover-intention-among-mental-health-professionals
#2
N J Yanchus, D Periard, K Osatuke
: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: When mental health professionals leave organizations, detrimental effects on quality of patient care occur. Reasons for leaving include incivility, lack of autonomy, perceptions of unfair treatment and feeling psychologically unsafe at work. This paper sought to investigate additional reasons why mental health professionals intend to quit or to cognitively withdraw from their jobs. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Past research on this topic is limited in its scope and data...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923441/she-s-supporting-them-who-s-supporting-her-preschool-center-level-social-emotional-supports-and-teacher-well-being
#3
Katherine M Zinsser, Claire G Christensen, Luz Torres
Preschool teachers across the country have been charged to prepare children socially and emotionally for kindergarten. Teachers working in preschool centers are supporting children's social and emotional learning (SEL) within a rich ecology of emotion and social relationships and the present study considers how the supports implemented for children's SEL at the center-level are associated with teachers' psychological health and workplace experiences. Hierarchical linear models were constructed using data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort...
December 2016: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918323/group-psychotherapeutic-factors-and-perceived-social-support-among-veterans-with-ptsd-symptoms
#4
Daniel W Cox, Jess J Owen, John S Ogrodniczuk
One of the most potent protective factors against psychiatric symptoms after military trauma is perceived social support. Although group psychotherapy has been linked with increasing social support, no research has evaluated which therapeutic mechanisms are associated with this increase beyond symptom reduction. We investigated which interpersonal therapeutic factors were related to changes in social support, beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom reduction. Participants were 117 veterans in a multimodal outpatient group psychotherapy treatment designed to reduce PTSD symptoms and interpersonal difficulties...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917473/maternal-deprivation-alters-expression-of-neural-maturation-gene-tbr1-in-the-amygdala-paralaminar-nucleus-in-infant-female-macaques
#5
Danielle M de Campo, Judy L Cameron, Joseph M Miano, David A Lewis, Karoly Mirnics, Julie L Fudge
Early parental loss is associated with social-emotional dysregulation and amygdala physiologic changes. Previously, we examined whole amygdala gene expression in infant monkeys exposed to early maternal deprivation. Here, we focus on an amygdala region with immature neurons at birth: the paralaminar nucleus (PL). We hypothesized that 1) the normal infant PL is enriched in a subset of neural maturation (NM) genes compared to a nearby amygdala subregion; and 2) maternal deprivation would downregulate expression of NM transcripts (mRNA)...
December 4, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914356/can-podcasts-for-assessment-guidance-and-feedback-promote-self-efficacy-among-undergraduate-nursing-students-a-qualitative-study
#6
Linda C McSwiggan, Maureen Campbell
BACKGROUND: Improving assessment guidance and feedback for students has become an international priority within higher education. Podcasts have been proposed as a tool for enhancing teaching, learning and assessment. However, a stronger theory-based rationale for using podcasts, particularly as a means of facilitating assessment guidance and feedback, is required. OBJECTIVE: To explore students' experiences of using podcasts for assessment guidance and feedback...
November 27, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#7
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909401/implicit-learning-in-transient-global-amnesia-and-the-role-of-stress
#8
Frauke Nees, Martin Griebe, Anne Ebert, Michaela Ruttorf, Benjamin Gerber, Oliver T Wolf, Lothar R Schad, Achim Gass, Kristina Szabo
Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder with reversible anterograde disturbance of explicit memory, frequently preceded by an emotionally or physically stressful event. By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following an episode of TGA, small hippocampal lesions have been observed. Hence it has been postulated that the disorder is caused by the stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. In experimental studies, stress has been shown to affect both explicit and implicit learning-the latter defined as learning and memory processes that lack conscious awareness of the information acquired...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904573/clinical-teaching-with-emotional-intelligence-a-teaching-toolbox
#9
REVIEW
Athar Omid, Fariba Haghani, Peyman Adibi
BACKGROUND: Emotional intelligence (EI) helps humans to perceive their own and others' emotions. It helps to make better interpersonal communication that consequently leads to an increase in everyday performance and professional career. Teaching, particularly teaching in the clinical environment, is among the professions that need a high level of EI due to its relevance to human interactions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We adopted EI competencies with characteristics of a good clinical teacher...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899036/learning-from-the-minds-of-others-a-review-of-social-cognition-treatments-and-their-relevance-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Anneli Cassel, Skye McDonald, Michelle Kelly, Leanne Togher
Social cognition is widely regarded as an essential skill with which to understand the social world. Despite this, the role that social cognition plays in outcome, and whether deficits are remediable after traumatic brain injury (TBI), are not yet well known. The current review examines the construct of social cognition and presents a conceptual biopsychosocial model with which to understand the social cognitive process. This is related to the literature on social cognitive deficits in TBI and we discuss relevant treatment developments to date within this population...
November 30, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895562/brain-computation-is-organized-via-power-of-two-based-permutation-logic
#11
Kun Xie, Grace E Fox, Jun Liu, Cheng Lyu, Jason C Lee, Hui Kuang, Stephanie Jacobs, Meng Li, Tianming Liu, Sen Song, Joe Z Tsien
There is considerable scientific interest in understanding how cell assemblies-the long-presumed computational motif-are organized so that the brain can generate intelligent cognition and flexible behavior. The Theory of Connectivity proposes that the origin of intelligence is rooted in a power-of-two-based permutation logic (N = 2 (i) -1), producing specific-to-general cell-assembly architecture capable of generating specific perceptions and memories, as well as generalized knowledge and flexible actions. We show that this power-of-two-based permutation logic is widely used in cortical and subcortical circuits across animal species and is conserved for the processing of a variety of cognitive modalities including appetitive, emotional and social information...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893185/women-s-pathways-to-abortion-care-in-south-carolina-a-qualitative-study-of-obstacles-and-supports
#12
Judy Margo, Lois McCloskey, Gouri Gupte, Melanie Zurek, Seema Bhakta, Emily Feinberg
CONTEXT: Women seeking timely and affordable abortion care may face myriad challenges, including high out-of-pocket costs, transportation demands, scheduling difficulties and stigma. State-level regulations may exacerbate these burdens and impede women's access to a full range of care. Women's reports of their experiences can inform efforts to improve pathways to abortion care. METHODS: In 2014, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 women obtaining abortions in South Carolina, which has a restrictive abortion environment...
November 28, 2016: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882583/how-clinical-medical-students-perceive-others-to-influence-their-self-regulated-learning
#13
Joris J Berkhout, Esther Helmich, Pim W Teunissen, Cees P M van der Vleuten, A Debbie C Jaarsma
OBJECTIVES: Undergraduate medical students are prone to struggle with learning in clinical environments. One of the reasons may be that they are expected to self-regulate their learning, which often turns out to be difficult. Students' self-regulated learning is an interactive process between person and context, making a supportive context imperative. From a socio-cultural perspective, learning takes place in social practice, and therefore teachers and other hospital staff present are vital for students' self-regulated learning in a given context...
November 23, 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882187/child-teacher-and-parent-perceptions-of-the-friends-classroom-based-universal-anxiety-prevention-programme-a-qualitative-study
#14
Elena Skryabina, Joanna Morris, Danielle Byrne, Nicola Harkin, Sarah Rook, Paul Stallard
School-based mental health prevention programmes can be effective but their adoption within schools will depend on their social acceptability. We report a qualitative evaluation summarising the views of children (115), parents (20) and school staff (47) about a universal school-based anxiety prevention programme FRIENDS. This study was conducted as part of a large scale randomised controlled trial (n = 1362) involving 40 schools in the UK providing primary education to children aged 7-11. Reported overall experience of the programme was very positive, with all three major components of the cognitive behaviour therapy programme (emotional, cognitive, and behavioural) being accepted well and understood by children...
2016: School Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878836/social-comparison-personal-relative-deprivation-and-materialism
#15
Hyunji Kim, Mitchell J Callan, Ana I Gheorghiu, William J Matthews
Across five studies, we found consistent evidence for the idea that personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of deserved outcomes compared to others, uniquely contributes to materialism. In Study 1, self-reports of PRD positively predicted materialistic values over and above socioeconomic status, personal power, self-esteem, and emotional uncertainty. The experience of PRD starts with social comparison, and Studies 2 and 3 found that PRD mediated the positive relation between a tendency to make social comparisons of abilities and materialism...
November 23, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878376/amygdala-structure-and-aggressiveness-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#16
Falk Mancke, Sabine C Herpertz, Dusan Hirjak, Rebekka Knies, Katja Bertsch
Aggressiveness is considered an important clinical feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and has been associated with alterations of the amygdala. However, studies that analyzed the exact location of amygdala alterations associated with aggressiveness in BPD or that systematically compared female and male BPD patients are missing. In the current study, we therefore investigated a sex-mixed sample of BPD patients and healthy volunteers and applied an automated segmentation method that allows the study of both, alterations of amygdala volume and localized amygdala shape...
November 22, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876688/online-concerns-of-parents-suspecting-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-their-child-content-analysis-of-signs-and-automated-prediction-of-risk
#17
Ayelet Ben-Sasson, Elad Yom-Tov
BACKGROUND: Online communities are used as platforms by parents to verify developmental and health concerns related to their child. The increasing public awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) leads more parents to suspect ASD in their child. Early identification of ASD is important for early intervention. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the symptoms mentioned in online queries posed by parents who suspect that their child might have ASD and determine whether they are age-specific...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869047/children-s-exposure-to-violent-political-conflict-stimulates-aggression-at-peers-by-increasing-emotional-distress-aggressive-script-rehearsal-and-normative-beliefs-favoring-aggression
#18
L Rowell Huesmann, Eric F Dubow, Paul Boxer, Simha F Landau, Shira Dvir Gvirsman, Khalil Shikaki
We examine the hypothesis that children's exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence over the course of a year stimulates their increased aggression toward their own in-group peers in subsequent years. In addition, we examine what social cognitive and emotional processes mediate these effects and how these effects are moderated by gender, age, and ethnic group. To accomplish these aims, we collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents at 1-year intervals...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857224/postnatal-auditory-preferences-in-piglets-differ-according-to-maternal-emotional-experience-with-the-same-sounds-during-gestation
#19
Céline Tallet, Marine Rakotomahandry, Carole Guérin, Alban Lemasson, Martine Hausberger
Prenatal sensory experience, notably auditory experience, is a source of fetal memories in many species. The contiguity between sensory stimuli and maternal emotional reactions provides opportunity for associative learning in utero but no clear evidence for this associative learning has been presented to date. Understanding this phenomenon would advance our knowledge of fetal sensory learning capacities. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that sounds (human voice) broadcast to pregnant sows while they experienced positive or negative emotional situations influences postnatal reactions of their offspring to these same sounds...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854447/cerebellar-response-to-familiar-and-novel-stimuli-an-fmri-study
#20
Meghan D Caulfield, David C Zhu, J Devin McAuley, Richard J Servatius
Historically known for its key contribution to motor behavior, the cerebellum continues to break boundaries. Researchers have demonstrated the cerebellum also plays a role in learning, memory, and more recent evidence for contributions in language, attention, working memory, emotions, and social processes. Here, we present a study that adds to the list of nonmotor processes of the cerebellum. We used images of faces and outdoor scenes to examine the cerebellar response to familiar and novel stimuli. Participants were familiarized with a subset of stimuli, and then underwent functional MRI (fMRI) where they were presented with the previously stimuli and new stimuli while making "old" and "new" judgment...
December 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
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