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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691904/pathological-classification-of-equine-recurrent-laryngeal-neuropathy
#1
REVIEW
Alexandra C E Draper, Richard J Piercy
Recurrent Laryngeal Neuropathy (RLN) is a highly prevalent and predominantly left-sided, degenerative disorder of the recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLn) of tall horses, that causes inspiratory stridor at exercise because of intrinsic laryngeal muscle paresis. The associated laryngeal dysfunction and exercise intolerance in athletic horses commonly leads to surgical intervention, retirement or euthanasia with associated financial and welfare implications. Despite speculation, there is a lack of consensus and conflicting evidence supporting the primary classification of RLN, as either a distal ("dying back") axonopathy or as a primary myelinopathy and as either a (bilateral) mononeuropathy or a polyneuropathy; this uncertainty hinders etiological and pathophysiological research...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691480/an-estimation-of-the-prevalence-of-genomic-disorders-using-chromosomal-microarray-data
#2
Madelyn A Gillentine, Philip J Lupo, Pawel Stankiewicz, Christian P Schaaf
Multiple genomic disorders result from recurrent deletions or duplications between low copy repeat (LCR) clusters, mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination. These copy number variants (CNVs) often exhibit variable expressivity and/or incomplete penetrance. However, the population prevalence of many genomic disorders has not been estimated accurately. A subset of genomic disorders similarly characterized by CNVs between LCRs have been studied epidemiologically, including Williams-Beuren syndrome (7q11...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690884/capsaicin-enriched-diet-ameliorates-autoimmune-neuritis-in-rats
#3
Jeremias Motte, Björn Ambrosius, Thomas Grüter, Hussein Bachir, Melissa Sgodzai, Xiomara Pedreiturria, Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Ralf Gold
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune neuropathies are common PNS disorders and effective treatment is challenging. Environmental influence and dietary components are known to affect the course of autoimmune diseases. Capsaicin as pungent component of chili-peppers is common in human nutrition. An influence of capsaicin on autoimmune diseases has been postulated. METHODS: We tested capsaicin in the animal model of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) in Lewis rat. Rats were immunized with P2-peptide and were treated with capsaicin in different preventive settings...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690828/evidence-for-increased-mri-signal-intensity-and-morphological-changes-in-the-brachial-plexus-and-median-nerves-of-patients-with-chronic-arm-and-neck-pain-following-whiplash-injury
#4
Jane Greening, Kamakshi Anantharaman, Rupert Young, Andrew Dilley
Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background Whiplash following a motor vehicle accident can result in chronic neck and arm pain. Patients frequently present with cutaneous hypersensitivities and hypoesthesia but without obvious clinical sign of nerve injury. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has previously been used to identify nerve pathology. Objectives To determine whether there are signs of peripheral nerve pathology on MRI in patients with chronic arm and neck pain following whiplash injury...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690804/expression-of-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-in-footpad-skin-lesions-with-diabetic-neuropathy
#5
Sun Up Noh, Won-Young Lee, Won-Serk Kim, Yong-Taek Lee, Kyung Jae Yoon
Background Diabetic neuropathy (DN) originating in distal lower extremities is associated with pain early in the disease course, overwhelming in the feet. However, the pathogenesis of DN remains unclear. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been implicated in the onset of neuropathic pain and the development of diabetes. Objective of this study was to observe pain syndromes elicited in the footpad of DN rat model and to assess the contributory role of MIF in the pathogenesis of DN. Methods DN was made in SD rats by streptozotocin (STZ)...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690612/neuroprotective-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-rhus-coriaria-extract-in-a-mouse-model-of-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#6
Saba Khalilpour, Ghazaleh Behnammanesh, Fouad Suede, Mohammed O Ezzat, Jayadhisan Muniandy, Yasser Tabana, Mohamed Khadeer Ahamed, Ali Tamayol, Amin Malik Shah Majid, Enrico Sangiovanni, Mario Dell'Agli, Aman Shah Majid
Modulating oxidative stresses and inflammation can potentially prevent or alleviate the pathological conditions of diseases associated with the nervous system, including ischemic optic neuropathy. In this study we evaluated the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective activities of Rhus coriaria ( R. coriaria) extract in vivo. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) for DPPH, ABTS and β⁻carotene were 6.79 ± 0.009 µg/mL, 10.94 ± 0.09 µg/mL, and 6...
April 23, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689688/swimming-exercise-induced-reversed-expression-of-mir-96-and-its-target-gene-nav1-3-in-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-in-rats
#7
Amir Mahmoudi Aghdam, Parviz Shahabi, Elham Karimi-Sales, Rafigheh Ghiasi, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Javad Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza Alipour
Diabetes is a common metabolic disease which leads to diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Recently, the role of microRNA-96 (miR-96) in alleviating neuropathic pain by inhibiting the expression of NaV1.3, an isoform of voltage-gated sodium channels, has been shown. Peripheral nerve injuries result in NaV1.3 elevation. Exercise has beneficial role in diabetes management and peripheral neuropathy. However, the effects of exercise on miR-96 and its target gene NaV1.3 in diabetic rats are unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of exercise training on the expression of miR-96 and NaV1...
April 25, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689231/rab-gtpases-and-membrane-trafficking-in-neurodegeneration
#8
REVIEW
Ferdi Ridvan Kiral, Friederike Elisabeth Kohrs, Eugene Jennifer Jin, Peter Robin Hiesinger
Defects in membrane trafficking are hallmarks of neurodegeneration. Rab GTPases are key regulators of membrane trafficking. Alterations of Rab GTPases, or the membrane compartments they regulate, are associated with virtually all neuronal activities in health and disease. The observation that many Rab GTPases are associated with neurodegeneration has proven a challenge in the quest for cause and effect. Neurodegeneration can be a direct consequence of a defect in membrane trafficking. Alternatively, changes in membrane trafficking may be secondary consequences or cellular responses...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689030/checkpoint-inhibitor-immune-therapy-systemic-indications-and-ophthalmic-side-effects
#9
Lauren A Dalvin, Carol L Shields, Marlana Orloff, Takami Sato, Jerry A Shields
PURPOSE: To review immune checkpoint inhibitor indications and ophthalmic side effects. METHODS: A literature review was performed using a PubMed search for publications between 1990 and 2017. RESULTS: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are designed to treat system malignancies by targeting one of three ligands, leading to T-cell activation for attack against malignant cells. These ligands (and targeted drug) include cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4, ipilimumab), programmed death protein 1 (PD-1, pembrolizumab, nivolumab), and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1, atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab)...
April 23, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688962/deterioration-in-distortion-product-otoacoustic-emissions-in-auditory-neuropathy-patients-with-distinct-clinical-and-genetic-backgrounds
#10
Kyoko Kitao, Hideki Mutai, Kazunori Namba, Noriko Morimoto, Atsuko Nakano, Yukiko Arimoto, Tomoko Sugiuchi, Sawako Masuda, Yasuhide Okamoto, Noriko Morita, Hirokazu Sakamoto, Tomoko Shintani, Satoshi Fukuda, Kimitaka Kaga, Tatsuo Matsunaga
OBJECTIVES: Auditory neuropathy (AN) is a clinical disorder characterized by the absence of auditory brainstem response and presence of otoacoustic emissions. A gradual loss of otoacoustic emissions has been reported for some cases of AN. Such cases could be diagnosed as cochlear hearing loss and lead to misunderstanding of the pathology when patients first visit clinics after the loss of otoacoustic emissions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of changes in distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in association with patients' genetic and clinical backgrounds, including the use of hearing aids...
April 23, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688520/comparison-of-2-anti-pla2r-immunoassays-for-the-diagnosis-of-primary-membranous-nephropathy
#11
Weihao Li, Yaping Guo, Zhiping Zhang, Feifei Zhang, Xiaomei Liu, Xin Ji, Lixia Liu, Hong Wang
Background: Anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R) is a promising biomarker for diagnosis, activity evaluation, therapy monitoring, and prognostic estimation of primary membranous neuropathy (pMN). Difference in methodology may be one cause of the discrepancy in anti-PLA2R-positive percentages in reported studies. In this study, we evaluated the determination consistency of anti-PLA2R using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Methods: A total of 113 patients with pMN, 34 with secondary membranous neuropathy (sMN), and 53 healthy control individuals were enrolled...
April 23, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688089/central-scotoma-in-tobacco-alcohol-toxic-optic-neuropathy-measured-with-semi-automated-kinetic-perimetry
#12
Katarzyna Nowomiejska, Agnieszka Kiszka, Ryszard Maciejewski, Anselm Jünemann, Robert Rejdak
PURPOSE: To measure the area of central scotoma obtained with semi-automated kinetic perimetry (SKP) in patients suffering from tobacco-alcohol toxic neuropathy (TATN). METHODS: Twelve eyes of six patients with TATN were examined with SKP. Area of central scotoma was measured in square degrees (deg2 ). Additionally, static automated perimetry (SAP) within 60° was performed in each patient. RESULTS: Area of central scotoma was 41.8 deg2 for III4e isopter, 22...
April 24, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687564/clinical-spectrum-and-quality-of-life-qol-in-patients-with-chronic-polyneuropathy-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
M S Panduranga, Deepti Vibha, Kameshwar Prasad, Achal Kumar Srivastava, Garima Shukla
Chronic polyneuropathy is a disabling condition of the peripheral nerves, characterized by symmetrical sensory motor symptoms and signs. There is paucity of studies on the etiological spectrum of polyneuropathy and its impact on quality of life. The present cross sectional study in a referral based tertiary care center in North India found diabetic neuropathy as the commonest cause (25.5%) amongst 212 patients with chronic polyneuropathy. Idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy was present in 14.2% patients. Leprosy presenting as confluent mononeuritis multiplex constituted 11...
April 23, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687216/fluoxetine-pretreatment-enhances-neurogenic-angiogenic-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-mscs-on-experimentally-induced-diabetic-neuropathy
#14
Shaimaa A Abdelrahman, Mai A Samak, Sally M Shalaby
Being one of the most debilitating complications among diabetic patients, diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is a paramount point of continuous research. Stem cell therapies have shown promising results. However, limited cell survival and paracrine activities hinder its transfer from bench to bedside. We designed this study to evaluate fluoxetine-pretreatment technique of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an approach to enhance their paracrine and immunomodulatory properties in DPN. Effects of fluoxetine treatment of MSCs were tested in vitro...
April 23, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687021/myelin-protein-zero-mutations-and-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-type-1b
#15
Yunhong Bai, Xingyao Wu, Kathryn M Brennan, David S Wang, Maurizio D'Antonio, John Moran, John Svaren, Michael E Shy
Objective: To determine the prevalence of MPZ mutations that cause Charcot Marie Tooth neuropathy type 1B (CMT1B) and activate the unfolded protein Response (UPR). Background: CMT1B is caused by >200 heterozygous mutations in MPZ , the major protein in peripheral nerve myelin. Mutations Ser63del MPZ and Arg98Cys MPZ cause the mutant protein to be retained in the ER and activate the generally adaptive UPR. Treatments that modulate UPR activation have improved cellular and rodent models of CMT1B raising the possibility that other MPZ mutations that activate the UPR would also respond favorably to similar treatment...
April 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687018/diabetes-and-obesity-are-the-main-metabolic-drivers-of-peripheral-neuropathy
#16
Brian C Callaghan, LeiLi Gao, Yufeng Li, Xianghai Zhou, Evan Reynolds, Mousumi Banerjee, Rodica Pop-Busui, Eva L Feldman, Linong Ji
Objective: To determine the associations between individual metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and peripheral neuropathy in a large population-based cohort from Pinggu, China. Methods: A cross-sectional, randomly selected, population-based survey of participants from Pinggu, China was performed. Metabolic phenotyping and neuropathy outcomes were performed by trained personnel. Glycemic status was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria, and the MetS using modified consensus criteria (body mass index instead of waist circumference)...
April 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686181/the-effectiveness-of-aerobic-exercise-in-improving-peripheral-nerve-functions-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-an-evidence-based-case-report
#17
Listya Tresnanti Mirtha, Viandini Permatahati
BACKGROUND: peripheral neuropathy is known as one of most common complication in diabetes mellitus type 2 patient. This complication is caused by uncontrolled condition of blood glucose level in long periode. Regular physical activity in moderate to high intensity is beneficial in management of diabetes mellitus. This report aimed to know the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in causing improved peripheral functions in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: literature searching using several related keywords in Medline®, Pubmed®, and Cochrane library, following inclusion and exclusion criteria...
January 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685738/-idiopathic-orbital-inflammatory-syndrome-report-of-24-cases
#18
S Khochtali, M Zayani, I Ksiaa, I Ben Meriem, S Zaouali, B Jelliti, M Khairallah
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS) is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology. The inflammation may affect all the structures within the orbit (anterior, diffuse, apical, myositic, dacryoadenitis) and corresponds to uniquely orbital inflammation without an identifiable local cause or systemic disease. The goal of this study is to describe the clinical and radiographic characteristics of IOIS and discuss the role of orbital biopsy in this condition. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective review of the charts of 24 patients diagnosed with IOIS at Fattouma Bourguiba hospital, Monastir, Tunisia, from January 2007 to December 2015...
April 20, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685413/a-cavernous-sinus-lesion-clinically-responsive-to-steroids
#19
M W Ruff, I D Carabenciov, D R Johnson, B E Pollock, J E Parisi, J P Klaas
Tolosa Hunt syndrome (THS) is characterized by painful ophthalmoplegia secondary to idiopathic granulomatous inflammation of the cavernous sinus. The characteristic finding on MRI is an enhancing T1 isointense and T2 hypo- or hyperintense cavernous sinus mass lesion, which may result in focal narrowing of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Although the incidence is quite rare, it is a common diagnostic consideration in cases that present with multiple cranial neuropathies. However, the differential diagnosis for a unilateral cavernous sinus lesion in adults is broad and includes neoplastic, inflammatory (such as sarcoidosis and immunoglobulin G4-related disease [IgG4-RD]), infectious etiologies (such as syphilis and leprosy), as well as vascular lesions...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684950/-metastases-of-urothelial-carcinoma-with-trophoblastic-differentiation-that-responded-to-combination-chemotherapy-with-gemcitabine-and-oxaliplatin-a-case-report
#20
Masahiro Uchida, Koji Kawai, Masahiro Kurobe, Atsushi Ikeda, Shuya Kandori, Tsuyoshi Endo, Tomoaki Miyagawa, Takahiro Kojima, Masakazu Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki Nishiyama
A 70-year-old man was admitted with complaint of gross hematuria. Cystoscopy and computed tomography (CT) revealed a 2.5 cm nodular tumor in the urinary bladder. Pathological diagnosis after the transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) was invasive urothelial cancer with trophoblastic differentiation of pT1. The tumor was positively stained with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). The serum HCG level was 12.8 IU/l in the fourth week after TURBT, and it increased to 35.7 IU/l in the 20th week after TURBT...
February 2018: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
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