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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225843/-poverty-and-mental-disability-in-the-criminal-law-the-invisibles
#1
Ezequiel N Mercurio
In recent decades neuroscience research show the negative consequences of poverty in cognitive development. Environmental factors, such as material deprivation, exposure to stressful situations, violence, nutritional deprivation, environmental toxins may shape the developing brain. The changes of the structure and function of the brain since prenatal stages and their consequences can remain stable throughout the life cycle except early interventions are made. Research investigating have found significant link between child poverty and function and structural brain focusing on prefrontal cortex (i...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220025/management-of-cancer-in-the-older-age-person-an-approach-to-complex-medical-decisions
#2
Maria Vallet-Regí, Miguel Manzano, Leocadio Rodriguez-Mañas, Marta Checa López, Matti Aapro, Lodovico Balducci
The management of cancer in older aged people is becoming a common problem due to the aging of the population. There are many variables determining the complex situation that are interconnected. Some of them can be assessed, such as risk of mortality and risk of treatment complications, but many others are still unknown, such as the course of disease, the host-related factors that influence cancer aggressiveness, and the phenotype heralding risk of permanent treatment-related damage.This article presents a dynamic and personalized approach to older people with cancer based on our experience on aging, cancer, and their biological interactions...
February 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217305/redesigning-care-delivery-with-patient-support-personnel-learning-from-accountable-care-organizations
#3
Ksenia O Gorbenko, Taressa Fraze, Valerie A Lewis
INTRODUCTION: Accountable care organizations (ACOs) are a value-based payment model in the United States rooted in holding groups of healthcare providers financially accountable for the quality and total cost of care of their attributed population. To succeed in reaching their quality and efficiency goals, ACOs implement a variety of care delivery changes, including workforce redesign. Patient support personnel (PSP)-non-physician staff such as care coordinators, community health workers, and others-are critical to restructuring care delivery...
September 2016: Int J Care Coord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213889/social-emotional-competence-an-essential-factor-for-promoting-positive-adjustment-and-reducing-risk-in-school-children
#4
Celene E Domitrovich, Joseph A Durlak, Katharine C Staley, Roger P Weissberg
Social-emotional competence is a critical factor to target with universal preventive interventions that are conducted in schools because the construct (a) associates with social, behavioral, and academic outcomes that are important for healthy development; (b) predicts important life outcomes in adulthood; (c) can be improved with feasible and cost-effective interventions; and (d) plays a critical role in the behavior change process. This article reviews this research and what is known about effective intervention approaches...
February 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173849/rigour-and-rapport-a-qualitative-study-of-parents-and-professionals-experiences-of-joint-agency-infant-death-investigation
#5
Joanna Garstang, Frances Griffiths, Peter Sidebotham
BACKGROUND: In many countries there are now detailed Child Death Review (CDR) processes following unexpected child deaths. CDR can lead to a fuller understanding of the causes for each child's death but this potentially intrusive process may increase the distress of bereaved families. In England, a joint agency approach (JAA) is used where police, healthcare and social services investigate sudden child deaths together and a key part of this is the joint home visit (JHV) where specialist police and paediatricians visit the home with the parents to view the scene of death...
February 7, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163852/intention-of-continuing-to-use-the-hospital-information-system-integrating-the-elaboration-likelihood-social-influence-and-cognitive-learning
#6
Mehrdad Farzandipour, Hashem Mohamadian, Niloufar Sohrabi
INTRODUCTION: Anticipating effective factors in information system acceptance by using persuasive messages, is one of the main issues less focused on so far. This is one of the first attempts at using the elaboration-likelihood model combined with the perception of emotional, cognitive, self-efficacy, informational and normative influence constructs, in order to investigate the determinants of intention to continue use of the hospital information system in Iran. METHODS: The present study is a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014...
December 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156475/usability-and-acceptance-of-novel-personal-health-technology-to-support-early-palliative-care-for-patients-with-cancer-and-caregivers
#7
Sarah C Reed, Katherine Kim, Victoria Ngo, Wendy Wait, Ester Apesoa-Varano, Joy Morgan, Robin L Whitney, Emma Blackmon, Jill Joseph
: 73 Background: Little research has assessed whether and how technology can support early palliative care. Our team developed a HIPAA-compliant, cloud-based Personal Health Network (PHN) with a secure, online network of family, caregivers, clinicians and service providers designated by the patient; symptom reporting/management resources; and support for communication among network members via audio/video conferencing, messaging, and document sharing. This study examines PHN usability and acceptance, and identifies additional functions for early palliative care...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152334/a-comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-weight-shift-vs-joystick-control-of-a-robotic-mobility-device-by-infants-ages-5-to-10-months
#8
Sharon Stansfield, Carole Dennis, Rachel Altman, Janelle Smith, Hélène Larin
The onset of crawling in infants contributes to cognitive, perceptual, social, and emotional development. Conversely, infants with motor impairment that delays or prevents autonomous mobility often have associated developmental delays. Evidence suggests that providing mobility may have positive developmental outcomes, however powered wheelchairs may not be recommended for very young children, due to safety concerns and the child's level of cognitive maturity. The WeeBot is a mobility device controlled by infant weight shifting while seated; infants as young as 5 months have learned to use it...
February 2, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143960/targeted-reactivation-during-sleep-differentially-affects-negative-memories-in-socially-anxious-and-healthy-children-and-adolescents
#9
S Groch, A Preiss, D McMakin, B Rasch, S Walitza, R Huber, I Wilhelm
: Cognitive models propose a negative memory bias as one key factor contributing to the emergence and maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The long-term consolidation of memories relies on memory reactivations during sleep. We investigated in SAD patients and healthy controls the role of memory reactivations during sleep in the long-term consolidation of positive and negative information. Socially anxious and healthy children and adolescents learnt associations between pictures showing ambiguous situations and positive or negative words defining the situations' outcome...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141718/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-behavior-regulation-and-virtual-school-support
#10
Claire Wallace, Carolyn E Ievers-Landis, Catherine Scherer, Nancy Roizen, Marilyn Augustyn
Tony is a 6-year-old multiracial boy diagnosed as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-combined type who is followed in your primary care practice and has started on a stimulant medication. Tony continues to have difficulty with emotion regulation and impulse control both at home and at school. He was asked to leave his private school soon after beginning first grade because of physical fighting, emotional outbursts, and arguing with teachers.His mother made the decision to enroll Tony in online virtual schooling for the remainder of the academic year, with the plan to transition back to traditional school for the next academic year...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134015/transforming-narratives-into-educational-tools-the-collaborative-development-of-a-transformative-learning-tool-based-on-nicaraguan-adolescents-creative-writing-about-intimate-partner-violence
#11
Robyn Singleton, María de la Paz Picado Araúz, Kathleen Trocin, Kate Winskell
The use of narrative has become increasingly popular in the public health, community development, and education fields. Via emotionally engaging plotlines with authentic, captivating characters, stories provide an opportunity for participants to be carried away imaginatively into the characters' world while connecting the story with their own lived experiences. Stories have been highlighted as valuable tools in transformative learning. However, little published literature exists demonstrating applications of stories in group-based transformative learning curricula...
January 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117000/vasopressin-and-related-peptides-potential-value-in-diagnosis-prognosis-and-treatment-of-clinical-disorders
#12
Ewa Szczepanska-Sadowska, Tymoteusz Zera, Piotr Sosnowski, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Anna Puszko, Aleksandra Misicka
Vasopressin (AVP) and its receptors play a pivotal role in maintaining body homeostasis under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. As a consequence, the vasopressin system has emerged as an important target for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in a number of medical conditions. Stoichiometric generation of AVP with copeptin, which is relatively accessible in the blood for measurements, makes copeptin a valuable surrogate of AVP. In this review, we present the regulation of release of AVP and activation of V1a, V1b, and V2 vasopressin receptors under physiological and pathological conditions...
January 19, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114293/an-intra-amygdala-circuit-specifically-regulates-social-fear-learning
#13
Robert C Twining, Jaime E Vantrease, Skyelar Love, Mallika Padival, J Amiel Rosenkranz
Adaptive social behavior requires transmission and reception of salient social information. Impairment of this reciprocity is a cardinal symptom of autism. The amygdala is a critical mediator of social behavior and is implicated in social symptoms of autism. Here we found that a specific amygdala circuit, from the lateral nucleus to the medial nucleus (LA-MeA), is required for using social cues to learn about environmental cues that signal imminent threats. Disruption of the LA-MeA circuit impaired valuation of these environmental cues and subsequent ability to use a cue to guide behavior...
January 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110679/the-effects-of-alcohol-on-emotion-in-social-drinkers
#14
Michael A Sayette
Understanding why people drink alcohol and in some cases develop drinking problems has long puzzled researchers, clinicians, and patients alike. In the mid-1940s and early 1950s, experimental research began to systematically investigate alcohol's hedonic properties. Presumably, alcohol consumption would prove reinforcing as a consequence of its capacity either to relieve stress or to brighten positive emotional experiences. This article reviews experimental research through the years examining the impact of alcohol on both the relief of negative affect and the enhancement of positive affect...
January 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108926/prospective-associations-between-peer-victimization-and-dispositional-mindfulness-in-early-adolescence
#15
Nathaniel R Riggs, Samantha M Brown
Peer victimization is associated with several mental health and behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence. Identifying prospective associations between victimization and factors known to protect against these problems may ultimately contribute to more precise developmental models for victimization's role in behavioral and mental health. This study tested prospective associations between peer victimization and dispositional mindfulness, defined by non-judgmental and accepting awareness of the constant stream of lived experience, during early adolescence...
January 20, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107682/happy-faces-sad-faces-emotion-understanding-in-toddlers-and-preschoolers-with-language-impairments
#16
Carolien Rieffe, Carin H Wiefferink
BACKGROUND: The capacity for emotion recognition and understanding is crucial for daily social functioning. We examined to what extent this capacity is impaired in young children with a Language Impairment (LI). In typical development, children learn to recognize emotions in faces and situations through social experiences and social learning. Children with LI have less access to these experiences and are therefore expected to fall behind their peers without LI. METHOD: In this study, 89 preschool children with LI and 202 children without LI (mean age 3 years and 10 months in both groups) were tested on three indices for facial emotion recognition (discrimination, identification, and attribution in emotion evoking situations)...
January 17, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102116/the-role-of-participant-responsiveness-on-a-socio-emotional-learning-program
#17
Nádia Salgado Pereira, Alexandra Marques-Pinto
The present study set out to evaluate participant responsiveness, one of the main dimensions of implementation quality, in a Socio-Emotional Learning after-school program using Educational Dance activities, Experiencing Emotions, and also to understand its influence on program outcomes. The sample involved 98 middle-school Portuguese pupils, 53 of whom participated in the program and 45 in after-school control sessions. Outcome measures included pre-test and post-test questionnaires of pupils' socio-emotional skills, well-being and school engagement...
January 19, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073351/exploring-neurodevelopmental-outcome-measures-used-in-children-with-cerebral-malaria-the-perspectives-of-caregivers-and-health-workers-in-malawi
#18
Emmie W Mbale, Terrie Taylor, Bernard Brabin, Macpherson Mallewa, Melissa Gladstone
BACKGROUND: Progress has been made in tackling malaria however there are still over 207 million cases worldwide, the majority in children. As survival rates improve, numbers of children with long-term neurodisabling sequelae are likely to increase. Most outcome studies in cerebral malaria (CM) have focused only on body function and structure and less on outcomes within the broader framework of the International Classification of Functioning and Disability (ICF). The aim of this study was to utilise qualitative methods to identify relevant clinical outcomes in CM to support formulation of a core outcome set relevant to CM and other acquired brain injuries for use in future clinical trials...
January 10, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070106/excessive-activation-of-ahr-signaling-disrupts-neuronal-migration-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-region-in-the-developing-mouse
#19
Eiki Kimura, Ken-Ichiro Kubo, Toshihiro Endo, Kazunori Nakajima, Masaki Kakeyama, Chiharu Tohyama
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) avidly binds dioxin, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. Disruption of downstream AhR signaling has been reported to alter neuronal development, and rodent offspring exposed to dioxin during gestation and lactation showed abnormalities in learning and memory, emotion, and social behavior. However, the mechanism behind the disrupted AhR signaling and developmental neurotoxicity induced by xenobiotic ligands remains elusive. Therefore, we studied how excessive AhR activation affects neuronal migration in the hippocampal CA1 region of the developing mouse brain...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064386/brief-supportive-expressive-group-therapy-for-partners-of-men-with-early-stage-prostate-cancer-lessons-learned-from-a-negative-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Linda E Carlson, Codie R Rouleau, Michael Speca, John Robinson, Barry D Bultz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a negative randomized controlled trial, which piloted brief supportive-expressive therapy (SET) for partners of men with prostate cancer, and to discuss lessons learned for future clinical trials. METHODS: Partners of men with newly diagnosed, non-metastatic prostate cancer were randomized to SET (n = 45) or usual care (n = 32). SET involved six weekly group sessions emphasizing emotional expression, social support, and finding meaning in the cancer experience...
January 7, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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